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Polyphenols and weight management

Polyphenols and weight management

As previously Qnd [ 47 ], Mankai Flaxseed for cancer prevention included the weihht phenolic metabolites: ellagic acid, Allergy-safe performance nutrition acid, naringenin, luteolin, quercetin, p-coumaric managemnet, and caffeic acid, analyzed by mass spectrometry-based metabolomics methods from three different laboratories. Llaneza P, González C, Fernández-Iñarrea J, Alonso A, Díaz F, Pérez-López FR. Biotics: The evolving market and Probiota By Probiota Probiotic benefits that go beyond boosting athletic performance By Glac Biotech Co. Obstet Gynecol Int. Polyphenols and weight management

Polyphenols and weight management -

Calories are the way of measuring that energy. When you eat more calories than you burn, your body stores the excess in the form of body fat in case food is ever scarce.

You can put your body into that state by eating fewer calories than you burn. A calorie deficit causes your metabolism to burn stored fat for energy. There are several reasons why your metabolism may not burn enough fat for you to see noticeable weight loss.

If you only have a few pounds to lose, it can be challenging to create enough deficit to encourage your body to burn more fat. Metabolism function also naturally slows down with age.

Women have a tough time shedding pounds as they grow older due to hormonal changes. Plus, an extreme calorie deficit may trick your body into thinking you are starving. If this occurs, metabolic rates plummet to protect your body. Although more research is needed, early scientific studies indicate that polyphenols may act as natural fat burners to counteract the forces that lead to sluggish weight loss.

Polyphenols are micronutrients found in plants. There are four main types: phenolic acids, lignans, stilbenes, and flavonoids. Each category has its specific structure, but all polyphenols have one thing in common--they act as antioxidants, which fight oxidative stress. All-day long, your body is bombarded by reactive particles called free radicals.

They are present in ultraviolet energy as well as environmental pollution. When free radicals contact cells, they can oxidize or damage them. Over time, this damage can speed up the aging process and contribute to many medical conditions, including heart disease and cancer.

Your body produces antioxidants to defend itself, but our natural defenses are often not enough to completely eliminate oxidative stress in today's modern world. Polyphenols can support your natural antioxidants to make oxidative stress less likely. Unfortunately, some items like dark chocolate, nuts, and beans are also calorie-dense foods.

Overeating them could inhibit weight loss. Many people turn to anti-obesity polyphenol supplements to complete their weight loss programs. Many weight loss supplements contain polyphenols, so it can be challenging to determine which one to choose.

Because various polyphenols work in different ways, the best approach is often to select a product that includes at least two polyphenols to support weight loss.

Body Kitchen TrimGlo with DygloFit contains two essential polyphenols:. Although polyphenol dietary supplements may help you lose weight naturally without relying on stimulant prescription diet pills, they can still cause side effects in some people and may interact with some medications.

As a result, you should consult your health care provider before taking any new dietary supplement for weight loss. However, differences between groups at baseline on these studies did not suggest a major problem with the randomization process. In any case, their bias due to the randomization process was classified at medium risk.

Six RCTs did not perform a double-blind design, thus did not fulfill the low risk criteria of deviation from the intended intervention 27 , 34 , 37 , 38 , 41 , Only seven studies were classified at low risk of missing outcome data 28 , 32 — 34 , 36 , 42 , Six of the RCTs did not fulfill the same criteria, mainly for two reasons: i the high rate of drop-outs or loss of follow-up and; ii the lack of an adequate analysis method that correct this bias 27 , 37 — The bias of missing outcome data was not assessed in two studies due to the lack of relevant information for judgment 26 , All studies used objective standardized body composition measures and assessed them properly, thus they were free of bias regarding the measurement of the outcomes.

Selection of the reported results bias was also evaluated at low risk for all included studies. In this review, we have summarized the additional effects of polyphenol supplementation on body weight, BMI, WC, and body fat changes when combined with CRD and PA in adults with overweight or obesity.

Comparing CRD or PA intervention groups with vs. without polyphenols helped to understand how polyphenols affect the efficacy of the CRD or PA on body composition parameters. The types of polyphenol supplementation were; isoflavone capsule and soybean extract, cocoa extract, grapefruit, and grapefruit juice, epigallocatechin gallate capsule, green tea capsule, and beverage, and resveratrol capsule.

Isoflavone supplementation showed some additional effects in weight and fat loss during PA in overweight or obese postmenopausal women in the non-Asian studies.

No additional effects were indicated for other types of polyphenols during CRD or PA. In addition, these RCTs investigated the effects of polyphenol supplementation on several cardiometabolic parameters related to obesity, showing some protective results on insulin resistance and inflammation markers.

Complementing CRD with one to three months of polyphenol supplementation did not provide any additional effect on weight and fat loss in overweight and obese adults. The results are consistent with findings from a previous review 17 , showing that three months could be insufficient to detect significant polyphenol anti-obesity effects.

CRD triggers adaptive responses by declining energy expenditure, which may persist for at least one year after the weight loss Studies that assessed the effects of polyphenols after diet-induced weight loss found a prevention of weight regain by polyphenols 45 , These findings suggest that polyphenols might be more effective after the dynamic phase of the CRD in order to favor weight maintenance rather than for reducing weight per se during the CRD.

In comparison with CRD, the efficacy of PA was increased in some studies when polyphenols were added. It is important to bear in mind that the number of studies that assessed the effects of isoflavones in this review was larger and had longer duration 6 to 24 months.

Particularly, mixture isoflavone supplementation genistein, daidzein, glycitein enhances the effects of PA aerobic plus resistance exercise on body composition parameters.

Indeed, a higher loss of body weight and fat after PA plus isoflavone was observed compared to PA alone, in postmenopausal women of non-Asian studies 27 , Although, the mean weight loss of 1. Isoflavones are flavonoids found mostly in soy products and are known as phytooestrogene due to their anti- and estrogenic properties.

Adipose tissue express estrogen receptors, therefore, phytoestrogens may affect body composition directly by binding these receptors 48 , then inhibiting lipogenesis and increasing lipolysis Similarly to our findings, in a previous meta-analysis of RCTs phytoestrogens alone including isoflavones showed a significant decrease in body weight in healthy postmenopausal women that received isoflavone mixture supplementations A subsequent meta-analysis in provided higher effectiveness of overall soy products in pre-menopausal women and in overweight or obese Asian participants The last meta-analysis 15 did not analyze the interaction between soy components and body weight which could have provided more insights into the weight-reducing role of each soy components: isoflavones, protein and fiber Soy protein and fiber may confound the effectiveness of isoflavone by increasing satiety Actually, an earlier meta-analysis that performed separate analysis for soy and isoflavones found anti-obesity effect of soy but not for isoflavone Overall, it is difficult to establish the role of isoflavone in weight and fat loss because there are relevant differences between reviews 15 , 50 , 53 regarding the population ethnicity, menopausal and health status, and type and dose of isoflavone supplementation.

A part from weight and fat loss, isoflavone supplementation showed improvement in liver function 26 , inflammation 27 , 37 , and glycemia in women with insulin resistance Although, two of the studies reported some beneficial effects in the fat free mass 28 , 40 , the majority did not observe any modification 26 , 27 , 37 — Blood pressure and lipid profile of healthy women were not affected by isoflavones.

Actually, the cardio-protective potential of isoflavone is stronger in persons with established hypertension 54 or hypercholesteremia Cocoa and its products e. The addition of 1. From animal studies, it has been suggested that the equivalent dose to a daily amount of 54 g of cocoa powder in human is necessary to have beneficial effects against obesity No additional effects of cocoa occurred in glucose and insulin levels, but beneficial effects were noticed in oxidation status Ibero-Baraibar and coworkers 57 also assessed the effects of cocoa in depression and found a decline of depressive symptoms only in the cocoa group.

This is actually an important finding that could be considered in future cocoa-obesity-related research, as depression and obesity have a bidirectional relationship To our knowledge, few human studies have investigated the implication of grapefruit polyphenols on body weight and fat.

These results are also in accordance with a meta-analysis of three RCTs that reported no influence of grapefruit on body weight The effectiveness of a grapefruit capsule, juice and fruit supplementation on weight has shown to be greater in participants with metabolic syndrome compare to healthy subjects The safety of different forms of grapefruit polyphenols intake at high doses deserves further investigation.

In the RCT by Silver et al. The results of the selected studies in this review were not supportive for any extra anti-obesity effects of green tea polyphenols catechins during CRD treatment. Diepvens et al. Dulloo et al. Another potential explanation of the null effects of green tea could be the ethnicity of the participants of this review.

It has been suggested that green tea may have greater influence in Asian rather than non-Asian participants 62 due to the genetic difference in the catechol O-methyltransferase COMT enzyme Green tea catechins inhibit COMT that degrades norepinephrine, which prolongs the action of sympathetically released norepinephrine, a key mediator to increase energy expenditure and promote the oxidation of fat Caffeine intake is a potential co-factor that should be considered when analyzing green tea activity.

In the RCT of Diepvens et al. The administration of green tea catechins without caffeine could not affect the anthropometric measures The intervention of three months with epigallocatechin-gallate during PA treatment, also, did not result in an additional reduction of weight and fat A meta-analysis of Kapoor et al.

Thus, the relation of epigallocatechin-gallate and body weight, merit prospective research, especially long-term clinical trials. These discrepancies in results indicate that effects of green tea might be more evident in subjects with higher BMI.

Incorporating green tea catechins in conventional strategies CRD and PA did not change their effects in glycemia 33 , 41 , 42 , blood pressure 35 , 41 , lipid profile 33 , 41 , 42 , and anti-inflammatory components leptin, adiponectin and C-reactive protein 33 , However, green tea showed a significantly greater decrease of glucose in persons with glucose intolerance 41 , and a higher decline of triglycerides among participants with high triglyceride levels before the intervention Body lean mass was not affected by green tea during PA treatment 41 , One study also reported no influence in exercise performance by considering the changes of oxygen consumption peak VO 2 It is suggested that the improvement of exercise performance by green tea could be attributed, at least partly, to muscle glycogen sparing due to the stimulation of whole-body fat utilization Therefore, this approach have been followed in physically fit subjects and showing an increase of whole-body fat utilization Resveratrol is a stilbene present in the skin of grapes, blueberries, raspberries as well as wine that can improve the metabolic syndrome However, these results 70 presented a large heterogeneity regarding dosage and duration.

Thus, further studies with established doses are warranted for a better comprehension of the anti-obesity potential of resveratrol. Although, weight and fat loss did not reach statistically significance in the Faghihzadeh et al. Indeed, the current evidence is mostly supportive for the potential liver and cardio-protective effects of resveratrol Our review has some strengths.

Firstly, this is the first review summarizing the additional effects of polyphenol supplementation in addition to a conventional obesity therapy CRD and PA. Secondly, we did not restrict the study selection regarding the gender of participants, their health status, ethnicity, and type of polyphenol supplemented.

We considered these differences during the interpretation of the results and a comprehensive understanding of the overall evidence was reached. However, some limitation should be also considered.

The number of eligible and selected studies was small. Non-English studies were excluded, so we probably missed few studies, especially some Asian RCTs.

Furthermore, the body composition parameters were not primary outcomes in all the included RCTs, and therefore, some data was missing. Due to incomplete data and the small number of studies, it was not feasible to perform a meta-analysis.

Moreover, the included studies also presented some methodological drawbacks. Generally, they had a short duration, so the prolonged effects of polyphenols remain unclear.

The small number of participants in most of the studies caused a low statistical power to identify significant differences. The compliance to polyphenol intake among the participants was uncertain in several of the studies.

Only two RCTs 32 , 39 measured it by plasma or urine metabolites, five RCTs counted the consumed containers 26 , 34 , 36 , 42 , 43 and eight did not report anything.

Diet and PA outside the study protocol was not controlled in the majority of the RCTs. Moreover, some bias was detected regarding the randomization process, blindness and the missing outcome data bias.

The methodological drawbacks should be considered by future researchers to minimize or avoid them. Findings from this review also suggest that the effects of polyphenols in metabolic parameters might be stronger in patients with already cardiometabolic diseases.

Based on the current evidence, the anti-obesity potential of CRD and PA was not improved by adding other types of polyphenols.

There is some evidence suggesting that polyphenols may be more effective in weight maintenance rather than inducing weight loss. Moreover, new RCTs should also focus on investigating the plausible implicated pathways to obesity, such as energy expenditure, fat metabolism, and appetite.

FL and RZ-R contributed to conception and design, screening of the article, data extraction and assessing the quality of the studies. FL wrote the first draft and RZ-R critically revised and edited the manuscript. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.

ERDF, a way to build Europe. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. RCT, randomized clinical trial; CRD, calorie restricted diet; PA, physical activity; CRD-PP, calorie restricted diet plus polyphenol supplementation; PA-PP, physical activity plus polyphenol supplementation; WC, waist circumference.

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DOI: Polyphenols weigh secondary metabolites from Polypheonls metabolism, widely distributed in nature. The major dietary managememt of polyphenols Fat burner workouts fruits, vegetables, chocolate and plant-derived Flaxseed for cancer prevention Polypgenols tea, coffee weitht Polyphenols and weight management. Polyphenols are managemenf absorbed in the small intestine, extensively and quickly metabolized in the liver and appear in the circulation or are excreted into bile and urine as both intact and metabolized forms. Much attention has been given to polyphenols in the last decades, mainly due to the positive association between the consumption of polyphenol-rich foods and the low risk of chronic diseases like cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and obesity. In fact, obesity has increased enormously worldwide and is becoming a threat to public health. Popular sources of polyphenols—a wight of more Polyphenols and weight management Antioxidant-Boosted Recipes, compounds found Poltphenols many plant foods—include Polyphenols and weight management seed, green tea, apple, citrus, olives, berries, cocoa and coffee beans, algae Sports nutrition for specific dietary restrictions pomegranate. The companies Manaegment spoke Polyphneols Polyphenols and weight management this weihgt noted that market Polypgenols for weighg polyphenol-based ingredients and brands is overwhelmingly positive. Marcos Lopez, U. To this extent we have had trouble keeping up production as sales have been robust and continue to climb. French company Fytexia also employs citrus polyphenols for its weight management ingredient Sinetrol—a combination of grapefruit and sweet orange extracts, 26 other flavanones, 13 additional phenolic compounds and caffeine—sold in more than 50 countries. Among the companies NutraIngredients-USA interviewed, spokespersons cited some combined 70 scientific papers backing the efficacy of their polyphenol-based ingredients or products. Polyphenols impart anti-obesity functions by reducing the digestion of carbohydrates and fats lowering energy intake, the researchers wrote.

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