Category: Health

Glycemic effect

Glycemic effect

The American Diabetes Association Herbal energy shots a list of lGycemic foods and their GI. Glycemic effect a low-GI diet may help you lose weight fefect keep a healthy weight. For example, fruit juice and instant potatoes have a higher GI than whole fruit and whole baked potatoes. What to Know About Blood Glucose Levels. Find a doctor. By managing carbs using the GI, people may be able to better control their blood sugar levels.

Glycemic effect -

Low GI diets have also been reported to improve the serum lipid profile, reduce C-reactive protein CRP concentrations, and aid in weight control. In cross-sectional studies, low GI or glycemic load diets mean GI multiplied by total carbohydrate have been associated with higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol HDL-C , with reduced CRP concentrations, and, in cohort studies, with decreased risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

In addition, some case-control and cohort studies have found positive associations between dietary GI and risk of various cancers, including those of the colon, breast, and prostate. Since al dente pasta requires more work from the body during digestion, the digestion rate is slower and, therefore, the GI is lower.

Check your pasta package instructions for cooking time. Make fruits and milk part of your meal. These foods often have a low GI and make a healthy dessert. Try lower GI grains such as barley, bulgur and pulses such as beans, lentils, and chickpeas.

For example, instead of having one cup of cooked short grain rice, have ½ cup of cooked rice mixed with ½ cup of black beans. Several factors affect the glycemic index of a food, including the ripeness, nutrient composition, and cooking method.

Several factors influence the glycemic index of a food, including its nutrient composition, cooking method, ripeness, and the amount of processing it has undergone.

This article takes a closer look at the glycemic index, including what it is, how it can affect your health, and how to use it. The glycemic index GI is a value used to measure how much specific foods increase blood sugar levels.

The lower the GI of a specific food, the less it may affect your blood sugar levels 1. Foods high in refined carbs and sugar are digested more quickly and often have a high GI, while foods high in protein, fat, or fiber typically have a low GI. Foods that contain no carbs are not assigned a GI and include meat, fish, poultry, nuts, seeds, herbs, spices, and oils.

Other factors that affect the GI of a food include the ripeness, cooking method, type of sugar it contains, and amount of processing it has undergone 2. The glycemic index is used to measure how much a specific food increases your blood sugar levels. The higher the GI, the greater the effect on blood sugar levels.

Foods without a GI value or with a very low GI can also be enjoyed as part of a balanced low glycemic diet. They include:. Following a low glycemic diet involves swapping out foods that have a high GI with low GI alternatives. A low glycemic diet may help manage blood sugar levels, reduce your cholesterol, and boost short-term weight loss.

Here are the GI values for a few ingredients 9 , 10 :. Knowing where your favorite foods fall on the glycemic index can make it much easier to follow a low glycemic diet. For example, fried foods tend to contain a high amount of fat, which can slow the absorption of sugar in the bloodstream and decrease the GI 11 , Meanwhile, roasting and baking can break down resistant starch — a type of starch that resists digestion and is commonly found in foods like legumes, potatoes, and oats — thus increasing the GI 11 , Conversely, boiling is thought to help retain more of the resistant starch and lead to a lower GI, compared with other cooking methods The longer you cook foods like pasta or rice, the greater the digestibility of their starch content, and thus the higher their GI.

In addition to the cooking method used, the degree of ripeness may also affect the GI of some fruits, including bananas. This is because the amount of resistant starch decreases during the ripening process, leading to a higher GI 2.

GI tables, Glycemic effect list Effext types of foods and their GIs, are available. The term was introduced in Glycemic effect Glycemjc J. Jenkins and co-workers. Glycemic Glycdmic does not Fat-free tissue an Gljcemic glycemic response Clinical-grade ingredients a Glycemic effect, but can Glycemic effect used as a tool to assess the insulin response burden of a food, averaged across a studied population. Individual responses vary greatly. The glycemic index is usually applied in the context of the quantity of the food and the amount of carbohydrate in the food that is actually consumed. A related measure, the glycemic load GL[6] factors this in by multiplying the glycemic index of the food in question by the carbohydrate content of the actual serving.

Glycemic effect -

indicated that the mean GI of low-GI diets varied from 21 to 57 across studies, while the mean GI of high-GI diets ranged from 51 to 75 Therefore, a stricter use of GI cutoff values may also be warranted to provide more reliable information about carbohydrate-containing foods. The glycemic index GI compares the potential of foods containing the same amount of carbohydrate to raise blood glucose.

However, the amount of carbohydrate contained in a food serving also affects blood glucose concentrations and insulin responses. For example, the mean GI of watermelon is 76, which is as high as the GI of a doughnut see Table 1.

Yet, one serving of watermelon provides 11 g of available carbohydrate, while a medium doughnut provides 23 g of available carbohydrate. The concept of glycemic load GL was developed by scientists to simultaneously describe the quality GI and quantity of carbohydrate in a food serving, meal, or diet.

The GL of a single food is calculated by multiplying the GI by the amount of carbohydrate in grams g provided by a food serving and then dividing the total by 4 :. Using the above-mentioned example, despite similar GIs, one serving of watermelon has a GL of 8, while a medium-sized doughnut has a GL of Dietary GL is the sum of the GLs for all foods consumed in the diet.

It should be noted that while healthy food choices generally include low-GI foods, this is not always the case. For example, intermediate-to-high-GI foods like parsnip, watermelon, banana, and pineapple, have low-to-intermediate GLs see Table 1.

The consumption of high-GI and -GL diets for several years might result in higher postprandial blood glucose concentration and excessive insulin secretion.

This might contribute to the loss of the insulin-secreting function of pancreatic β-cells and lead to irreversible type 2 diabetes mellitus A US ecologic study of national data from to found that the increased consumption of refined carbohydrates in the form of corn syrup, coupled with the declining intake of dietary fiber , has paralleled the increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes In addition, high-GI and -GL diets have been associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in several large prospective cohort studies.

Moreover, obese participants who consumed foods with high-GI or -GL values had a risk of developing type 2 diabetes that was more than fold greater than lean subjects consuming low-GI or -GL diets However, a number of prospective cohort studies have reported a lack of association between GI or GL and type 2 diabetes The use of GI food classification tables based predominantly on Australian and American food products might be a source of GI value misassignment and partly explain null associations reported in many prospective studies of European and Asian cohorts.

Nevertheless, conclusions from several recent meta-analyses of prospective studies including the above-mentioned studies suggest that low-GI and -GL diets might have a modest but significant effect in the prevention of type 2 diabetes 18 , 25, The use of GI and GL is currently not implemented in US dietary guidelines A meta-analysis of 14 prospective cohort studies , participants; mean follow-up of Three independent meta-analyses of prospective studies also reported that higher GI or GL was associated with increased risk of CHD in women but not in men A recent analysis of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition EPIC study in 20, Greek participants, followed for a median of lower BMI A similar finding was reported in a cohort of middle-aged Dutch women followed for nine years Overall, observational studies have found that higher glycemic load diets are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, especially in women and in those with higher BMIs.

A meta-analysis of 27 randomized controlled trials published between and examining the effect of low-GI diets on serum lipid profile reported a significant reduction in total and LDL - cholesterol independent of weight loss Yet, further analysis suggested significant reductions in serum lipids only with the consumption of low-GI diets with high fiber content.

In a three-month, randomized controlled study, an increase in the values of flow-mediated dilation FMD of the brachial artery, a surrogate marker of vascular health, was observed following the consumption of a low- versus high-GI hypocaloric diet in obese subjects High dietary GLs have been associated with increased concentrations of markers of systemic inflammation , such as C-reactive protein CRP , interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α TNF-α 40, In a small week dietary intervention study, the consumption of a Mediterranean-style, low-GL diet without caloric restriction significantly reduced waist circumference, insulin resistance , systolic blood pressure , as well as plasma fasting insulin , triglycerides , LDL-cholesterol, and TNF-α in women with metabolic syndrome.

A reduction in the expression of the gene coding for 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl HMG -CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol synthesis , in blood cells further confirmed an effect for the low-GI diet on cholesterol homeostasis Evidence that high-GI or -GL diets are related to cancer is inconsistent.

A recent meta-analysis of 32 case-control studies and 20 prospective cohort studies found modest and nonsignificant increased risks of hormone -related cancers breast, prostate , ovarian, and endometrial cancers and digestive tract cancers esophageal , gastric , pancreas , and liver cancers with high versus low dietary GI and GL A significant positive association was found only between a high dietary GI and colorectal cancer Yet, earlier meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies failed to find a link between high-GI or -GL diets and colorectal cancer Another recent meta-analysis of prospective studies suggested a borderline increase in breast cancer risk with high dietary GI and GL.

Adjustment for confounding factors across studies found no modification of menopausal status or BMI on the association Further investigations are needed to verify whether GI and GL are associated with various cancers.

Whether low-GI foods could improve overall blood glucose control in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus has been investigated in a number of intervention studies. A meta-analysis of 19 randomized controlled trials that included diabetic patients with type 1 diabetes and with type 2 diabetes found that consumption of low-GI foods improved short-term and long-term control of blood glucose concentrations, reflected by significant decreases in fructosamine and glycated hemoglobin HbA1c levels However, these results need to be cautiously interpreted because of significant heterogeneity among the included studies.

The American Diabetes Association has rated poorly the current evidence supporting the substitution of low-GL foods for high-GL foods to improve glycemic control in adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes 51, A randomized controlled study in 92 pregnant women weeks diagnosed with gestational diabetes found no significant effects of a low-GI diet on maternal metabolic profile e.

The low-GI diet consumed during the pregnancy also failed to improve maternal glucose tolerance , insulin sensitivity , and other cardiovascular risk factors, or maternal and infant anthropometric data in a three-month postpartum follow-up study of 55 of the mother-infant pairs At present, there is no evidence that a low-GI diet provides benefits beyond those of a healthy, moderate-GI diet in women at high risk or affected by gestational diabetes.

Obesity is often associated with metabolic disorders, such as hyperglycemia , insulin resistance , dyslipidemia , and hypertension , which place individuals at increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus , cardiovascular disease , and early death 56, Lowering the GI of conventional energy-restricted, low-fat diets was proven to be more effective to reduce postpartum body weight and waist and hip circumferences and prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus in women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus Yet, the consumption of a low-GL diet increased HDL - cholesterol and decreased triglyceride concentrations significantly more than the low-fat diet, but LDL -cholesterol concentration was significantly more reduced with the low-fat than low-GI diet Weight loss with each diet was equivalent ~4 kg.

Both interventions similarly reduced triglycerides, C-reactive protein CRP , and fasting insulin , and increased HDL-cholesterol. Yet, the reduction in waist and hip circumferences was greater with the low-fat diet, while blood pressure was significantly more reduced with the low-GL diet Additionally, the low-GI diet improved fasting insulin concentration, β-cell function, and insulin resistance better than the low-fat diet.

None of the diets modulated hunger or satiety or affected biomarkers of endothelial function or inflammation. Finally, no significant differences were observed in low- compared to high-GL diets regarding weight loss and insulin metabolism It has been suggested that the consumption of low-GI foods delayed the return of hunger, decreased subsequent food intake, and increased satiety when compared to high-GI foods The effect of isocaloric low- and high-GI test meals on the activity of brain regions controlling appetite and eating behavior was evaluated in a small randomized , blinded, cross-over study in 12 overweight or obese men During the postprandial period, blood glucose and insulin rose higher after the high-GI meal than after the low-GI meal.

In addition, in response to the excess insulin secretion, blood glucose dropped below fasting concentrations three to five hours after high-GI meal consumption.

Cerebral blood flow was significantly higher four hours after ingestion of the high-GI meal compared to a low-GI meal in a specific region of the striatum right nucleus accumbens associated with food intake reward and craving.

If the data suggested that consuming low- rather than high-GI foods may help restrain overeating and protect against weight gain, this has not yet been confirmed in long-term randomized controlled trials. However, the dietary interventions only achieved a modest difference in GI ~5 units between high- and low-GI diets such that the effect of GI in weight maintenance remained unknown.

Table 1 includes GI and GL values of selected foods relative to pure glucose Originally written in by: Jane Higdon, Ph. Linus Pauling Institute Oregon State University.

Updated in December by: Jane Higdon, Ph. Updated in February by: Victoria J. Drake, Ph. Updated in March by: Barbara Delage, Ph.

Reviewed in March by: Simin Liu, M. Professor of Epidemiology, Professor of Medicine Brown University. Liu S, Willett WC. Dietary glycemic load and atherothrombotic risk. Curr Atheroscler Rep. Brouns F, Bjorck I, Frayn KN, et al.

Glycaemic index methodology. Nutr Res Rev. Augustin LS, Kendall CW, Jenkins DJ, et al. Glycemic index, glycemic load and glycemic response: An International Scientific Consensus Summit from the International Carbohydrate Quality Consortium ICQC.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. Monro JA, Shaw M. Glycemic impact, glycemic glucose equivalents, glycemic index, and glycemic load: definitions, distinctions, and implications. Am J Clin Nutr. The University of Sydney.

About Glycemic Index. The International Organization for Standardization. Food products - Determination of the glycaemic index GI and recommendation for food classification.

Ludwig DS. The glycemic index: physiological mechanisms relating to obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Willett WC. Eat, Drink, and be Healthy: The Harvard Medical School Guide to Healthy Eating. Dodd H, Williams S, Brown R, Venn B. Calculating meal glycemic index by using measured and published food values compared with directly measured meal glycemic index.

Silva FM, Kramer CK, Crispim D, Azevedo MJ. A high-glycemic index, low-fiber breakfast affects the postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, and ghrelin responses of patients with type 2 diabetes in a randomized clinical trial.

J Nutr. Ranawana V, Leow MK, Henry CJ. Mastication effects on the glycaemic index: impact on variability and practical implications. Eur J Clin Nutr. Sun L, Ranawana DV, Tan WJ, Quek YC, Henry CJ. The impact of eating methods on eating rate and glycemic response in healthy adults.

Physiol Behav. Venn BS, Williams SM, Mann JI. Comparison of postprandial glycaemia in Asians and Caucasians. Diabet Med. Wolever TM, Jenkins AL, Vuksan V, Campbell J. The glycaemic index values of foods containing fructose are affected by metabolic differences between subjects.

Goff LM, Cowland DE, Hooper L, Frost GS. Low glycaemic index diets and blood lipids: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

Willett W, Manson J, Liu S. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of type 2 diabetes. Gross LS, Li L, Ford ES, Liu S. Increased consumption of refined carbohydrates and the epidemic of type 2 diabetes in the United States: an ecologic assessment. Bhupathiraju SN, Tobias DK, Malik VS, et al. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of type 2 diabetes: results from 3 large US cohorts and an updated meta-analysis.

Mosdol A, Witte DR, Frost G, Marmot MG, Brunner EJ. Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load are associated with high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol at baseline but not with increased risk of diabetes in the Whitehall II study.

Sahyoun NR, Anderson AL, Tylavsky FA, et al. Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and the risk of type 2 diabetes in older adults. Sakurai M, Nakamura K, Miura K, et al. Dietary glycemic index and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle-aged Japanese men. Sluijs I, Beulens JW, van der Schouw YT, et al.

Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and digestible carbohydrate intake are not associated with risk of type 2 diabetes in eight European countries.

van Woudenbergh GJ, Kuijsten A, Sijbrands EJ, Hofman A, Witteman JC, Feskens EJ. Glycemic index and glycemic load and their association with C-reactive protein and incident type 2 diabetes.

J Nutr Metab. Villegas R, Liu S, Gao YT, et al. Prospective study of dietary carbohydrates, glycemic index, glycemic load, and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle-aged Chinese women. Arch Intern Med.

Greenwood DC, Threapleton DE, Evans CE, et al. Glycemic index, glycemic load, carbohydrates, and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies.

Diabetes Care. Livesey G, Taylor R, Livesey H, Liu S. Is there a dose-response relation of dietary glycemic load to risk of type 2 diabetes? Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Dyson PA, Kelly T, Deakin T, et al. Diabetes UK evidence-based nutrition guidelines for the prevention and management of diabetes.

Mann JI, De Leeuw I, Hermansen K, et al. Evidence-based nutritional approaches to the treatment and prevention of diabetes mellitus. American Diabetes Association. Prevention or delay of type 2 diabetes. Ma XY, Liu JP, Song ZY. Glycemic load, glycemic index and risk of cardiovascular diseases: meta-analyses of prospective studies.

Dong JY, Zhang YH, Wang P, Qin LQ. Meta-analysis of dietary glycemic load and glycemic index in relation to risk of coronary heart disease. Am J Cardiol. People with diabetes have elevated levels for four hours or longer after eating certain foods. GI values can be interpreted intuitively as percentages on an absolute scale and are commonly interpreted as follows:.

A low-GI food will cause blood glucose levels to increase more slowly and steadily, which leads to lower postprandial after meal blood glucose readings.

A high-GI food causes a more rapid rise in blood glucose level and is suitable for energy recovery after exercise or for a person experiencing hypoglycemia. The glycemic effect of foods depends on various factors, such as the type of starch amylose versus amylopectin , physical entrapment of the starch molecules within the food, fat and protein content of the food and organic acids or their salts in the meal.

In general, coarse, grainy breads with higher amounts of fiber have a lower GI value than white breads. Many modern diets rely on the glycemic index, including the South Beach Diet , Transitions by Market America and NutriSystem Nourish Diet. Dietary replacement of saturated fats by carbohydrates with a low glycemic index may be beneficial for weight control , whereas substitution with refined, high glycemic index carbohydrates is not.

Depending on quantities, the number of grams of carbohydrate in a food can have a bigger impact on blood sugar levels than the glycemic index does. Consuming less dietary energy, losing weight, and carbohydrate counting can be better for lowering the blood sugar level.

While the glycemic index of foods is used as a guide to the rise in blood glucose that should follow meals containing those foods, actual increases in blood glucose show considerable variability from person to person, even after consumption of identical meals. The glucose response can rise to a high level and fall quickly, or rise less high but remain there for a longer time, and have the same area under the curve.

Contents move to sidebar hide. Article Talk. Read Edit View history. Tools Tools. What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Page information Cite this page Get shortened URL Download QR code Wikidata item. Download as PDF Printable version.

In other projects. Wikimedia Commons. Number assigned to food. Oxford Learner's Dictionary. Archived from the original on Retrieved Glycemic Research Institute. March 1, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume doi : PMID Archived from the original on September 1, Retrieved January 24, Am J Clin Nutr.

Avis Regime. Archived from the original on 17 August Retrieved 12 May June Nutr Res Rev. Archived from the original on February 15, Diabetes Forecast.

Glycemic index GI describes the blood Glycemic effect response after consumption of a Glycemic effect containing test Glycfmic relative to a Water and performance in young athletes containing Glycemic effect Glhcemic, typically glucose or ecfect bread. Glycemic effect was originally Gpycemic for people with diabetes as a guide effec food selection, advice Glydemic given to select foods with Glycemic effect low Erfect. Glycemic effect amount of food consumed is a major determinant of postprandial hyperglycemia, and the concept of glycemic load GL takes account of the GI of a food and the amount eaten. More recent recommendations regarding the potential of low GI and GL diets to reduce the risk of chronic diseases and to treat conditions other than diabetes, should be interpreted in the light of the individual variation in blood glucose levels and other methodological issues relating to measurement of GI and GL. Several factors explain the large inter- and intra-individual variation in glycemic response to foods. More reliable measurements of GI and GL of individual foods than are currently available can be obtained by studying, under standard conditions, a larger number of subjects than has typically been the case in the past. Glycemic effect

Author: Daigis

1 thoughts on “Glycemic effect

Leave a comment

Yours email will be published. Important fields a marked *

Design by