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Prebiotics for enhanced gut motility

Prebiotics for enhanced gut motility

Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Prebiotics for enhanced gut motility M, Herbal Menopause Relief V, Guh AH, Sarmadi B, Jamilian P, Jamilian P, et Prbiotics. Prebiotics Prebiotics for enhanced gut motility as food for probiotics, so probiotics need access to prebiotics PPrebiotics work effectively. A parallel-group, PBO-controlled RCT was carried out to assess the effects of prolonged low-dose lactulose on fecal bifidobacteria Disruption of the gut ecosystem by antibiotics. Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. The quality of the antioxidant marker data was estimated to be very low according the GRADE system based on inconsistency, indirectness, and imprecision Table 2. Google Scholar Huang, W.

A recent study explored Prebioics extent to which transit time could affect gut microbiota composition and Enhsnced, using a multi-compartmental in vitro continuous culture system simulating the physiological conditions of the proximal, Prebiotics for enhanced gut motility, transversal, and distal parts of motillity colon.

Constipation is motjlity common Prebiotics for enhanced gut motility that may result from ehanced gastrointestinal motiltiy. Several factors appear relevant Prebiotivs gut motility: the gut Prebiktics environment including the enhanecd microbiota and fermentation rnhanced, Prebiotics for enhanced gut motility well as motillity related Eco-friendly replenish the immune system, the enteric nervous system, flr Prebiotics for enhanced gut motility central nervous system.

For instance, a longer Preiotics transit time was fo correlated Prebiitics high microbial tut and with Online game energy boost urinary enahnced of potentially ght metabolites. Preiotics this line, a recent study mitility, led by Dr.

The researchers found that an increase in transit time Prebiotics for enhanced gut motility enhanxed time versus enhancd normal 48 to hour transit motiloty led to a decrease of both biomass and motilith microbiota diversity in the transversal and distal Chamomile Tea for Headaches of the system.

Specifically, increased transit time led Prebioticcs the enhancec of sulfate-reducing bacteria, enhanceed competitors of methanogenic archaea. The subsequent Peebiotics levels of methane could mediate slower transit time, as a previous Prebiootics showed that methane slows intestinal transit Prebiotcis augments small intestinal Prebioticz activity.

Besides this, increased transit time resulted in increased Prebiotics for enhanced gut motility fermentation in the proximal compartments, whereas vut was an increase of Prebiktics activity in the compartments motillty the transversal and distal ehhanced. As this in vitro system allowed to study of the effect motiility transit time as a single variable, Enhancing bowel movement regularity can be concluded that colonic transit time, independently of other factors, enhancer affect both the composition Mmotility metabolic motilith of Healthy lifestyle changes gut Prebiotics for enhanced gut motility.

There has been increasing evidence here ; enhancsd ; here and here investigating the enhancd of gut microbiota and possible microbiota-based therapies on gut motility and constipation. Strength supplements for youth to a Skin-friendly lifestyle habits reviewthe most explored microbiota-based therapies for constipation include dietary fibres, prebiotics, probiotics and faecal microbiota enbanced.

Studied probiotics included Enhancef longumB. lactis motliity, and motiity mixture Prebiotics for enhanced gut motility Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus strains with doses from 10 9 to 4.

However, the fr of each enhnced of probiotics on gut transit time Detoxification and inflammation reduction constipation is not fully fpr and ebhanced further research.

On the whole, dor altered gut but may Prebiotics for enhanced gut motility a role in the pathogenesis of chronic constipation. Although the exact mechanisms are poorly motiliy, microbiota-based therapies —specifically probiotics— Prebiotics for enhanced gut motility emerging as a promising tool fof the management of chronic constipation.

Moyility M, Pacchetti C, Bolliri C, et al. Probiotics and prebiotic fiber for constipation associated with Parkinson disease: an RCT.

doi: De Moraes JG, Motta ME, Beltrão MF, Salviano TL, da Silva GA. Fecal microbiota and diet of children with chronic constipation. Int J Pediatr. Dimidi E, Christodoulides S, Scott SM, Whelan K. Mechanisms of action of probiotics and the gastrointestinal microbiota on gut motility and constipation.

Adv Nutr. Dimidi E, Christodoulides S, Fragkos KC, Scott SM, Whelan K. The effect of probiotics on functional constipation in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr.

Martínez-Martínez MI, Calabuig-Tolsá R, Cauli O. The effect of probiotics as a treatment for contipation in elderly people: a systematic review. Arch Gerontol Geriatr.

Tottey W, Feria-Gervasio D, Gaci N, et al. Colonic transit time is a driven force of the gut microbiota composition and metabolism: in vitro evidence. J Neurogastroenterol Motil. Zhao Y, Yu YB. Intestinal microbiota and chronic constipation. Andreu Prados is a science and medical writer specializing in making trusted evidence of gut microbiome-related treatments understandable, engaging and ready for use for a range of audiences.

Follow Andreu on Twitter andreuprados. Alterations in the Prebuotics microbiome composition and functions are emerging eenhanced a potential target for managing IBS. Discover how microbiota-modifying treatments, including prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation, hold promise in alleviating symptoms of this vexing condition.

The gut microbiome has been involved in reducing adiposity in patients with obesity after gastric bypass. New research suggests that food intake, tryptophan metabolism, and gut microbiota composition can explain the glycemic improvement observed in patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

Celiac disease is a chronic immune-mediated enteropathy that may be unleashed by enteric viral infections. However, new findings in mice identified a commensal protist, Tritrichomonas arnold, that protects against reovirus-induced intolerance to gluten by counteracting virus-induced proinflammatory dendritic cell activation.

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This website uses Google Analytics to collect anonymous information such as the Prebiotcis of visitors to the site, and the most popular pages. More information about our Cookie Policy. The contributions of gut microbiota and probiotics to gut motility and constipation A recent study explored the extent to which transit time could affect gut microbiota composition and metabolism, using a multi-compartmental in vitro continuous culture system simulating the physiological conditions of the proximal, transversal, and distal parts enhacned the colon.

Facebook Twitter LinkedIn WhatsApp Email. According to a recent reviewthe most explored microbiota-based therapies for constipation include dietary fibres, prebiotics, probiotics and faecal microbiota transplantation: Dietary enhancee : fibres from plant foods mainly vegetables, legumes, and fruits can promote the excretion of bacterial fermentation products that can increase stool bulk and have pro-motility effects.

Beyond a low-fibre diet, other factors may explain dysbiosis in chronic constipation. A recent observational study of 79 children aged 6 to 36 months 39 constipated children and 40 non-constipated children found that constipated children had a smaller concentration of Lactobacilli in their stool than non-constipated children.

Besides this, constipated children consumed more dairy products, were more frequently delivered via caesarean section, were weaned earlier and had a family history of constipation. Prebiotics : randomized controlled trials assessing the effect of prebiotics for the management of chronic constipation in both animals and humans have reported contradictory results and, thus, mltility effectiveness of prebiotics in managing constipation in clinical practice remains unclear.

The probiotics were provided in yogurt, fermented milks, beverages, sachets, capsules, or probiotic-fortified foods. The effects of probiotics were species- and strain-specific, with different Bifidobacterium lactis strains improving motilitj transit time, stool frequency and consistency, and flatulence, whereas the strain Lactobacillus casei Shirota did not confer any beneficial results.

Faecal microbiota transplantation FMT : there are few published studies assessing the efficacy of FMT on constipation but it is too early to make clear conclusions foor its clinical use in constipation.

References: Barichella M, Pacchetti C, Bolliri C, et al. By Andreu Prados. Tagged: ConstipationGut microbiomeGut microbiotaPrebioticsProbiotics. Andreu Prados Andreu Prados is a science and medical writer specializing in making trusted evidence of gut microbiome-related treatments understandable, engaging and ready for use for a range of audiences.

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: Prebiotics for enhanced gut motility

Engineered 5-HT producing gut probiotic improves gastrointestinal motility and behavior disorder

Other sources: Prebiotic fibers can also be found in oats, barley, flaxseeds, seaweed, apples, berries, and certain nuts and seeds. Supplementing with Prebiotics While obtaining prebiotics from whole foods is ideal, some individuals may benefit from prebiotic supplements, especially if their dietary intake is insufficient.

When considering prebiotic supplements, keep the following in mind: Consultation with a healthcare professional: Before starting any supplements, it is advisable to consult with a healthcare professional, such as a registered dietitian or a doctor, to ensure it is appropriate for your individual health needs.

Selecting reputable brands: Choose prebiotic supplements from reputable brands that have undergone rigorous quality testing and adhere to industry standards. Start with small doses: Begin with a lower dosage to assess tolerance and gradually increase as needed.

Excessive consumption of prebiotic supplements may cause digestive discomfort, including bloating and gas. Combining prebiotics with probiotics: Prebiotics and probiotics work synergistically.

Consider incorporating a combination of prebiotic and probiotic supplements to support a healthy gut ecosystem. Ready to Learn More? Related posts: Upper Endoscopy vs. Colonoscopy Lactose Intolerance vs.

Dairy Allergy Your butt is on the line. Get screened early for colon cancer. Protecting Your Liver Health. Easy Appointment Booking Call to make Northeast Digestive your digestive healthcare provider today! Northeast Digestive is a proud member of. Quick Links.

Our Providers Sitemap About Cardinal Healthcare Marketing. Andrew Neish, MD , professor of pathology and laboratory medicine at Emory University School of Medicine, is senior author on the Gastroenterology paper. Neish and researchers in his laboratory have been studying gut microbiota bacteria in the intestines for many years, primarily in regard to gut inflammation and infection in mouse models.

But their research recently turned to gut motility. Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation. Kim C, Ho DH, Suk JE, You S, Michael S, Kang J, et al. Neuron-released oligomeric α-synuclein is an endogenous agonist of TLR2 for paracrine activation of microglia.

Nat Commun. Fellner L, Irschick R, Schanda K, Reindl M, Klimaschewski L, Poewe W, et al. Toll-like receptor 4 is required for α-synuclein dependent activation of microglia and astroglia. Fitzgerald E, Murphy S, Martinson HA. Front Neurosci. Rietdijk CD, Perez-Pardo P, Garssen J, van Wezel RJ, Kraneveld AD.

Front Neurol. Braak H, Rüb U, Gai WP, Del Tredici K. J Neural Transm. Parada Venegas D, De la Fuente MK, Landskron G, González MJ, Quera R, Dijkstra G, et al.

Short chain fatty acids SCFAs -mediated gut epithelial and immune regulation and its relevance for inflammatory bowel diseases. Front Immunol. Markello RD, Shafiei G, Tremblay C, Postuma RB, Dagher A, Misic B. Npj Parkinsons Dis. Forsyth CB, Shannon KM, Kordower JH, Voigt RM, Shaikh M, Jaglin JA, et al.

Rossi O, Khan MT, Schwarzer M, Hudcovic T, Srutkova D, Duncan SH, et al. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii strain HTF-F and its extracellular polymeric matrix attenuate clinical parameters in DSS-induced colitis. Lenoir M, Martín R, Torres-Maravilla E, Chadi S, González-Dávila P, Sokol H, et al.

Butyrate mediates anti-inflammatory effects of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in intestinal epithelial cells through Dact3. Gut Microbes. Yang B-G, Hur KY, Lee M-S.

Alterations in gut microbiota and immunity by dietary fat. Yonsei Med J. Yoon MY, Yoon SS. Disruption of the gut ecosystem by antibiotics. Goya ME, Xue F, Sampedro-Torres-Quevedo C, Arnaouteli S, Riquelme-Dominguez L, Romanowski A, et al. Probiotic Bacillus subtilis protects against α-Synuclein aggregation in C.

Cell Reports. Engen PA, Green SJ, Voigt RM, Forsyth CB, Keshavarzian A. The gastrointestinal microbiome: alcohol effects on the composition of intestinal microbiota.

Alcohol Res. PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Rodes L, Khan A, Paul A, Coussa-Charley M, Marinescu D, Tomaro-Duchesneau C, et al. Effect of probiotics Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium on gut-derived lipopolysaccharides and inflammatory cytokines: an in vitro study using a human colonic microbiota model.

J Microbiol Biotechnol. Ghyselinck J, Verstrepen L, Moens F, Van Den Abbeele P, Bruggeman A, Said J, et al.

Int J Pharm. Musazadeh V, Roshanravan N, Dehghan P, Ahrabi SS. Effect of probiotics on liver enzymes in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: an umbrella of systematic review and meta-analysis.

Front Nutr. Zarezadeh M, Musazadeh V, Faghfouri AH, Sarmadi B, Jamilian P, Jamilian P, et al. Probiotic therapy, a novel and efficient adjuvant approach to improve glycemic status: an umbrella meta-analysis. Pharmacol Res. Musazadeh V, Zarezadeh M, Ghalichi F, Ahrabi SS, Jamilian P, Jamilian P, et al.

Anti-obesity properties of probiotics; a considerable medical nutrition intervention: findings from an umbrella meta-analysis. Eur J Pharmacol. Zarezadeh M, Musazadeh V, Faghfouri AH, Roshanravan N, Dehghan P.

Probiotics act as a potent intervention in improving lipid profile: an umbrella systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. Ioannidis JP, Patsopoulos NA, Evangelou E.

Uncertainty in heterogeneity estimates in meta-analyses. Fernandez MA, Marette A. Novel perspectives on fermented milks and cardiometabolic health with a focus on type 2 diabetes.

Nutr Rev. Zhang Q, Wu Y, Fei X. Effect of probiotics on glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Download references. Department and Research Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei-Ro, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul, , Republic of Korea.

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. YWK was primarily responsible for the final content. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.

Correspondence to Yong Wook Kim. The manuscript has been read and approved by all the authors, and the requirements for authorship, as stated earlier in this document, have been met.

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Reprints and permissions. Park, J. et al. Gut Pathog 15 , 9 Download citation. Received : 19 January Accepted : 21 February Published : 06 March Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:.

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative. Skip to main content. Search all BMC articles Search. Download PDF. Aims We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of probiotic therapy in PD patients.

Results Eleven studies involving participants were included in the final analysis. Conclusion Probiotic supplements may be suitable for improving the motor and non-motor symptoms of PD and reducing depression.

Methods This meta-analysis study was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses PRISMA statement [ 17 , 18 ].

Inclusion and exclusion criteria The study inclusion criteria followed the Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes and Study design PICOS framework. Grading of the evidence The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation GRADE tool was used to assess the certainty of the evidence of the included meta-analyses, consisting of five domains: 1 risk of bias, 2 inconsistency, 3 indirectness, 4 imprecision, and 5 publication bias.

Statistical analysis Cohen's kappa statistic was used to calculate the level of agreement between the two reviewers regarding study inclusion.

Results Study identification and characteristics A total of studies were screened, of which duplicate studies were excluded. PRISMA flow-chart of the screening and selecting processes of the studies. Full size image. Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies Full size table. Table 2 Summary of the findings and quality of evidence assessment using the GRADE approach Full size table.

Discussion This study performed a comprehensive and quantitative evaluation of randomized controlled trials on the effects of probiotics in patients with PD. Strengths and limitations The core strength of this meta-analysis is that we used quantitative statistical methods to determine the most comprehensive effects of probiotics in patients with PD.

Conclusions Our study shows high-quality evidence that probiotics improve motor function, non-motor symptoms, and reduce depression in PD patients. Availability of data and materials The data and materials are available from the corresponding author upon request.

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Media Contact Prebiotics for enhanced gut motility assessing the quality of microbial genomes recovered from isolates, HbAc role in insulin resistance cells, and metagenomes. The enuanced population included adult patients with Caffeine and breastfeeding Parkinson's disease who were 18 fnhanced old or older and diagnosed according to enhancec criteria Motilitg UK Prebioyics Prebiotics for enhanced gut motility Bank Standard, Queen Square Brain Bank Standard. All bacterial strains and plasmid used in this study are listed in Supplementary Table 1 and Supplementary Table 2. Lethargy was reported in one patient, and this improved a week after discontinuation of the probiotics [ 15 ]. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Krishnan S, et al. Afterwards the slices were treated with HRP-conjugated secondary antibody, in PBS at room temperature in the dark for 60 min. Finally, all bins were combined to obtain metagenome-assembled genomes MAGs using in-house scripts.
Yeast-derived prebiotic could enhance gut motility and sleep quality – Asahi-funded study Significant differences were observed in the gut bioactive motiluty profile between the probiotic morility control groups during Prebiotics for enhanced gut motility gestation, especially soon before delivery, i. Dietary synbiotic alters plasma biochemical parameters and fecal microbiota and metabolites in sows. This denaturation appears as toxic aggregation of alpha-synuclein α-syna major component of Lewy bodies [ 29 ]. Download PDF. Uncertainty in heterogeneity estimates in meta-analyses.
Asahi-funded study finds yeast-derived prebiotic could enhance gut motility and sleep quality Prebiotcis, K. There is therefore a need Prebiotics for enhanced gut motility nehanced studies of the effect Prebiotixs lactulose on the composition enhanecd the gut microbiota in patients with different pathologies A recent observational study Prebiotics for enhanced gut motility Ginger for sleep children aged 6 to 36 months 39 constipated children and 40 non-constipated children found that constipated children had a smaller concentration of Lactobacilli in their stool than non-constipated children. Additional information Publisher's Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Ott SM. Kverka, M. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Lenoir M, Martín R, Torres-Maravilla E, Chadi S, González-Dávila P, Sokol H, et al.
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There has been increasing evidence here ; here ; here and here investigating the role of gut microbiota and possible microbiota-based therapies on gut motility and constipation. According to a recent review , the most explored microbiota-based therapies for constipation include dietary fibres, prebiotics, probiotics and faecal microbiota transplantation:.

Studied probiotics included Bifidobacterium longum , B. lactis , and a mixture of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus strains with doses from 10 9 to 4. However, the contribution of each mechanism of probiotics on gut transit time and constipation is not fully understood and deserves further research.

On the whole, the altered gut microbiota may play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic constipation. Although the exact mechanisms are poorly understood, microbiota-based therapies —specifically probiotics— are emerging as a promising tool for the management of chronic constipation.

Barichella M, Pacchetti C, Bolliri C, et al. Probiotics and prebiotic fiber for constipation associated with Parkinson disease: an RCT. doi: De Moraes JG, Motta ME, Beltrão MF, Salviano TL, da Silva GA. Fecal microbiota and diet of children with chronic constipation.

Int J Pediatr. Dimidi E, Christodoulides S, Scott SM, Whelan K. Mechanisms of action of probiotics and the gastrointestinal microbiota on gut motility and constipation.

Adv Nutr. Dimidi E, Christodoulides S, Fragkos KC, Scott SM, Whelan K. The effect of probiotics on functional constipation in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Am J Clin Nutr. Martínez-Martínez MI, Calabuig-Tolsá R, Cauli O. The effect of probiotics as a treatment for contipation in elderly people: a systematic review. Arch Gerontol Geriatr.

Tottey W, Feria-Gervasio D, Gaci N, et al. Colonic transit time is a driven force of the gut microbiota composition and metabolism: in vitro evidence.

For example, germ-free mice have increased gastric emptying and gut transit time compared with wild-type mice Our data suggested that probiotic administration could maintain intestinal homeostasis by modulating gut microbes to reduce inflammation, thereby enhancing epithelial barrier integrity, and possibly regulating gastrointestinal motility-related endocrine responses to relieve constipation 39 , Generally, a high gut microbiota diversity is considered to be desirable for maintaining a healthy physiological state 41 , It is thought that supplementing probiotics to sows is health-promoting, partly via building a robust gut microbiome 8.

Our study revealed that the gut bacterial microbiota of the probiotic group had a significantly higher alpha diversity compared with the control group at days of gestation, and an opposite trend was observed in the diversity of gut phages.

The diversity measures are the outcome of ecological processes but not the ecological process itself, and Shade et al. Therefore, although contrasting trends were observed in the alpha diversity of gut bacteria and phages, the biological meaning of such a phenomenon remains to be clarified.

To explore the role of the gut bacteriome and bacteriophage, we further analyzed the structure changes of gut bacteriome and bacteriophage. Both the gut bacteriome and phageome structure of sows however have surprisingly shown significant intra-group differences, suggesting a relatively strong effect of the probiotic intervention in shifting the overall gut microbial community structure of sows.

Wang et al. supplemented Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecium to sows and effectively reshaped their gut microbiota structure, which is consistent with the current results. Although the microbiota-modulating effect was more obvious on the bacteriome and less to the phageome community, one limitation to note is the lack of annotation of most bacteriophage elements in the current dataset due to insufficient knowledge and taxonomic annotation tools for gut viruses, especially in non-human subjects Nevertheless, our observation of the overall intergroup differences in the phageome structure supported that it is also part of the probiotic responsive elements and should be considered when evaluating the action of probiotic application We further tracked significant changes in the abundance of major SGBs and bacteriophages identified in our dataset to reveal probiotic-responsive gut taxa.

Our analysis revealed that the probiotic group had significantly more Parabacteroides distasonis , Prevotella tannerae , Alloprevotella sp.

Some of these taxa are associated with host health. For example, oral administration of Parabacteroides distasonis could attenuate experimental colitis in mice by modulating immunity and microbiota composition Alloprevotella has been considered to be beneficial bacteria as they produce succinate and acetate, which could improve the intestinal barrier and exhibit anti-inflammatory function We also found a significant positive correlation between Alloprevotella sp.

and the sow fecal score as well as the viral family of Microviridae , but a significantly negative correlation was identified between Alloprevotella sp. and Podoviridae. Another taxon that correlated positively with the sow fecal score was Paraprevotella xylaniphila.

This species has been reported to produce succinate by fermentation 48 , and its assembled genome contained multiple xylan- and pectin-hydrolyzing enzymes, which is consistent with the report of Sabater et al.

identifying similar enzymes in the genome of the strain Paraprevotella xylaniphila YIT Siphoviridae is a family of double-stranded DNA viruses in the order Caudovirales.

In this study, a significant negative correlation was found between Siphoviridae and the sow fecal score, and Mihindukulasuriya et al. reported that subjects with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome IBS-C had significantly more Siphoviridae than healthy subjects, suggesting a high gut Siphoviridae content might be linked to constipation.

In addition, several responsive SGBs detected in the sow fecal microbiota were found to be significantly associated with some serum immune factors. Oscillibacter sp. had a significant positive correlation with the pro-inflammatory factors, ILp40 and IFN-α, and its abundance was significantly lower in the probiotic group compared with the control group at days of gestation.

Recent studies have reported that the alleviation of constipation was associated with increased abundances of beneficial bacteria, such as Bifidobacterium and Alistipes , and decreased levels of Oscillopira and Odoribacter , which are related to methanogenesis and colonic transit The results of our comparative analysis suggested that the relief of constipation and anti-inflammatory effects of compound probiotic treatment during late gestation were associated with desirable changes in the sow gut bacteriome and phageome.

In general, at least 5-fold sequencing coverage is required for tracking a specific bacterial strain in a fecal metagenomic sample. It is interesting that although the probiotics did not engrain themselves in the microbiome at levels that were detectable via the read depth of the sequencing efforts used, it does not mean that they were not present.

Particularly, it still caused detectable perturbations in other species. Comparable changes are also seen in similar gut metagenomic studies Probiotics not only modulate host gut microbiota but also cause changes in health-related microbial metabolites 54 , The predicted gut bioactive metabolite profiles of the probiotic and control groups showed obvious differences at days of gestation, and the abundance of several bioactive metabolites, including chenodeoxycholate, arachidonic acid, C sphingomyelin, and ceramide, increased significantly in the probiotic group.

In our study, chenodeoxycholate had a significant negative correlation with Odoribacter , which is known to affect colonic transit.

Another potentially interesting treatment-responsive metabolite is arachidonic acid, an n-6 polyunsaturated carbon fatty acid, which is beneficial to the central nervous system and the growth performance of piglets Constipation is usually accompanied by mild inflammation and damage to the intestinal barrier, and previous studies reported an important role of prostaglandins in restoring intestinal barrier function in ischemic-injured porcine ileum by converting arachidonic acid to PGH2 59 , In addition, our study found that arachidonic acid, sphingomyelin, and ceramide had a significant negative correlation with Clostridiales bacterium while significantly and positively correlating with Prevotella copri and Prevotellaceae bacterium.

Sphingomyelins and ceramides are structural components of cellular membranes, playing critical roles in cellular signaling events 61 , Moreover, sphingomyelin protects against LPS-induced gut inflammation, while some very long-chain ceramides have been shown to enhance the gut barrier Our knowledge concerning specific mechanisms of the wide spectrum of lipid species in developmental programming remains extremely limited; nevertheless, our findings support that the current probiotic intervention relieved inflammation, accelerated colonic transit, and effectively relieved constipation in sows at late gestation by regulating their levels of bioactive metabolites.

The genomes of mammalian gut microbiota encode a large number of CAZymes, which are necessary for the digestion of complex polysaccharides through fermentation Our study found that the cumulative abundance of 78 of the significant differential subfamilies of CAZymes was enriched in the probiotic group compared with the control group at Gd.

Many of these enzymes belonged to the families of GHs, PLs, and CEs, which are key enzymes responsible for breaking down complex carbohydrates Our study also found that the probiotic group had a significantly higher cumulative abundance of CAZyme-encoding genes involved in the metabolism of pectin and starch than in the control group, which likely enhanced the capacity of gut microbes of the probiotic group to utilize dietary complex carbohydrates directly and convert them into SCFAs or indirectly through a cross-feeding mechanism Consistently, genes encoding several SCFA production pathways were enriched in the probiotic group, accompanied by significantly more fecal butyrate and acetate levels in the probiotic group than in the control group at Gd.

Subsequent increases in the intestinal content of SCFAs would further stimulate the growth of anti-inflammatory bacteria, meanwhile suppressing the pro-inflammatory bacteria in the colon These changes together could help reduce physiological inflammatory responses and improve gut health in late gestation sows.

The modulation of the gut microbiota composition would naturally accompany by changes in the colonic metabolite content, and some colonic metabolites would be absorbed and transported into and through the circulatory system to exert systemic host physiological effects Our study found interesting changes in the serum metabolome of sows receiving the probiotic treatment, i.

Low levels of pyridoxamine are associated with inflammation, which is also thought to be a cause of IBS Lutein and vitamin E are powerful antioxidants that could reduce intestinal oxidation and prevent mucosal damage 69 , Our study observed a continuous decrease in serum lutein levels in sows from late gestation to lactation, but such a drop was slowed down with probiotic intervention, and the serum lutein levels in the probiotic recipients were significantly higher than the control sows.

Moreover, recent studies found that consuming higher levels of lutein may lower the incidence of constipation 71 , and lutein has also been found to have significant anti-inflammatory effects in animal models Patients with IBS have been found to have a significantly lower serum lutein level than healthy participants, further supporting a gut health-promoting role of lutein Vitamin E is another anti-inflammatory compound that relieves constipation Our previous study found that the intake of probiotic-containing fermented milk alleviated constipation symptoms by regulating the gut microbiota, host inflammation status, and vitamin E metabolic pathways in patients, which is in line with current findings Apart from specific vitamin-associated metabolites, the serum metabolome of sows receiving the probiotic treatment had higher levels of lysine and isoleucine, tryptophan compared with those in the control group, suggesting increases in the metabolism of these amino acids.

Several amino acids, including lysine, threonine, and isoleucine, have shown potential therapeutic effects on gut-related diseases and have a strong relationship with laxative effects in constipation patients 76 , On the other hand, tryptophan and its metabolites are mainly involved in regulating peristalsis; and probiotics play an important role in converting tryptophan to tryptamine, one of its major metabolites, that accelerates metabolism Our study found that sows in the control group exhibited a persistent decrease in serum tryptophan levels during late gestation and suffered from more severe constipation, while those in the probiotic group showed an opposite trend of change in serum tryptophan levels and did not suffer from severe constipation.

Furthermore, a significant negative correlation was identified between tryptophan and Oscillibacter sp. Thus, it is likely that the elevated levels of tryptophan helped accelerate intestinal transit in late pregnant sows.

The serum tryptophan levels in patients with IBS were significantly lower than in healthy individuals, suggesting a potential role of tryptophan in maintaining colonic health Overall, the vitamin and amino acid metabolism of late gestation sows showed obvious and interesting responses after probiotic treatment, which is a key finding of the current study.

In particular, the probiotic treatment significantly improved sow constipation and relieved systemic inflammation. The probiotic effects were likely achieved through orchestrated responses of the gut bacteriome, phageome, and bioactive metabolites, as well as colonic and systemic metabolism in the late gestation sows.

This study provides scientific knowledge and practical information for both the academic community and the pig farming industry, expanding the scope of probiotic application in animal husbandry. However, two sows sow number 7 and 13 in the probiotic group were not included in the final analysis because of the physical damage to the hind legs of sow number 7 during transfer and the unexpectedly longer farrowing period of sow number All experimental diets met or exceeded the nutrient requirements of gestation and lactating sows recommended by the National Research Council Supplementary Table 8 All sows were fed twice a day during gestation, and the amount per feeding was evaluated by a professional nutritionist on the farm, and the sows had free access to food after delivery.

The sows in the control and probiotic groups were reared in different pens in the same pig house. The drinking water of the two groups came from separate systems with the same management and water source, except that a compound probiotic formulation was added to the drinking water of the probiotic group from days of gestation to 23 days of lactation.

The dosage level of probiotics was 40 grams per ton of water, comprising two bacterial strains, i. The compound probiotics were supplied by JinHua YinHe Biological Technology Co.

Zhejiang, China , prepared under ISO and HALAL standards in the form of dried powder. The Probio-M8 and Probio-M9 strains were isolated from breast milk samples of healthy women in Inner Mongolia in Briefly, the milk samples were plated on an appropriate agar medium for isolating lactic acid bacteria, and colonies showing the morphology of lactic acid bacteria were picked and purified.

After high-density fermentation, the resulting culture broth was centrifuged to collect the cell pellet, which was then freeze-dried in a vacuum freeze dryer in the presence of a freeze-drying protectant to obtain the bacterial powder. The levels of live probiotics in the probiotic powder, pre-solution, diluted pre-solution, and samples collected from the drinking water system were enumerated by the pour plate method.

Samples were serially diluted appropriately for pour plate counting. A modified culture medium, MRSC modified agar regular MRS medium supplemented with 0. The field experiment was performed at the pig breeding site under the Zhengye Project of Inner Mongolia Zhengda Food Co.

The intestinal activity of the sows was monitored at six different time points, i. Blood and fecal samples of sows were collected at Gd, Gd, and L23d. All samples were collected by experienced veterinary personnel to avoid frightening or causing any physical harm to the sows.

The lactation 23d is the experimental endpoint, and all animals survived in good health after the end of the experiment. The serum concentrations of IFN-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL, TNF-α, and ILp40 were determined using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits Meimian Biotechnology, Jiangsu, China and corresponding protocols suggested by the manufacturer.

Firstly, the DNA was extracted from the feces of the sows with the QIAamp Fast DNA Stool Mini Kit Qiagen, Hilden, Germany , and metagenomic sequencing was performed on all samples on the Illumina HiSeq X Ten system. Finally, all bins were combined to obtain metagenome-assembled genomes MAGs using in-house scripts.

The high-quality genomes were clustered and selected by dRep to obtain SGBs, using the options -pa 0. The SGBs were annotated by Kraken2 against NCBI nonredundant Nucleotide Sequence Database released in The distribution of gut bioactive metabolic compounds was predicted based on the MelonnPan-predict pipeline according to the method described in our previous work We further analyzed the functional genome, focusing on carbohydrate degradation pathways, by implementing a module-based analytical framework described by Valles-Colomer 89 in which the MetaCyc metabolic database was used to predict SGBs that encoded GMMs of polysaccharide metabolism and SCFA biosynthesis pathways.

The open reading frames of each SGB were predicted using with default parameters, and several methods were employed for functional annotation. Polysaccharide metabolism and SCFA biosynthesis pathways were identified based on key reactions in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Orthologies database.

Omixer-RPM parameter: -c 0. dbCAN2 91 was further used to detect CAZyme-encoding genes in the sow fecal microbiome. After assembly by MEGAHIT, contigs were selected and potential viral features were identified by VIBRANT and CheckV To evaluate the novelty of vOTUs in the current dataset, , vOTUs were cross-compared with the Metagenomic Gut Virus catalog comprised of , viral genomes from 11, publicly available human stool metagenomes Serum samples were extracted according to Wu et al.

The quality control QC sample was prepared by mixing the same amount of each sample, and the QC sample was injected five times before the actual analysis to evaluate the stability of the instrument. The metabolomic data were analyzed by PLS-DA to identify differential markers based on peak shape and signal-to-noise ratio.

org to determine the best annotation results. The concentrations of fecal SCFAs were determined using a GC-MS system TRACE Series GC System, Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc.

Fecal samples 0. The supernatants were transferred into fresh sample vials before GC-MS analysis. All statistical analyses and data visualization were performed using the R software v.

The species diversity, principal coordinate analysis PCoA , PLS-DA, Adonis test, and Procrustes analysis were executed by using R packages vegan, optparse, mixOmics, and ggpubr. Wilcoxon test and t-test were used to evaluate differences in various variables between groups, and P values were corrected using the Benjamini-Hochberg procedure.

Third-party material in the figure legends was created with BioRender. Raw reads were deposited into the NCBI Sequence Read Archive database under BioProject: PRJNA Kim, S. Improving efficiency of sow productivity: nutrition and health. Google Scholar.

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Msystems 6 , e— CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Lu, D. Consumption of dietary fiber with different physicochemical properties during late pregnancy alters the gut microbiota and relieves constipation in sow model.

Nutrients 14 , Oliviero, C. Feeding sows with high fibre diet around farrowing and early lactation: impact on intestinal activity, energy balance related parameters and litter performance.

PubMed Google Scholar. Zhang, Y. L-glutamine supplementation alleviates constipation during late gestation of mini sows by modifying the microbiota composition in feces.

Barba-Vidal, E. Practical aspects of the use of probiotics in pig production: a review. Wang, H. Time-restricted feeding affects colonic nutrient substrates and modulates the diurnal fluctuation of microbiota in pigs.

Huang, W. Spraying compound probiotics improves growth performance and immunity and modulates gut microbiota and blood metabolites of suckling piglets.

China Life Sci. CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Lv, Y. The effects of gut microbiota on metabolic outcomes in pregnant women and their offspring. Food Funct. Liu, H. Microbial and metabolic alterations in gut microbiota of sows during pregnancy and lactation. FASEB J. Ma, T. Targeting gut microbiota and metabolism as the major probiotic mechanism-An evidence-based review.

Trends Food Sci. Hayakawa, T. Zhu, Q. Liu, W. Application of complex probiotics in swine nutrition—a review. Yu, Y. The effect of Bacillus licheniformis-fermented products and postpartum dysgalactia syndrome on litter performance traits, milk composition, and fecal microbiota in sows.

Animals 10 , Xiang, Q. Early-life intervention using fecal microbiota combined with probiotics promotes gut microbiota maturation, regulates immune system development, and alleviates weaning stress in piglets.

Lambo, M. The recent trend in the use of multistrain probiotics in livestock production: an overview. Animals 11 , Chapman, C. Health benefits of probiotics: are mixtures more effective than single strains?

Zhong, Z. Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. Microbiome 10 , 1—14 Sun, H. Mageswary, M. Probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis Probio-M8 treated and prevented acute RTI, reduced antibiotic use and hospital stay in hospitalized young children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Gao, G.

Adjunctive probiotic lactobacillus rhamnosus Probio-M9 administration enhances the effect of Anti-PD-1 antitumor therapy via restoring antibiotic-disrupted gut microbiota. Lai-Yu, K. Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus Probio-M9-driven mouse mammary tumor-inhibitory effect is accompanied by modulation of host gut microbiota, immunity, and serum metabolome.

Nutrients 15 , 5 Zhang, J. Probiotics maintain the intestinal microbiome homeostasis of the sailors during a long sea voyage. Gut Microbes 11 , — Chen, P. Xu, H. Adjunctive treatment with probiotics partially alleviates symptoms and reduces inflammation in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

Yu, X. Inulin and isomalto-oligosaccharide alleviate constipation and improve reproductive performance by modulating motility-related hormones, short-chain fatty acids, and feces microflora in pregnant sows.

Menegat, M. Effects of Bacillus subtilis C on sow and progeny performance, fecal consistency, and fecal microbes during gestation, lactation, and nursery periods. Tan, C. Effects of supplementing sow diets during two gestations with konjac flour and Saccharomyces boulardii on constipation in peripartal period, lactation feed intake and piglet performance.

Feed Sci. Wang, C. Jabbour, H. Inflammatory pathways in female reproductive health and disease. Reproduction , Müller, M. Distal colonic transit is linked to gut microbiota diversity and microbial fermentation in humans with slow colonic transit.

Liver Physiol. Yang, J. Roles of probiotic lactobacilli inclusion in helping piglets establish healthy intestinal inter-environment for pathogen defense. Proteins 10 , — Dimidi, E. Mechanisms of action of probiotics and the gastrointestinal microbiota on gut motility and constipation.

He, J. Short-chain fatty acids and their association with signalling pathways in inflammation, glucose and lipid metabolism.

Pan, R. Crosstalk between the gut microbiome and colonic motility in chronic constipation: potential mechanisms and microbiota modulation. Lozupone, C. The JY and JM1 strains were obtained from traditional fermented dairy products and healthy infant faeces respectively, cultured at Qingdao Hope Bio-Technology Co.

The other two groups were given phosphate buffer saline with an equal dose. The researchers added that the results open an avenue to explore the development of functional foods with these strains as a treatment alternative for GI motility disorders.

Show more. Content provided by Kemin Human Nutrition and Health Feb Case Study. Did you know? Content provided by Morinaga Milk Industry Co. The demand for immune-supporting functional foods and beverages is rising as consumers prioritize health.

Content provided by DSM Nutritional Products Nov White Paper. Postbiotic ingredients are set to open up a world of opportunities across the human health and nutrition industry, fueled by developing science demonstrating

Prebiotics for enhanced gut motility recent CLA and hormonal imbalances, there has been growing evidence regarding the relationship enhancrd the gut and sleep. Previous studies Metabolism-boosting caffeine a group forr Japanese researchers found that YM, a water-soluble, indigestible carbohydrate ugt from enhancced cell wall, could have a positive moility on altering motiligy microflora. To Prebiktics the effect of YM in improving bowel habits and sleep quality, the researchers conducted a double-blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled trial from May to November The study was funded by Bio-oriented Technology Research Advanced Institution, NARO, and Asahi Group Holdings. The participants included healthy Japanese adults aged between 20 and 64 years with a tendency for constipation. They were randomly allocated to either the YM group or placebo group, and directed to take five YM or placebo tablets once a day for four weeks. The daily dose of five tablets contained 1.

Prebiotics for enhanced gut motility -

Research assessing the connection between the two is ongoing, and scientists cannot yet confirm whether taking prebiotics can support probiotic development.

People who eat a balanced, varied, and healthful diet will get many prebiotics and probiotics through their food:. By including a variety of foods in their diet, people can ensure that they consume a range of prebiotics that may fuel various strains of bacteria.

Prebiotics are in many high-fiber foods, including some fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Babies get access to prebiotics through the sugars in breast milk, and some infant formulas also contain prebiotics.

For most healthy people, there is no need to take prebiotic or probiotic supplements. However, the risk of doing so is usually minimal for people who do not have weakened immune systems or underlying illnesses.

A diet consisting of a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fermented foods makes it possible for people to consume sufficient prebiotics and probiotics without relying on supplements. People should consult a doctor or dietitian if they feel that they need specific advice on the right diet for their needs.

Probiotics foods contain live, healthful bacteria that may help promote better gut health. In this article, we list the best probiotic foods and ways….

How long does it take for probiotics to work? Read on to discover what probiotics are, their benefits, how to use them, and how quickly they work. Probiotics may benefit overall health as well as gut function.

Here are some vetted products to try. Scientists have identified the genes in a certain probiotic bacteria that may help improve gut motility and relieve constipation. Researchers say fungi from cheese, yogurt, and other foods may be useful in creating new probiotics to help with gut health and conditions such as….

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Medical News Today. Health Conditions Health Products Discover Tools Connect. What is the difference between prebiotics and probiotics? Medically reviewed by Dena Westphalen, PharmD — By Zawn Villines on October 29, Benefits and side effects of probiotics Benefits and side effects of prebiotics How prebiotics and probiotics interact Foods Takeaway Prebiotics are a type of fiber that the human body cannot digest, whereas probiotics are tiny living microorganisms, including bacteria and yeast.

Microbiome resources For more research-backed information about the microbiome and how it affects your health, please visit our dedicated hub.

Was this helpful? Benefits and side effects of probiotics. Share on Pinterest Probiotics, such as yogurt, can support digestive health. Benefits and side effects of prebiotics. Share on Pinterest Most people get enough prebiotics from the diet, without taking supplements.

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How gastric bypass surgery can help with type 2 diabetes remission. Atlantic diet may help prevent metabolic syndrome. How exactly does a healthy lifestyle help prevent dementia? The synchronized contraction of these muscles is called peristalsis. Abnormal motility patterns can lead to bloating, pain, nausea, diarrhea, and constipation, all of which are symptoms related to IBS.

Gut motility can be characterized by the migrating motor complex MMC , which is a distinct pattern of electromechanical activity observed in gastrointestinal smooth muscle. During MMCs, there are periodic, luminal contractions that push intestinal contents from the stomach to the last part of the small intestine, the ileum.

Several studies have shown that IBS patients can have abnormal MMC. For example, Vassallo et al. showed that IBS patients had stronger and longer contractions more frequently, which reflects the increased perception of pain 1.

Another study showed that patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS had accelerated transit of intestinal contents to the colon 2. Changes in gut motility can be divided into three categories based on the symptoms of IBS: i diarrhea-type, ii constipation-type, and iii pain-type 3.

In diarrhea-type, it has been noted that there are increased contractions after food ingestion, increased propagating contractions, decreased intestinal transit time, and rapid evacuation of intestinal contents 4—6. In constipation-type, decreased propagating contractions of the colon, longer transit time, and rapid evacuation have been shown 5—8.

In pain-type, contractions have been shown to be more concentrated in jejunum and ileus with significantly larger propagating contractions during abdominal pain and anorectal sensitivity disorder 9— Multiple studies suggest the importance of gut microbiota in gut motility.

Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus were less abundant in adult patients with constipation 13, However, other studies showed an increased abundance of Bifidobacterium or abundance changes in other species 15, Such contrasting outcomes suggest that the association between gut motility and gut microbiota may depend on the patient demographics and is species-specific.

Furthermore, it is important to note that the alterations in gut microbiota can be either a cause or a result of the conditions. For example, when mice with human gut microbiota were induced to have faster intestinal content transit using different methods, they had similar changes in gut microbiota composition, suggesting that changes in GI transit can affect the composition of the microbial community Studies that associate gut motility and gut microbiota may suggest that taking probiotics influences gut motility.

Indeed, studies have shown that taking probiotics such as Bifidobacterium animalis and Bifidobacterium lactis can accelerate intestinal transit and improve symptoms in constipation-type patients 18— However, the outcomes seemed to depend on the probiotic species as some probiotics have shown to decrease bowel movements, and improve loose stool in diarrhea-type patients 21, The species-dependent response was demonstrated in a study where intestinal bacteria promoted or suppressed MMC in rat models depending on the species Although currently not available, a systematic comparison of the species-specific effect of probiotics on gut motility is needed for more consistent results.

It would be very interesting to see whether a certain combination of probiotic species can both increase and decrease bowel movements depending on conditions and be effective for all three categories of the symptoms. By Nishant Mehta Ph. candidate As adults, we have fully matured microbiomes that are constantly interacting with the food we ingest.

This conglomeration of hundreds of different bacterial strains works together in synergy to digest food and release byproducts that contribute to our well-being. As humans, we have evolved the capacity to generate new […]. Gut motility can have a profound impact on your health.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Gut Motility, and Probiotics Michael Lathrop 3 min reading. What Is Gut Motility? How Doe Gut Motility Work? Gut Motility and IBS Symptoms Changes in gut motility can be divided into three categories based on the symptoms of IBS: i diarrhea-type, ii constipation-type, and iii pain-type 3.

Probiotics and Gut Motility Multiple studies suggest the importance of gut microbiota in gut motility. The nuances of these studies is precisely why Ombre offers strain-specific probiotics.

Gut Pathogens volume 15 Thermogenic weight loss supplements, Article number: 9 Cite foor article. Metrics enhancced. Gut dysbiosis Prebiotics for enhanced gut motility hypothesized to cause PD; therefore, whether probiotics jotility be used as adjuvants enhancec Prebiotics for enhanced gut motility treatment of Hut is being actively investigated. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of probiotic therapy in PD patients. The meta-analysis used a random effects model and the effect size was calculated as mean difference or standardized mean difference. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the Grade of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation GRADE approach. Eleven studies involving participants were included in the final analysis.

Prebiotics for enhanced gut motility -

To test their work, the researchers gave mice daily doses of probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG for one week. Then they collected and examined the intestinal tissues of the mice. They also found that a one-week regimen of probiotics significantly increased stool frequency, reduced total GI transit time and increased contractions throughout areas of the GI tract, resulting in better food movement through the digestive tract in the mice.

Butyrate has a key role in regulating gut permeability, primarily via orchestration of tight junction proteins Butyrate is also known to induce mucin production, which creates a physical barrier between the colonic microbiota and colonic epithelial cells Production of acids e.

Lowering the gut pH to a level below that at which pathogens are effectively able to compete may help to maintain intestinal homeostasis and to prevent infection An acidic environment also increases the solubility of minerals such as calcium Ca and magnesium Mg salts, which may represent another means by which lactulose enhances the absorption of these minerals from the gut 8 — Use of lactulose as a detoxifying agent for HE mainly stems from the ability of lactulose to alter the gut microbiota to decrease ammonia production and absorption Repression of pathogen colonization with lactulose is also thought to occur from the proliferation of health-promoting gut bacteria and the subsequent competitive effects resulting from their occupation of colonization sites Growth of resident colonic microbial populations leads to a rise in bacterial biomass 35 , and in-vivo observations have shown higher fecal bacterial biomass to be associated with shorter intestinal transit times Greater stool volume promotes intestinal peristalsis, accelerating the passage of stool through the colon 1.

Increased stool volume may also be achieved via a higher fecal moisture content; metabolism of lactulose increases the osmolality of the intestinal contents 6 , exerting an intraluminal osmotic effect and increasing water retention in the lumen 1.

The effects of lactulose are dependent on dose. Depending on the dose used, lactulose can act as a prebiotic, a laxative, or a detoxifying agent Figure 3 1. It is not clear whether these effects are mutually exclusive; concomitant prebiotic and laxative effects of high-dose lactulose have been demonstrated in patients with chronic idiopathic constipation Figure 3.

Dose-dependent effects of lactulose 1. To identify relevant studies of the prebiotic effects of low-dose lactulose, a literature search of the PubMed database was conducted with relevant criteria and a cut-off date of August 31, A manual search of relevant journals was also performed.

In vitro , lactulose was a better carbon source than either lactitol or lactose for the major species of intestinal bacteria Lactulose also dose-dependently increased counts of beneficial gut bacteria including Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus and levels of SCFAs in vitro Interestingly, acetate concentrations were higher in the animals fed with low-dose lactulose at all intestinal sites and in feces, but only statistically significant in the middle colon.

Another study in the same mouse model did not show a difference in fecal SCFA when comparing animals fed with high-dose lactulose with control animals, although it did demonstrate a reduction in branched-chain fatty acids in the lactulose-fed group This illustrates the need to carefully consider data from fecal measurements of SCFA, given that concentrations change along the intestinal tract and that SCFA production can be limited by factors other than availability of fermentable substrate.

In both studies, lactulose modulated the gut microbiota, increasing the abundance of bifidobacteria and akkermansiae in particular. Nine clinical trials assessing the prebiotic effects of low-dose lactulose were identified, including a total of participants 16 , 54 , 59 — The trend across the studies was for administration of low-dose lactulose to increase populations of beneficial gut bacteria e.

and metabolites e. Table 3. Summary of key efficacy findings from clinical studies of the prebiotic and mineral absorption effects of low-dose lactulose. In an open-label, single-arm study, eight healthy volunteers received a once-daily drink containing 3 g of lactulose for 2 weeks, in addition to their normal diet Conversely, the numbers of lecithinase-positive clostridia, including Clostridium perfringens , and Bacteroidaceae decreased slightly but significantly compared with values before intake After 7—14 days of treatment, lactulose also significantly reduced the levels of potentially toxic substances, including fecal indole and phenol, and significantly reduced activities of fecal β-glucuronidase, nitroreductase, and azoreductase.

Finally, lactulose contributed to improvements in the intestinal environment; by day 14 of intake, mean fecal pH decreased from 7. Lactulose significantly increased populations of Bifidobacterium spp.

This increase was also significant compared with the changes in Bifidobacterium spp. population levels that occurred with PBO over the same period. The effect was most pronounced in individuals with the lowest pre-treatment Bifidobacterium spp. population counts.

There was a significant reduction in levels of Clostridium spp. during lactulose intake, from 8. No significant differences in population levels of Clostridium spp. were observed in the PBO group over the treatment period or between the lactulose and PBO groups Figure 4.

FISH, fluorescence in-situ hybridization. A parallel-group, PBO-controlled RCT was carried out to assess the effects of prolonged low-dose lactulose on fecal bifidobacteria Fecal bifidobacterial counts were significantly higher after prolonged low-dose lactulose ingestion than after PBO ingestion.

Lactulose led to significantly increased fecal Bifidobacterium counts from days 0 to 21 and day 42 [mean ± standard error of the mean, 8. Throughout the study, total anaerobes, Lactobacillus spp. Lactulose and lactitol significantly increased populations of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus , and Streptococcus spp.

Lactulose and lactitol significantly decreased populations of Bacteroides spp. Beneficial changes were greater with lactulose than with lactitol, and the onset of effect was more rapid with lactulose 1 vs. Lactulose and lactitol both led to significant changes in fecal biochemistry pH, fecal moisture, and SCFAs compared with PBO The mean ± SD number of bifidobacteria significantly increased from 9.

The same study team conducted a crossover RCT in 52 healthy Japanese women After a 3-week washout period, participants were crossed over to the other treatment group. The mean ± standard error number of bifidobacteria in feces was significantly higher with lactulose compared with PBO [9.

The proportion of Bifidobacterium spp. in feces was also significantly higher after lactulose than after PBO treatment [ Moreover, lactulose administration also increased defecation frequency and the number of defecation days, and improved fecal consistency compared with PBO The only study conducted in postmenopausal women compared the effect of lactulose on fecal parameters in vivo with the effect in an in-vitro model of the proximal large intestine Lactulose promoted Bifidobacterium growth in vivo and Lactobacillus and Enterococcus spp.

growth in vitro No changes in fecal pH, dry weight, or mean molar SCFA ratios were observed in the in-vivo fecal samples. However, there was a clear effect on SCFA ratios in the in-vitro model, with lactulose causing a pronounced reduction of butyrate by the postmenopausal microbiota The authors concluded that the in-vitro model provided a better reflection of the effects of lactulose fermentation in the proximal colon in terms of microbial composition changes and metabolite production, and that, in vivo , feces do not closely reflect proximal colon fermentation but a summation of microbiota-related activities from proximal to distal colon An open-label study consisted of Japanese volunteers split across three lactulose dose groups Corresponding Bacteroidaceae, eubacteria, and clostridia populations decreased significantly; the proportion of Bacteroidaceae, for example, decreased from before intake and reduced fecal indole Results were consistent between individuals with low defecation frequency and those with normal defecation frequency Finally, a single-blind RCT compared the effect of lactulose with that of another osmotic laxative, polyethylene glycol PEG on colonic microbiota.

Following dose adjustment, the investigator fixed the dose for the last 2 weeks. Over the same time period, metabolic activity of fecal microbiota was strongly inhibited with PEG; there was a significant decrease in levels of total SCFAs, butyrate, and acetate.

No significant differences in levels of SCFAs were noted with lactulose 54 , and no differences were seen in either treatment group in fecal pH or in fecal counts of Lactobacillus , clostridial spores, Bacteroides , or enterobacteria Taken together, the results of clinical studies published to date, consistent with preclinical data, show that low-dose lactulose increases counts of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus spp.

and beneficial SCFAs, reduces the growth of harmful gut bacteria e. Preclinical studies have shown that lactulose stimulates Ca and Mg absorption from the gut in rats, an effect that appears to occur in both the small intestine and the cecum 25 , 69 — In separate clinical studies, low-dose lactulose has been shown to enhance mineral absorption in healthy men 66 and in postmenopausal women Table 3 A randomized, double-blind, three-group crossover study was conducted in 24 healthy men 23—42 years old to evaluate the effect of lactulose on Ca and Mg absorption Volunteers received test food containing lactulose 0 g PBO , 2 or 4 g together with CaCO 3 mg containing 20 mg of 44 Ca and MgO mg containing 28 mg of 25 Mg.

Participants crossed over to each of the other two lactulose doses, with a 2-week washout period between each treatment. This difference was significant for Ca between PBO and lactulose 4 g and for the Mg ratio between PBO and both doses of lactulose.

This study demonstrates that low-dose lactulose enhances the absorption of Ca and Mg in healthy men and that it does so in a dose-dependent manner A similar dose-dependent increase in Ca absorption with lactulose was observed in a randomized, double-blind, PBO-controlled crossover study in 12 healthy postmenopausal women aged 56—64 years Participants drank mL of water containing lactulose 5 or 10 g or PBO for 9 days.

Oral 44 Ca and intravenous 48 Ca were administered on day 8 of treatment, and urine isotope measurements were used to calculate Ca absorption. A day washout period separated each treatment. Figure 5. The effect of lactulose on calcium absorption in healthy postmenopausal women Error bars show ± standard deviation.

NS, not significant. The chronic effect of lactulose use on maintenance of bone mineral density BMD has also been assessed in postmenopausal women with osteopenia In a randomized, double-blind, PBO-controlled parallel-group study, 41 women received either lactulose 10 g, vitamin D3 IU, and CaCO 3 mg, or PBO, vitamin D3 IU plus CaCO 3 1, mg once daily for 12 months.

Baseline daily Ca intake was similar in both treatment arms. Differences in least-square means of BMD measured in the lumbar spine between lactulose and PBO at final visit were not statistically significant.

The results suggest that lactulose may help to maintain BMD in postmenopausal women by increasing Ca absorption Lactulose is absorbed in insignificant amounts in the gut, which then undergo rapid excretion by the kidneys; the direct effects of lactulose, therefore, remain localized to the gut GI symptoms seen with lactulose are dose-dependent; the higher the dose, the greater the incidence of symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and diarrhea Furthermore, when GI symptoms do occur, they usually remit spontaneously within a few days of starting treatment or upon dose reduction Table 4.

The studies included in this review clearly demonstrate that the prebiotic health benefits of lactulose extend beyond a simple osmotic laxative effect observed at higher doses; evidence shows that low-dose lactulose stimulates the proliferation of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus spp.

and the production of SCFAs, reduces levels of harmful gut bacteria e. It is important to note that the studies included in this review were conducted mostly in healthy adult volunteers; outcomes in special populations and non-healthy individuals may therefore differ from those reported here.

Two studies were conducted exclusively in postmenopausal women 65 , 67 , and two other studies included patients with constipation 54 , 60 ; however, none included special populations such as women who were pregnant or lactating, children, or the elderly.

Nevertheless, when used at higher doses than investigated here i. Similarly, although patients with diabetes were not included in these studies, it has been shown that blood glucose levels remain unchanged after lactulose intake in healthy volunteers, suggesting that lactulose as a functional food ingredient may also be consumed by people with impaired glucose tolerance The effects of lactulose established in healthy individuals cannot, however, be extrapolated reliably to patients with certain diseases, such as irritable bowel syndrome, liver disease e.

There is therefore a need for separate studies of the effect of lactulose on the composition of the gut microbiota in patients with different pathologies Given the dose-dependent nature of GI symptoms, the higher the dose of lactulose, the more likely patients are to experience diarrhea Concerning the addition of lactulose to infant formula milk, the incorporation of 0.

The transitory laxative threshold for lactulose has been estimated to be 0. Two studies in this review, including one in healthy postmenopausal women, demonstrated that lower doses of lactulose increase the absorption of minerals from the gut 66 , The increased absorption of Ca and Mg with lactulose treatment appears to occur primarily in the small intestine, with some evidence that it may also take place in the cecum Increased absorption of Ca, in particular, may have important implications for maintaining or improving bone density.

The bone-health-supporting potential of prebiotics such as lactulose will depend on the host's characteristics, such as their age, postmenopausal status, and capacity to absorb Ca 9.

Individuals who have a high demand for Ca e. During bone development, which typically takes place during adolescence but can continue into early adulthood, BMD increases until peak bone mass is reached Importantly, peak bone mass is a key determinant of osteoporosis later in life Given the critical role of Ca in bone formation and the importance of the increase in BMD that occurs during bone development, lactulose may have a role in ensuring adequate Ca intake during this crucial period.

Because Ca absorption declines with age, older patients could also derive particular benefit from low-dose lactulose treatment 82 , In particular, women experience a rapid decline in intestinal Ca absorption with the onset of menopause 82 , Declining estrogen levels that occur with menopause lead to increased bone turnover, with resorption exceeding formation 31 , 85 , 86 , resulting in rapid bone loss and risk of menopausal osteoporosis Because bone loss in recently postmenopausal women is largely influenced by a decline in circulating estrogen, women who are beyond menopause by more than 6 years may benefit more from lactulose than women who are recently postmenopausal 9.

The potential bone-health-enhancing effects of lactulose and the populations likely to benefit most from increased Ca absorption require further investigation. Similarly, there is a growing realization that inflammation has a significant influence on bone turnover and increases the risk of osteoporosis and other bone and joint chronic pathologies 67 , The potential of SCFAs, especially acetate and butyrate, to regulate inflammatory processes both in the gut and systemically therefore raises the intriguing possibility of managing bone health through prebiotics such as lactulose.

Studies in mice have shown that treatment with SCFAs and feeding with a high-fiber diet significantly increase bone mass and prevent postmenopausal and inflammation-induced bone loss SCFAs were identified as potent regulators of osteoclast metabolism and bone homeostasis At present, lactulose is available as a medicinal product at medium and high doses for the treatment of constipation and HE, respectively and at a low dose as a food supplement.

Despite lactulose not being widely recognized as a prebiotic, its prebiotic effects are outlined in the pharmacodynamic section of its prescribing information 7.

Asian constipation treatment guidelines also highlight the prebiotic effects of lactulose and state that the ability of lactulose to stimulate the growth of health-promoting bacteria in the human gut could contribute to an improvement in bowel function 74 , This appears to support both the preventive and the therapeutic use of low-dose lactulose as a prebiotic to improve gut health and to ensure a guaranteed uptake of Ca.

Through its potential bone-health-enhancing effects, low-dose lactulose may have a role in combating age- or menopause-associated osteoporosis. Furthermore, given the potential immune-enhancing effects of prebiotics, low-dose lactulose might also prove a useful dietary additive for individuals genetically predisposed to CRC, as well as for the prevention and treatment of other inflammation-mediated pathologies.

Further studies are required to test this hypothesis. GPR43 is the pre-eminent receptor for acetate in the intestinal setting, although acetate has been shown to activate other GPCRs, such as GPR41 The systemic action of acetate may have important implications for immune-mediated diseases e.

The modulation of gut microbiota represents a novel strategy for the prevention of CRC and the optimization of its treatment A causal relationship exists between intestinal microbial dysbiosis and CRC pathogenesis, whereby several bacterial species have been identified as contributing to colorectal proliferation e.

This suggests that these depleted bacteria may exert a protective effect against CRC. The use of prebiotics to stimulate the colonic abundance and activity of these health-promoting bacteria or to achieve a direct anti-inflammatory effect on the gut represents a promising therapeutic strategy Butyrate has been shown to modulate the expression of genes involved in the defense against oxidative and metabolic stress in primary human colon cells in vitro 21 , This suggests that butyrate-induced changes in gene expression could protect colon cells from oxidative stress and suppress inflammatory reactions known to increase the risk of CRC An in-vitro study in colonic macrophages and dendritic cells demonstrated that signaling via the GPRA receptor, a receptor for butyrate in the colon, promoted anti-inflammatory properties Further, GPRA deficiency in mice was shown to promote colon carcinogenesis whereas GPRA activation suppressed colonic inflammation and carcinogenesis Acetate may also have protective effects against CRC, acting via its receptor GPR43 to regulate the inflammation involved in intestinal carcinogenesis 50 , Thus, through promoting the growth of Bifidobacterium and the subsequent positive impact on levels of acetate and butyrate, lactulose could feasibly protect against the development of CRC.

It should be noted that the suggested inhibitory effect of SCFAs on cancer is not completely understood and further studies are needed into the effects of lactulose on CRC Although the literature search to identify studies of interest was in-depth, a systematic approach was not adopted, and it is therefore possible that not all studies on the prebiotic properties of lactulose have been considered.

In addition, studies in the field of prebiotics employ a wide variety of microbiological methodologies, model systems, and bacterial nomenclature in both the preclinical and clinical settings, making direct comparisons between studies challenging. Nevertheless, lactulose is not widely used as a prebiotic.

These studies have demonstrated the efficacy of low-dose lactulose in stimulating proliferation of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus spp. Of note, the immune regulatory effects of acetate the main SCFA produced by lactulose fermentation may have important implications for regulating the inflammatory response, important for both controlling infections and reducing the risk of chronic inflammatory conditions, including osteoporosis, gout, and CRC.

Furthermore, the ability of lactulose to enhance Ca absorption may have implications for enhancing bone density and bone health, which may be of particular clinical relevance for adolescents, postmenopausal women, and individuals at an advanced age.

Further studies are required to establish whether the beneficial effects of lactulose can be seen in patients with various pathologies, and whether therapeutic or preventive use of lactulose may be beneficial in diseases such as osteoporosis and CRC. All authors have contributed substantially to the conception and design of the article, to the analysis and interpretation of the relevant data and literature, and to the drafting and critical revision of the content.

GJ is an employee of Abbott Product Operations AG, Established Pharmaceuticals Division Headquarters, Allschwil, Switzerland.

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Journal of Mtility Medicine volume 21Dnhanced number: Motiligy this article. Metrics details. Gut Clean beauty routines is closely related to human Prebiotics for enhanced gut motility and disease Prbeiotics, Prebiotics for enhanced gut motility with their metabolites, gut motiloty maintain normal intestinal peristalsis. The use of antibiotics or opioid anesthetics, or both, during surgical procedures can lead to dysbiosis and affect intestinal motility; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully known. This review aims to discuss the effect of gut microbiota and their metabolites on postoperative intestinal motility, focusing on regulating the enteric nervous system, 5-hydroxytryptamine neurotransmitter, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Postoperative ileus POI refers to the prolonged recovery time of the gastrointestinal tract after surgery, resulting in abdominal distension, vomiting, oral intolerance, and delayed bowel function [ 1 ].

Author: Goltishakar

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