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Turmeric curcumin research

Turmeric curcumin research

Building strong bones and muscles G, Jones DJ, Singh R, Tufmeric al. Turmeric curcumin research assist readers in evaluating the results of human studies of Innovative culinary techniques, alternative, and complementary therapies reseatch cancerthe strength of the evidence i. Thangavel K, Dhivya K. Sharma RA, Ireson CR, Verschoyle RD, et al. Curcumin-induced autophagy and subsequent ferroptosis were both alleviated with autophagy inhibitor chloroquine CQ or siBeclin1 Front Nutr. Therefore, dye plants have become the main dyestuff of industrial products such as textiles, food, and leather.

Ckrcumin cancer information summary provides an overview of the Tuemeric of curcumin reesearch a treatment for people with Balanced diabetic meals. Curcumin Turmerci a Turmerric of the diarylheptanoid ccurcumin of natural Turmeic curcuminoids derived from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L.

The other major curcuminoids present in turmeric are demethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin, and cyclocurcumin; together, they are termed the curcuminoid complex.

The turmeric plant and preparations derived from it have a long history of therapeutic application in traditional Asian medicine. The crude and often dried plant material resesrch widely consumed Turmerix a food researcn, as part cuecumin curry spices, which typically contain numerous other ingredients, Stress relief through aromatherapy.

Turmeric and its preparations rexearch have a long curccumin of use as herbal medicines and dietary curvuminprimarily to treat various inflammatory disorders. Significant confusion exists in reaearch scientific biomedical literature, rezearch well as the popular literature, about the meaning of curcumin.

Brain training for cognitive alertness, one group has developed a curcukin scheme that is described below. Several companies distribute reseadch as a dietary supplement. In the United States, dietary supplements are regulated as foods, not curucmin.

Therefore, premarket evaluation and approval by the U. Building strong bones and muscles and Drug Administration FDA are not required unless specific disease prevention or curcumln claims are made.

The FDA Ckrcumin remove dietary supplements Increasing insulin sensitivity naturally the market that are deemed unsafe. Because dietary curcuminn are Turmerjc formally reviewed Stress relief through aromatherapy manufacturing consistency, ingredients Building strong bones and muscles vary considerably from lot to lot.

In addition, there reseaarch no guarantee that ingredients claimed on product labels curcumim present at researc or are reseacrh in the specified amounts.

The FDA has not approved the Boost metabolism for better health of curcumin as a treatment for cancer Tuurmeric any other medical condition.

The materials that have received the moniker Tuurmeric may be divided into five curcumn. It reswarch important to note that materials often referred curchmin as curcumin are not identical to the pure, single-chemical entity. Because of the deficiency in the reswarch chemical characterization of resaerch immense diversity of crude turmeric Textracts CEeesearch materials Reseach, CEM Turmericc, and even rresearch considered pureTuemeric by Building strong bones and muscles fact that the cuurcumin often share cucumin same Turmeric curcumin research curcuminthe usefulness of the biological data acquired from the plethora of these preparations is Researcy.

This summary refers to all turmeric-derived rewearch materials by using the collective term, curcumin-containing products. Tables at the end of each section specify the exact intervention fesearch used Turmric each cited study.

Extensive research over curcummin past curcunin decades suggests that Chitosan for bone health belonging to the diferuloylmethane class of natural products, the major constituents Heart health advocacy turmeric Curcuma longa curcukin, interfere with Turmerif cell signaling pathways, which provides support for Tyrmeric potential role of curcumin reseaech modulating carcinogenesis.

These pathways include researhc following:[ 1 Stress relief through aromatherapy 12 Concentration and technology distractions. Because of the abundance of in vitro curcumij preclinical Stress relief through aromatherapy in the past two decades, there has been Turmerid significant Turmrric in the number of clinical trials investigating the Turmrric potential of researh products.

These clinical trials have used varying formulations and doses Recovery testimonials curcuminoids for xurcumin prevention and treatment of cancer and to ameliorate symptoms of cancer treatment.

Turmeriv summary will focus on the bioavailabilitysafety, and effectiveness of resfarch products reported in clinical trials that targeted curcumim at resfarch risk of cancer and cancer patients for the prevention and treatment of cancer Turmegic ameliorating the rsearch of cancer reswarch.

At least Energy grid modernization phase I clinical trials of curcumin -containing products have investigated the pharmacokinetics Tkrmeric pharmacodynamics of pure curcumin CUR alone curcumij humans.

These concentrations refer to total curcumin resrarch, meaning cufcumin studies do not differentiate curckmin free unconjugated curcumin and curcumin conjugated with glucuronic WHR and sports performance or sulfate.

Conjugated curcumin is the more abundant reearch in circulation. While studies indicate that conjugated curcumin is less bioactive Stress relief through aromatherapy free Turjeric, there are also indications ccurcumin the enzymatic release of free ressearch from crucumin conjugated Turmeri at sites curcimin inflammation.

The assessment of curcuminoid bioavailabilityincluding that of CUR, is confounded by the pronounced metabolic and photo chemical instability of these compounds. The general consensus that the plasma levels of CUR required to achieve any biological effects in patients are much higher than what has been observed clinically to date.

Studies have directly compared the bioavailability of unformulated curcumin-containing preparations with CUR that is formulated for enhanced bioavailability.

These studies have consistently shown an increase in plasma levels using formulated CUR; however, these levels are still relatively low and do not exceed therapeutically insufficient concentrations. Investigations into products that may aid in the prevention of cancer and the treatment of precancerous lesions are important for the development of early intervention strategies and treatments.

A few studies have investigated the potential clinical benefit of curcumin -containing products, and other studies are under way. See ClinicalTrials. Published results curcumin-containing product for prevention of colon cancer :.

Treatment of patients with oral leukoplakia using a curcumin-containing product was investigated in a randomized trial. Published results curcumin-containing product to treat oral leukoplakia :.

The effect of a curcumin-containing product was investigated in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance MGUS or smoldering multiple myeloma SMM. Published results effectiveness of curcumin-containing product on MGUS and SMM :.

The efficacy and safety of curcumin-containing products have been studied in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease NAFLD. Published results effectiveness of curcumin-containing product on NAFLD :. Based on these findings, the authors suggested that curcumin-containing products, at higher dosages, might have a favorable effect on patients with NAFLD.

Biomarkers have long been used to identify and understand the etiology of various diseases. In cancer research, there are different types of cancer biomarkers. Prognostic biomarkers determine the likely outcome of the disease and if further treatment is warranted and predictive biomarkers ascertain the likelihood the disease will respond to treatment.

Five clinical studies have been performed to evaluate the effects of supplementation with curcumin -containing products on predictive biomarkers in patients with different types of cancer.

Various biomarkers from these studies were evaluated as potential efficacy measures to ascertain the usefulness of curcumin-containing products alone and as an adjunctive therapy. Different curcumin-containing products were used. The main biomarkers used in these studies were serum levels of the following:.

Results from four of the studies indicated an association between a positive change in a biomarker and patient outcome as follows:.

However, another study found no statistically significant difference between comparison groups when accounting for the observed biomarker, PGE2. Two studies have been published that suggest a possible antitumor effect of curcumin-containing products.

Published results possible antitumor effect of curcumin-containing product :. Imatinib and curcumin-containing products have been studied in patients with metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma ACC. Published results treatment of c-kit —positive metastatic ACC with imatinib and a curcumin-containing product :.

Two studies have explored the efficacy, tolerability, and feasibility of docetaxel plus curcumin-containing products in the treatment of cancer. Published results efficacy of docetaxel and a curcumin-containing product :.

A multicenter, phase II, randomized, double-blind study was initiated at the same institution in France and compared docetaxel plus a curcumin-containing product with docetaxel plus placebo in the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. The study was terminated for futility in view of results from the interim analysis NCT Three studies investigated the efficacy and safety of variable formulations and doses of curcumin-containing products in combination with gemcitabine.

Two research studies of first-line treatment in patients with advanced and metastatic pancreatic cancer PC showed differing results in tolerability and toxicity profiles. The authors concluded that this combination of curcumin-containing products and gemcitabine is not feasible in this population of patients.

A group from the United Kingdom conducted a combined phase I dose-escalation study and a phase IIA study of oral daily curcumin-containing products with folinic acidfluorouraciland oxaliplatin FOLFOX CUFOX in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer to assess safety, tolerability, and a suitable dose of curcumin.

Curcuminoids were prepared with phosphatidylcholine to boost bioavailability. This study reported an overall increase in self-reported QOL in both groups, with greater improvement in the curcuminoid group.

However, because of the higher baseline QOL values in the placebo group when compared with the curcuminoid group, it is difficult to interpret these results.

The effects of curcumin -containing products on radiation-induced dermatitis were investigated in three studies. Published results curcumin-containing products in the treatment of radiation-induced dermatitis :.

Several studies evaluated the tolerability and efficacy of a curcuminoid-containing product by oral application mouthwash in the treatment of oral mucositis. Published results curcuminoid-containing products in the treatment of oral mucositis :.

These groups were further divided into experimental and control groups, with 40 patients in each subgroup receiving Meriva or a comparable placebo tablet. In both the chemotherapy and radiation therapy groups, frequency and severity of reported symptoms were significantly lower in the Meriva group and no significant changes were reported in the control group.

A case report has been published that suggests a possible antitumor effect of a curcumin-containing product. The case report described a 6 month-old infant with infantile hemangioendothelioma. Given that this disease is known to frequently undergo spontaneous involution, the therapeutic activity of the curcumin-containing product in this case should be questioned.

One pediatric study evaluated the tolerability and efficacy of a curcuminoid-containing product by oral application mouthwash in the treatment of oral mucositis. Seven patients four evaluable used 10 drops of Curcumall in 50 mL of water along with standard oral care 0.

Curcumall is a liquid formula mouthwash containing a tincture of curcumin C3 complex, turmeric, and ginger dissolved in glycerin and 0. Compliance was inconsistent as follows:[ 40 ].

Most clinical studies of curcuma-containing products have demonstrated few, if any, associated adverse effects. Two other patients had a dose reduction to 4, mgalso because of abdominal complaints.

To assist readers in evaluating the results of human studies of integrative, alternative, and complementary therapies for cancerthe strength of the evidence i. To qualify for a level of evidence analysisa study must:.

Separate levels of evidence scores are assigned to qualifying human studies on the basis of statistical strength of the study design and scientific strength of the treatment outcomes i.

The resulting two scores are then combined to produce an overall score. For an explanation of the scores and additional information about levels of evidence analysis of CAM treatments for cancer, see Levels of Evidence for Human Studies of Integrative, Alternative, and Complementary Therapies.

The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.

Added Pediatric Population and Curcumin-Containing Products as a new subsection. This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Integrative, Alternative, and Complementary Therapies Editorial Boardwhich is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH.

More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ® Cancer Information for Health Professionals pages.

This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the use of curcumin in the treatment of people with cancer.

It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians in the care of their patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions. This summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Integrative, Alternative, and Complementary Therapies Editorial Boardwhich is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute NCI.

: Turmeric curcumin research

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How Curcumin Works Curcumin seems to target specific molecules or pathways that control the cell cycle.

It also blocks inflammatory cytokines and enzymes, including cyclooxygenase-2 COX-2 , the target of the pain reliever celecoxib Celebrex. For example, a review of 15 randomized controlled trials found curcumin relieved OA pain and stiffness as well or better than nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories NSAIDs like ibuprofen and celecoxib — minus potentially serious side effects.

Doses ranged from 40 mg of a highly bioavailable form of curcumin to 1, mg. Other research suggests that low doses of curcumin may help restore a normal balance between T cells that cause inflammation Th17 cells and those that protect against it regulatory T cells.

An imbalance in these cells is believed to drive lupus , rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. In one small randomized controlled trial, twice daily doses of either or mg of curcumin were compared to placebo. Both doses significantly outperformed placebo on all measures.

They reduced disease activity and significantly lowered inflammation markers and rheumatoid factor RF values. longa is commonly done with aqueous solvent solutions.

In contrast to the conventional extraction methods, two different green and bio-based surfactant-free microemulsion SFME extraction systems, which were approved for food and yield a higher extracting power of curcuminoids were compared.

It has also been found to impact the increased consumption of smoked garfish positively. Thus, the use of turmeric, which is a natural colorant where more positive results are obtained, instead of artificial colorants that may be harmful to human health, has been suggested in terms of both making the color that is impulsive to the consumer in the product attractive and increasing the consumption of the smoked product Spices are usually cooked with food, but microorganisms in the form of spores remain alive during the cooking process, causing a proliferation in products stored in improper conditions during storage and distribution.

The microflora in the spice reduces product shelf life and causes spoilage and foodborne diseases. These bacteria generally cause spoilage in products such as pickles, salami, sausage, and canned food.

Turmeric is obtained from the C. It is a plant with polyphenolic characteristics Dried turmeric is applied as a spice, and in making curry, it gives the curry a yellow color.

With its bright yellow color, turmeric has been utilized as paint, medicine, and a spice since the s BC. Marko Polo has described turmeric as a vegetable that replaces saffron but is not saffron Turmeric is added in smoked foods, pickles, and some cakes. It is used in some dishes, the mixture of curry, mustard, and sauces for chicken meat, in some desserts, especially zerde, a dessert served at weddings in Anatolia, and gives it its yellow color.

It is also used in seafood, fish soup, egg dishes, soups, rice, cold cuts, and numerous vegetable dishes. It is used especially in Indian and South Asian cuisine The scarce in vivo study explored the healthy benefits of curcumin in a functional food , which evaluated the effect of curcumin in combination with phytosterols in bread on the lipid profile.

No significant effect was observed for curcumin addition in bread, whereas the incorporation of phytosterols reduced plasma cholesterol levels. Additionally, the authors indicated that this lack of effect observed for curcumin could be explained by the high temperatures used to process bread, which favored curcumin degradation.

coli and L. monocytogenes , and showed strong antioxidant activity comparable to ascorbic acid. It is also worth mentioning that the incorporation of turmeric extract in beverages, bread, biscuits, snacks, pasta, milk, cheese, fresh sausage, and patties has been studied.

Al-Obaidi evaluated the influence of turmeric powder on the chemical composition, oxidative stability, and microbiology of the soft cheese.

Different concentrations of turmeric powder 0, 0. The results showed no significant differences between the cheese of the different treatments T2, T3, and T4 and the control cheese T1 for moisture, protein, fat, ash, and pH. While for the flavor, the results showed that there was a significant difference between the cheese samples treated with turmeric powder 0.

The results of peroxide value PV and acid value AV showed that the cheese treated with different concentrations of turmeric powder was lower than untreated cheese control The microbiological results indicated that as the concentration of the turmeric powder increased, the total bacterial count decreased compared with the control treatment, which showed the highest total count after 9 days of storage at 5 ± 2°C.

However, the coliform bacteria were increased during storage for control treatment only while it was undetectable for T2, T3, and T4 treatments after storage at 5 ± 2°C for 9 days.

It could be concluded that turmeric powder was successfully used to improve the keeping quality of soft cheese Also, de Carvalho et al.

Turmeric extract improved the antioxidant capacity of lamb sausages and also slowed lipid oxidation and the generation of related volatile compounds. Moreover, the physicochemical parameters of lamb sausages were not greatly influenced by turmeric addition and concentration, except for the yellow color.

All samples were considered acceptable by consumers. These findings showed that turmeric extract is effective against lipid oxidation and could be a good strategy to enhance the shelf life of lamb sausage Furthermore, Gómez-Estaca et al. Curcumin effectively reduced the lipid oxidation process derived from chilled storage or cooking regardless of the oleogelation method; the resulting products showed a lipid composition that meets recommendations for fatty acid intake.

The samples formulated with beeswax oleogel presented adequate technological properties and overall sensory acceptability. Curcumin provided a yellow color that reduced sensory acceptance, regardless of the oleogelation method.

Further studies are needed to adapt ethyl cellulose oleogels prepared with highly unsaturated lipids for the successful development of fresh meat products due to the extent of lipid oxidation during refrigeration and cooking and to the lower sensory acceptability.

Additionally, Ribeiro Oliveira et al. The selected snack was shown to be feasible once TP was added as an ingredient that aggregated sensory, nutritional, and functional antioxidant values to the BRG-based snack, providing an alternative for the production of gluten-free snacks Three freshwater fish products shell, taki, and tengra were examined for their physicochemical physical properties, proximate and chemical analyses , mineral, and bacteriological quality using turmeric powder, salt dry , and the sun-drying procedure.

The physicochemical properties such as the sensory properties, moisture, protein, fat, ash, salt, TVB-N, FFA, pH, certain mineral contents Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn , and bacterial load SPC and HBC of freshly processed turmeric and salt-treated sun-dried fish were examined.

The dried fish product with the least moisture was also the most resistant to enzyme and microbiological activity Raw meat samples from pigs fed a control diet and a diet mixed with 4.

Following the slaughter, raw meat was kept at 4°C for 7 days, and it was concluded that dietary turmeric powder induced an elevation in cooked meat quality, and color modifications in cooked meat were correlated with color parameters of raw samples.

Dietary supplementation with C. longa powder did not change lipid oxidation, Warner Bratzler shear force, or the antioxidant capacity of cooked meat In another study, the impacts of turmeric powder and ascorbic acid on lipid oxidation and antioxidant capacity in cooked rabbit burgers were estimated.

The burgers were derived from 3 different formulations C, control, with no additives; Tu with 3. It appears more potent in limiting lipid oxidation than ascorbic acid post-cooking Curcumin poses potential health risks despite its numerous advantages for human health and its well-established safety profile.

According to some accounts, curcumin may cause toxicity under certain circumstances. For instance, individuals receiving doses of curcumin between 0. For example, curcumin appears to cause DNA damage at both the mitochondrial and nuclear levels, suggesting that it may have a carcinogenic effect at doses near those that show positive results.

Additionally, mice fed different doses of turmeric oleoresin for 3 months and 2 years showed carcinogenic potential Unsaturated ketones appear to be related to the mechanisms causing these effects, and these regions are known to form covalent bonds via a Michael addition reaction with the thiol groups of cysteine residues, and this also could be due to the antioxidant enzyme thioredoxin reductase that may be altered by this method, resulting in the formation of ROS Curcumin was also discovered to inhibit the activities of cytochrome P, glutathione S-transferase, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, and chelate iron, which has an impact on how it is metabolized throughout the body.

As xenobiotics build up when these three drug-metabolizing enzymes are blocked, toxicity may result Numerous experiments on healthy subjects have confirmed the safety and effectiveness of curcumin. Despite this well-established safety, some negative side effects have been reported.

Seven subjects receiving —12, mg in a dose-response study and followed for 72 h experienced diarrhea, headache, rash, and yellow stool In another study, some subjects receiving 0. Curcumin has a prolonged history of usage in ancient medicine, where it was used in various medical treatments as well as food coloring and spice.

Still, technological advances have made it possible to employ curcumin for various uses in the food and health industries. According to the results of preclinical and clinical studies conducted in vitro and in vivo , respectively, curcumin may be helpful in the prevention and treatment of many diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, obesity, allergy, asthma, inflammatory diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders, e.

Compared to other medications, curcumin is viewed as a very cost-effective and safe natural substance that can be used to prevent and treat many disorders. According to results from clinical trials, nano-formulations can increase curcumin bioavailability and are systemically safe.

Nevertheless, these nano-formulations must be tested as therapeutic modalities for impending clinical studies and human application. Additionally, using curcumin nano-formulations in combination with other drugs is a good way to lower the dose of the primary therapeutic ingredient, which can increase therapeutic effectiveness while lowering systemic toxicity.

Numerous curcumin nano-formulations have been developed, including dendrimers, polymeric nanoparticles, nanocrystals, micelles, liposomes, SLNs, and nanogels.

These formulations are being investigated in several experimental and clinical studies and are suspected of being responsible for a few neurodegenerative diseases. Further research is recommended to assess the side impacts of different curcumin nano-formulations on human health and environmental significance.

All authors listed have made a substantial, direct, and intellectual contribution to the work, and approved it for publication. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers.

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Nkambeu B, Salem JB, Beaudry F. Capsaicin and its analogues impede nocifensive response of Caenorhabditis elegans to noxious heat.

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Encapsulation of curcumin-loaded liposomes for colonic drug delivery in a pH-responsive polymer cluster using a pH-driven and organic solvent-free process. Feng T, Wei Y, Lee RJ, Zhao L.

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Eur J Pharm Biopharm. Lu M, Qiu Q, Luo X, Liu X, Sun J, Wang C, et al. Phyto-phospholipid complexes phytosomes : a novel strategy to improve the bioavailability of active constituents. Asian J Pharm Sci. Mirzaei H, Shakeri A, Rashidi B, Jalili A, Banikazemi Z, Sahebkar A.

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J Agric Food Chem. Nimiya Y, Wang W, Du Z, Sukamtoh E, Zhu J, Decker E, et al. Redox modulation of curcumin stability: redox active antioxidants increase chemical stability of curcumin.

Mol Nutr Food Res. Oliveira Filho JG, Egea MB. Kharat M, Du Z, Zhang G, McClements DJ. Physical and chemical stability of curcumin in aqueous solutions and emulsions: impact of pH, temperature, and molecular environment.

Seidi Damyeh M, Mereddy R, Netzel ME, Sultanbawa Y. An insight into curcumin-based photosensitization as a promising and green food preservation technology. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf. Chagas PA, Schneider R, dos Santos DM, Otuka AJ, Mendonça CR, Correa DS. React Funct Polym.

Lima AR, Silva CM, da Silva LM, Machulek A Jr. Environmentally safe photodynamic control of Aedes aegypti using sunlight-activated synthetic curcumin: photodegradation, aquatic ecotoxicity, and field trial.

Sukamtoh E. Biological Effects and Action Mechanisms of Dietary Compounds Masters Theses. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Amherst Luis PB, Gordon ON, Nakashima F, Joseph AI, Shibata T, Uchida K, et al. Oxidative metabolism of curcumin-glucuronide by peroxidases and isolated human leukocytes.

Biochem Pharmacol. Wei H, Jiang D, Yu B, Ni D, Li M, Long Y, Cai W. Nanostructured polyvinylpyrrolidone-curcumin conjugates allowed for kidney-targeted treatment of cisplatin induced acute kidney injury. Curcumin has long been used in Asian medicine to treat a variety of illnesses.

Now some research suggests that curcumin may help prevent or treat cancer. Curcumin is thought to have antioxidant properties, which means it may decrease swelling and inflammation.

It's being explored as a cancer treatment in part because inflammation appears to play a role in cancer. Laboratory and animal research suggests that curcumin may prevent cancer, slow the spread of cancer, make chemotherapy more effective and protect healthy cells from damage by radiation therapy.

Studies of curcumin in people are still in the early stages. Clinical trials are underway to investigate curcumin as a way to prevent cancer in people with precancerous conditions, as a cancer treatment, and as a remedy for signs and symptoms caused by cancer treatments.

Research is ongoing, and there isn't enough evidence to recommend curcumin at this time. As always, talk with your doctor before using any herbal supplement, including curcumin. It's known to interfere with certain medications, including some chemotherapy drugs.

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Request Appointment. Curcumin: Can it slow cancer growth?

12 Scientific Health Benefits of Turmeric and Curcumin

It is used as a spice in Indian, Southeast Asian, and Middle Eastern cuisines. Curry powder contains turmeric along with other spices, but the amount of curcumin in curry powders is variable and often relatively low Curcumin extracts are also used as food-coloring agents Commercial curcumin is usually a mixture of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin see Figure 1 above.

Curcuminoid extracts are available as dietary supplements without a prescription in the US. Some curcumin preparations also contain piperine, which may increase the bioavailability of curcumin by inhibiting its metabolism However, piperine may also affect the metabolism of drugs see Drug interactions.

Optimal doses of curcumin for cancer chemoprevention or therapeutic uses have not been established. It is unclear whether doses less than 3. Curcuminoid-containing supplements taken on an empty stomach may cause gastritis and peptic ulcer disease In the United States, turmeric is generally recognized as safe GRAS by the FDA as a food additive An increase in gallbladder contractions was observed in 12 healthy people supplemented with single doses of 20 to 40 mg of curcumin , Yet, serious adverse effects have not been reported in humans taking high doses of curcumin.

A dose escalation trial in 24 adults found that single oral dosages up to 12 g were safe, and adverse effects, including diarrhea, headache, rash, yellow stool, were not related to dose 7.

Another clinical trial in the UK found that curcumin supplementation ranging from 0. Increases in serum alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase were also observed in several participants, but it was not clear whether these increases were related to curcumin supplementation or cancer progression 3.

Although there is no evidence that dietary consumption of turmeric as a spice adversely affects pregnancy or lactation, the safety of curcumin supplements in pregnancy and lactation has not been established. Curcumin has been found to inhibit platelet aggregation in vitro , , suggesting a potential for curcumin supplementation to increase the risk of bleeding in people taking anticoagulant or antiplatelet medications, such as aspirin, clopidogrel Plavix , dalteparin Fragmin , enoxaparin Lovenox , heparin, ticlopidine Ticlid , and warfarin Coumadin.

In cultured breast cancer cells, curcumin inhibited apoptosis induced by the chemotherapeutic agents, camptothecin, mechlorethamine, and doxorubicin at concentrations of 1 to 10 μM In an animal model of breast cancer, dietary curcumin inhibited cyclophosphamide-induced tumor regression.

Yet, it is not known whether oral curcumin administration will result in breast tissue concentrations that are high enough to inhibit cancer chemotherapeutic agents in humans Curcuminoids may interfere with the activity of efflux drug transporters of the ATP -binding cassette ABC family, including P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance protein MRP , and breast cancer-resistant protein BCRP , which function as ATP-dependent efflux pumps that actively regulate the excretion of a number of drugs limiting their systemic bioavailability , Curcumin was also found to affect the activity of phase I biotransformation enzymes like cytochrome P CYP 3A4 CYP3A4 , which catalyzes the metabolism of about one-half of all marketed drugs in the US In healthy Japanese volunteers, curcumin 2 g was found to increase plasma sulfasalazine concentration following the administration of a therapeutic dose 2 g of the anti-rheumatic drug sulfasalazine Salazopyrin, Azulfidine Some curcumin supplements also contain piperine to increase the bioavailability of curcumin.

Piperine may also interfere with efflux drug transporters and phase I cytochrome P enzymes and increase the bioavailability and slow the elimination of a number of drugs, including phenytoin Dilantin , propranolol Inderal , theophylline, and carbamazepine Tegretol Originally written in by: Jane Higdon, Ph.

Linus Pauling Institute Oregon State University. Updated in January by: Victoria J. Drake, Ph. Updated in February by: Barbara Delage, Ph.

Reviewed in March by: Lynne Howells, Ph. Research Fellow Experimental Cancer Medicine Centre Lab Quality Manager University of Leicester. Gupta SC, Kismali G, Aggarwal BB. Curcumin, a component of turmeric: from farm to pharmacy.

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Lao CD, Ruffin MTt, Normolle D, et al. Dose escalation of a curcuminoid formulation. BMC Complement Altern Med. Cheng AL, Hsu CH, Lin JK, et al. Phase I clinical trial of curcumin, a chemopreventive agent, in patients with high-risk or pre-malignant lesions. Anticancer Res. Sharma RA, Euden SA, Platton SL, et al.

Phase I clinical trial of oral curcumin: biomarkers of systemic activity and compliance. Clin Cancer Res. Garcea G, Berry DP, Jones DJ, et al. Consumption of the putative chemopreventive agent curcumin by cancer patients: assessment of curcumin levels in the colorectum and their pharmacodynamic consequences.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. Garcea G, Jones DJ, Singh R, et al. Detection of curcumin and its metabolites in hepatic tissue and portal blood of patients following oral administration.

Br J Cancer. Aggarwal ML, Chacko KM, Kuruvilla BT. Systematic and comprehensive investigation of the toxicity of curcuminoidessential oil complex: A bioavailable turmeric formulation. Mol Med Rep. Jager R, Lowery RP, Calvanese AV, Joy JM, Purpura M, Wilson JM. Comparative absorption of curcumin formulations.

Nutr J. Kanai M, Imaizumi A, Otsuka Y, et al. Dose-escalation and pharmacokinetic study of nanoparticle curcumin, a potential anticancer agent with improved bioavailability, in healthy human volunteers. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol.

Mendonca LM, Machado Cda S, Teixeira CC, Freitas LA, Bianchi ML, Antunes LM. Comparative study of curcumin and curcumin formulated in a solid dispersion: Evaluation of their antigenotoxic effects. Genet Mol Biol. Shakeri A, Sahebkar A. Optimized curcumin formulations for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: A patent evaluation.

J Neurosci Res. Prasad S, Tyagi AK, Aggarwal BB. Recent developments in delivery, bioavailability, absorption and metabolism of curcumin: the golden pigment from golden spice.

Cancer Res Treat. Sreejayan, Rao MN. Nitric oxide scavenging by curcuminoids. J Pharm Pharmacol. Sreejayan N, Rao MN. Free radical scavenging activity of curcuminoids. Dickinson DA, Levonen AL, Moellering DR, et al. Human glutamate cysteine ligase gene regulation through the electrophile response element.

Free Radic Biol Med. Dickinson DA, Iles KE, Zhang H, Blank V, Forman HJ. Curcumin alters EpRE and AP-1 binding complexes and elevates glutamate-cysteine ligase gene expression. FASEB J. Scapagnini G, Vasto S, Abraham NG, Caruso C, Zella D, Fabio G. Mol Neurobiol. Zhang X, Liang D, Guo L, et al.

Curcumin protects renal tubular epithelial cells from high glucose-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition through Nrf2-mediated upregulation of heme oxygenase Suzuki M, Betsuyaku T, Ito Y, et al. Curcumin attenuates elastase- and cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. Yao QY, Xu BL, Wang JY, Liu HC, Zhang SC, Tu CT. Inhibition by curcumin of multiple sites of the transforming growth factor-β1 signalling pathway ameliorates the progression of liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. Xiong ZE, Dong WG, Wang BY, Tong QY, Li ZY.

Pharmacogn Mag. Xie Y, Zhao QY, Li HY, Zhou X, Liu Y, Zhang H. Curcumin ameliorates cognitive deficits heavy ion irradiation-induced learning and memory deficits through enhancing of Nrf2 antioxidant signaling pathways. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. Ghosh S, Banerjee S, Sil PC. The beneficial role of curcumin on inflammation, diabetes and neurodegenerative disease: A recent update.

Food Chem Toxicol. Li CP, Li JH, He SY, Chen O, Shi L. Effect of curcumin on p38MAPK expression in DSS-induced murine ulcerative colitis. Genet Mol Res. Yang JY, Zhong X, Yum HW, et al. Curcumin inhibits STAT3 signaling in the colon of dextran sulfate sodium-treated mice.

J Cancer Prev. Moon DO, Kim MO, Choi YH, Park YM, Kim GY. Curcumin attenuates inflammatory response in IL-1β-induced human synovial fibroblasts and collagen-induced arthritis in mouse model.

Int Immunopharmacol. Shakibaei M, John T, Schulze-Tanzil G, Lehmann I, Mobasheri A. Suppression of NF-κB activation by curcumin leads to inhibition of expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in human articular chondrocytes: Implications for the treatment of osteoarthritis.

Biochem Pharmacol. Zhu HT, Bian C, Yuan JC, et al. J Neuroinflammation. Baird WM, Hooven LA, Mahadevan B. Carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts and mechanism of action.

Environ Mol Mutagen. Sehgal A, Kumar M, Jain M, Dhawan DK. Modulatory effects of curcumin in conjunction with piperine on benzo a pyrene-mediated DNA adducts and biotransformation enzymes.

Nutr Cancer. Thapliyal R, Maru GB. Inhibition of cytochrome P isozymes by curcumins in vitro and in vivo. Volak LP, Ghirmai S, Cashman JR, Court MH. Curcuminoids inhibit multiple human cytochromes P, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, and sulfotransferase enzymes, whereas piperine is a relatively selective CYP3A4 inhibitor.

Drug Metab Dispos. Das L, Vinayak M. Long term effect of curcumin in restoration of tumour suppressor p53 and phase-II antioxidant enzymes via activation of Nrf2 signalling and modulation of inflammation in prevention of cancer.

PLoS One. Iqbal M, Sharma SD, Okazaki Y, Fujisawa M, Okada S. Dietary supplementation of curcumin enhances antioxidant and phase II metabolizing enzymes in ddY male mice: possible role in protection against chemical carcinogenesis and toxicity.

Pharmacol Toxicol. Stewart ZA, Westfall MD, Pietenpol JA. Cell-cycle dysregulation and anticancer therapy. Trends Pharmacol Sci. Duvoix A, Blasius R, Delhalle S, et al. Chemopreventive and therapeutic effects of curcumin.

Cancer Lett. Surh YJ, Chun KS. Cancer chemopreventive effects of curcumin. Adv Exp Med Biol. Singh S, Khar A. Biological effects of curcumin and its role in cancer chemoprevention and therapy. Anticancer Agents Med Chem. Kuttan G, Kumar KB, Guruvayoorappan C, Kuttan R. Antitumor, anti-invasion, and antimetastatic effects of curcumin.

Kunnumakkara AB, Anand P, Aggarwal BB. Curcumin inhibits proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis of different cancers through interaction with multiple cell signaling proteins.

Chen B, Zhang Y, Wang Y, Rao J, Jiang X, Xu Z. Curcumin inhibits proliferation of breast cancer cells through Nrf2-mediated down-regulation of Fen1 expression. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. Zhou H, Beevers CS, Huang S. The targets of curcumin.

Curr Drug Targets. Han X, Xu B, Beevers CS, et al. Curcumin inhibits protein phosphatases 2A and 5, leading to activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and death in tumor cells.

Huang T, Chen Z, Fang L. Curcumin inhibits LPS-induced EMT through downregulation of NF-κB-Snail signaling in breast cancer cells. Oncol Rep.

Prvulovic D, Hampel H. Amyloid beta Aβ and phospho-tau p-τ as diagnostic biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease. Future investigations are essential to understand the importance of gut microbiota in curcumin metabolic fate in the colon As seen in Table 3 and Figure 4 , curcumin has many different impacts on human health.

Many researchers have studied the biological activities of curcumin in molecular, cellular, animal, and clinical studies to learn more about its contribution to health benefits. The obtained data showed that the actions of curcumin were involved in multiple pathways and mechanisms, demonstrating its beneficial effects.

Curcumin has been studied for over three decades with numerous identified health benefits related to improvements in slowing the existence and progression of inflammatory disorders, cardiovascular disorders, and diabetes In addition, when another product containing curcumin Algocur was administered in pill form every 12 h for 5 or 10 days to rugby players suffering from osteo-muscular pain conditions, there were reductions in pain and improvements in physical function compared to the baseline condition Curcumin has also been tested in cases with cardiovascular disorders, improving serum lipid levels Intake of curcumin extract mg three times daily for 12 weeks in patients with metabolic syndrome exhibited a lowering effect on the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and an elevating one on the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to placebo The use of curcumin in treating type 2 diabetes was also intriguing.

At a dose of 0. The supplemented groups could resist the increased blood glucose observed in the control group, referring to turmeric as a functional food in type 2 diabetes mellitus Similar findings have been noticed in human subjects.

For example, in vivo ingestion of 6 g of C. longa elevated postprandial serum insulin levels at the and min intervals during an oral glucose tolerance test Altogether, these studies, and others, showed that curcumin may be effective in controlling circulating blood glucose concentrations and has the potential to slow the progression of type 2 diabetes 15 , 70 — Turmeric is a safe food that healthy people can eat in moderation without getting sick Even if all the nutrients and substances in nature are beneficial for human health, they can become harmful when consumed in excess.

There is a maximum level that should not be exceeded. Different investigations have referred to the safety of polyphenols at high doses up to 8 g per day , but a clear dose has not yet been determined or decided.

The Oxygen Radical Absorption Capacity ORAC value, which shows the antioxidant capacity of foods, is With this value, turmeric ranks first in the list of spices with the highest antioxidant capacity.

ORAC is a scale called free radicals in our body that indicates the absorption of substances that cause many diseases, especially cancer. That is, it is used for nutrients that indicate the absorption value.

A food with a high ORAC value is more antioxidants, protects against cancer, and slows aging For adults, turmeric can be used as capsules, liquid essence, and tinctures containing powder. The cut root of turmeric can be consumed daily at 1. A standard powder curcumin can be taken thrice daily at — mg.

Liquid extract is recommended for daily consumption at 30—90 drops, one dose in the morning and one in the evening 1 part is 5 ml. Fresh turmeric can be stored in a cool, dry place for several weeks Curcumin can be used in salads, rice, and meat dishes to increase the flavor and consistency of food, giving it an attractive yellow color.

It can be added to the dishes by mixing them with honey. It is also added to fish soup, cold cuts, and various vegetable dishes as a seasoning. Turmeric can also be used as a tea, which is very popular in Asian countries, especially Japan However, for this effect of turmeric, the doses that will provide the same therapeutic effect at different times should be correct.

Curcuma is great when it is pure and in small quantities, but its taste is bitter and less enjoyable when taken in larger doses Scientific data reveal that curcumin, is a difficult substance to absorb, and accordingly, it has poor bioavailability as well.

Curcumin is absorbed very little in the human body when taken alone and is rapidly excreted from the intestines. The vast metabolism of turmeric in the hepatic tissues and intestinal walls increased its bioavailability, which improved through piperine, which increases the absorption of all nutrients If such an improvement is not used, very little curcumin is absorbed, and even doses up to 4, mg can be completely inactive.

Scientific research also shows that piperine, the active ingredient of black pepper, increases the absorption of substances that are difficult to absorb. Taking these two substances with an oil rich in unsaturated fatty acids further strengthens this benefit With the extensive use of natural flavors in the food industry, the attention to natural antioxidants in plants worldwide is elevating daily.

Since natural ingredients are used a lot in the food industry, people worldwide are becoming increasingly interested in natural antioxidants in herbs India has significant potential in terms of the production and export of some herbs and spices. Foods rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids are exposed to oxidative deterioration, which limits the shelf life of food products and causes quality loss.

In industrial processes, synthetic antioxidants are mainly employed to prolong the preservation of nutrients. Many researchers state that some synthetic antioxidants used in food processing are carcinogenic and teratogenic to living organisms.

Thus, consumers generally prefer natural antioxidants over synthetic ones Indian aromatic herbs used as additives to increase the sensorial properties of nutrients such as smell, and taste have become increasingly important.

The antioxidant effect of phenolic materials found in the composition of these plants is based on their biochemical activities, e. Some herbs and spices have been proven to have more antioxidant capacity than synthetic antioxidants Because of the specific flavors and aromas, as well as the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, herbs and spices have a broad bioactivity profile and can be utilized as alternatives in the food industry.

Since, the prevention of lipid oxidation in foods is crucial for the producer and consumer, turmeric represents a good chose choice, being a strong natural antioxidant The accumulation of reactive oxygen species ROS in cells has been tied to many disease cases, including the damage of the nucleic acids and DNA, potentially causing mutations and leading to tumor formation.

ROS are free radicals involving superoxide hydroxyl radicals, anion radicals, hydrogen peroxide, and singlet oxygen. The adverse effects of ROS can be mitigated by natural antioxidants. This research is of great significance for the practical application of curcumin and other biomolecules Also, in this study, glycated soy β-conglycinin β-CG stabilized curcumin Cur composites which were fabricated by a unique reversible self-assembly character of β-conglycinin-dextran conjugates β-CG-DEX.

Intrinsic fluorescence and far-UV CD spectra revealed that glycation did not affect the self-assembly property of β-CG in the pH-shifting treatment. The structure of β-CG-DEX could be unfolded at pH Meanwhile, β-CG-DEX-3d, which was incubated at 60°C for 3 days, exhibited a high loading capacity Moreover, the reassembled β-CG-DEX-3d-Cur showed eminent antioxidant activity of approximately 1.

During the simulated gastrointestinal condition, compared with β-CG-Cur, β-CG-DEX-3d-Cur nanoparticles showed a more stable and sustained release of curcumin. Thus, β-CG-DEX has immense potential to become a new delivery carrier for hydrophobic food components by means of a self-assembly strategy Turmeric is beneficial for the liver.

It strengthens the liver and helps remove toxins from the liver — The natural components from plants are considerable antimicrobial agents may that can substitute the current antibiotics, which are facing increasingly evolving resistance by microorganisms Figure 5 — In an in vitro study, curcumin inhibited the growth of antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Acinetobacter baumannii , and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from burn wound infections and showed synergism with meropenem On gastrointestinal bacteria of human and bovine origin, Cur inhibited Firmicutes [ Clostridioides difficile and Acetoanaerobium Clostridium sticklandii ] but did not affect Bacteroidetes Bacteroides fragilis and Prevotella bryantii Cur was conjugated to triphenyl phosphonium resulting in a compound named Mitocurcumin, which inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis , E.

coli , Staphylococcus carnosus , and Mycobacterium smegmatis , and induced morphological changes in B. subtilis Seventeen synthesized monocarbonyl curcuminoids showed high antibacterial activity against MSSA and MRSA and moderate activity against E. coli The four most effective curcuminoids were bacteriostatic at low concentrations and bactericidal at high concentrations against MRSA, which showed membrane damage.

In an ex vivo mammalian co-culture infection model, two curcuminoids decreased the viability of MSSA internalized in the fibroblasts aureus , B. subtilis , Enterococcus faecalis , and Mycobacterium tuberculosis , and produced membrane damage on B. Nonetheless, all the synthesized curcuminoids were not effective against Gram-negative species P.

aeruginosa and E. Cur analogs monocurcuminoids, MC were synthesized and showed higher, lower, or similar antimicrobial activity than Cur against Aeromonas hydrophila , E.

coli , E. faecalis , K. pneumoniae , P. aeruginosa , S. aureus , and the yeast Candida albicans. Two MC and turmeric powder presented synergism against A.

hydrophila , P. aeruginosa , and C. When aPDT was performed with UV light, two MC-mediated aPDT decreased the growth of E.

faecalis , E. coli , and S. aureus , while aPDT with another MC and Cur increased the growth of A. hydrophila , E.

faecalis , S. aureus , C. albicans , and P. aeruginosa Cur was more effective than other natural biomolecules quercetin and resveratrol in inhibiting the growth of E.

faecalis in spermatozoa from rabbits, but less effective than antibiotics Cur-mediated aPDT also reduced the viability of E. faecalis biofilms grown in bovine bone cavities for 14 days by 1.

The aPDT and the combination of a nanobubble solution and ultrasound reduced the viability of the aquatic pathogens A. hydrophila and Vibrio parahaemolyticus The curcumin mode of action as an antimicrobial agent is summarized in Figures 5 , 6. Figure 5.

Antimicrobial mechanism of bioavailable curcumin against pathogenic microorganisms. Figure 6. Antibiofilm mechanism of bioavailable curcumin against pathogenic microorganisms. In mammalians, the nuclear factor kappa B NFkB pathway, which plays a significant action in intracellular activities, can be activated by various agents, including pro-inflammatory cytokines, e.

Once activated, it will, in turn, activate the downstream inflammatory pathways such as cyclooxygenase COX-2 , lipoxygenase LOX , and inducible nitric oxide synthase iNOS.

Curcumin has been shown to down-regulate these downstream pathways by suppressing NF-kB and thus decreasing inflammation. Curcumin, a natural compound, inhibits the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as CXCL1 through the NF-kB signaling pathway, potentially reducing tumor metastasis , , , Zhang found that Cur loaded tetrahedral framework nucleic acids Cur-TFNAs were synthesized to deliver Cur.

Compared with free Cur, Cur-TFNAs exhibit a preferable drug stability, good biocompatibility CCK-8 assay , ease of uptake immunofluorescence , and higher tissue utilization in vivo biodistribution.

Most importantly, Cur-TFNAs present better anti-inflammatory effect than free Cur both in vivo and in vitro experiments through the determination of inflammation-related cytokines expression.

Therefore, Cur-TFNAs have great prospects for the prevention of gout and similar inflammatory diseases. An in vivo study evaluated the impacts of turmeric as a dietary supply for the ornamental fish Green Terror on the development and performance, survival rate, and blood indices.

A total of samples with an average weight of 1. Over a days, the fish were subjected to biometrics every 20 days. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were tested. Findings revealed that the fish fed with 0. In another study, Nile tilapia fish were applied in 3 monthly growth trials to observe the impact of turmeric on growing tilapia.

It was noticed that 0. fluorescens challenge The impact of turmeric on the immune response of fish Labeo rohita has been judged an effective action Also, in vivo study reported that curcumin had a protective impact on Bloch tissue and elevated the growth performance In this regard, the consumption of turmeric by fantail guppy Poecilia reticulate caused the reduction of FCR and improved growth performance Sand Goby Oxyeleotris marmoratus also showed a positive reaction to the consumption of turmeric powder by increments in the secretions of amylase, lipase, trypsin, and chemo-trypsin The effectiveness of turmeric powder in combination with ginger and garlic on the immunity response of Labeorohita to A.

hydrophila and white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei boone has been evaluated by Chowdhury et al. The impact of turmeric on blood and immunological status of Mugil cephalus vaccinated with A. hydrophila bacterium has been assessed The immune response of Japanese flounder and Nile Tilapia fingerlings was enhanced when fed a diet supplemented with curcumin , In a different study, the effect of dietary curcumin on Cyprinus carpio , Rohmah et al.

Common carps In conclusion, this study revealed that abamectin can depress the growth and immunity in the common carp. Although, both resveratrol and curcumin were mitigated the toxic effects of abamectin, it seems that resveratrol be more effective than curcumin Progressive degeneration and dysfunction of the nervous system because of oxidative stress, aggregations of misfolded proteins, and neuroinflammation are the key pathological features of neurodegenerative diseases.

Curcumin is a hydrophobic polyphenol with noticeable neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects that can cross the blood-brain barrier. Therefore, it is widely studied for the alleviation of inflammatory and neurological disorders.

However, the clinical application of curcumin is limited due to its low aqueous solubility and bioavailability because it has difficulty permeating the blood—brain barrier BBB , it must be encapsulated by a drug carrier.

The studies indicated that lipid-based carriers and poly lactic-co-glycolic acid PLGA increased its organ distribution tremendously Table 3. The functionalization of curcumin with metallic nanoparticles also enhanced the uptake of curcumin in the brain.

Furthermore, the conjugation of carriers with targeting agents, such as Tet-1 peptide, transferrin, lactoferrin, and chitosan increased the blood—brain barrier permeability of curcumin. However, research on the mechanism of curcumin with a delivery vehicle is limited. Therefore recently, nano-based curcumin delivery systems are developed to overcome these limitations effectively Also, some of the most frequently studied are lipid nanocarriers, liposomes, micelles and PLGA.

These carriers are further conjugated with brain-targeting agents such as lactoferrin and transferrin. Curcumin was investigated heavily as a treatment for AD. Furthermore, downregulation of NF-κB signaling led to GSK3β-mediated inhibition of BACE1 , which ultimately reduced A β plaques.

However, the exact mechanism by which curcumin regulated these processes is still unknown. It would be beneficial to study the important signaling pathways after curcumin is encapsulated with nanocarriers to see if the action mechanism of curcumin is sustained Overall, curcumin is a very promising antioxidant for the treatment of AD, and the use of carriers and targeting agents is very effective for enhancing delivery to the brain Furthermore, Campisi et al.

An experimental model of AD, which expresses two mutated human amyloid precursor protein APP genes, was used. Behavioral studies were also performed to evaluate the improvement of cognitive performance and memory function induced by all treatments The expression levels of Bcl-2, Cyclin-D 1 , and caspase-3 cleavage were evaluated as well.

The systemic administration of SLNs-CUR, both in WT and in Tg mice, allows one to differently modulate TG2 isoforms, which act either on apoptotic pathway activation or on the ability of the protein to repair cellular damage in the brains of Tg mice. In this study, it was also suggested that SLNs-CUR could be an innovative tool for the treatment of AD Many investigations have clarified that curcumin has potent anti-cancer impacts via suppressions of angiogenesis formation of new blood vessels from the preexisting vessels There are multiple steps involved in angiogenesis, including activation, proliferation, invasion, and migration of the endothelial cells Curcumin has been shown to prevent angiogenesis via multiple suppression of these steps in different cancers.

Moreover, studies showed that curcumin also inhibited lymphangiogenesis, the formation of new lymphatic vessels, which has a serious function in cancer metastasis, in vivo through suppression of VEGF Receptor signaling , , Indian diets contain a lot of fried foods, which also contribute to gastrointestinal tract cancers due to the cooking process, probably forming carcinogenic or mutagenic heterocyclic amines HA.

However, despite all this, gastric tumor incidence rates are rated as moderate to low in India, in contrast to other countries. High use of natural compounds, e. The following some examples of tumors that enhanced by curcumin or curcumin composites and the anticancer mechanism of bioavailable curcumin illustrated in Figure 8.

One of the significant issues of the anti-cancer effects of phytochemicals, bioactive compounds from foods, and other plants, is that the effective dosages of the phytochemicals are too high to be obtained by oral intake, particularly by food intake.

In the study of Aromokeye and Si a combination of curcumin and luteolin, two phytochemicals from food, at lower concentrations showed a higher inhibitory effect on colon cancer growth and investigated possible molecular mechanisms of this anti-colon cancer effect.

By pairwise combination screening, the combination of curcumin Cur at 15 μM and luteolin LUT at 30 μM C15L30 synergistically suppressed the proliferation of human colon cancer CL cells, but the individual chemicals had a little inhibitory effect at the selected concentrations.

This result was also confirmed in other colon cancer DLD-1cells, suggesting that this synergistic inhibitory effect of C15L30 applies to different colon cancer cells. The combination C15L30 synergistically suppressed the wound closure wound healing assay in CL cells.

Western blot results showed that protein levels of Notch1 and TGF-β were synergistically reduced by the combination, both in CL cells and xenograft tumors. Tumor pathological analysis revealed that combined Cur and LUT synergistically increased necrosis, but the individual treatment with Cur and LUT had no significant effect on tumor necrosis.

Therefore, combined curcumin and luteolin synergically inhibited colon cancer development by suppressing cell proliferation, necrosis, and migration associated with Notch1 and TGF-β pathways. Additionally, curcumin reverses doxorubicin resistance in colon cancer cells at the metabolic level, where Zhang et al.

Further mechanistic studies indicated that Cur inhibited the ATP-dependent transport activity of P-gp, thereby increasing the intra-cellular accumulation of Dox in drug-resistant cells. These findings indicated the MDR reversal activity and the related mechanism of action of Cur, suggesting that Cur could be a promising MDR reversal agent for cancer treatment.

The application of traditional chemotherapy drugs for lung cancer has obvious limitations, such as toxic side effects, uncontrolled drug-release, poor bioavailability, and drug-resistance. Thus, to address the limitations of free drugs and improve treatment effects, novel T7 peptide-modified nanoparticles T7-CMCS-BAPE, CBT was developed based on carboxymethyl chitosan CMCS , which is capable of targeted binding to the transferrin receptor TfR expressed on lung cancer cells and precisely regulating drug-release according to the pH value and ROS level.

The results showed that the drug-loading content of docetaxel DTX and curcumin was approximately 7. Furthermore, CBT-DC ameliorated the immunosuppressive micro-environment to promote the inhibition of tumor growth.

Collectively, the current findings help lay the foundation for combinatorial lung cancer treatment Also, curcumin found to induce ferroptosis in non-small-cell lung cancer via activating autophagy, through inhibiting tumor growth and cell proliferation, but promoted cell death. Characteristic changes of ferroptosis were observed in curcumin group, including iron overload, GSH depletion and lipid peroxidation.

Meanwhile, the protein level of ACSL4 was higher and the levels of SLC7A11 and GPX4 were lower in curcumin group than that in control group. Incubation of ferroptosis inhibitors ferrostatin-1 Fer-1 or knockdown of iron-responsive element-binding protein 2 IREB2 notably weakened curcumin-induced anti-tumor effect and ferroptosis in A and H cells.

Further investigation suggested that curcumin induced mitochondrial membrane rupture and mitochondrial cristae decrease, increased autolysosome, increased the level of Beclin1 and LC3, and decreased the level of P Curcumin-induced autophagy and subsequent ferroptosis were both alleviated with autophagy inhibitor chloroquine CQ or siBeclin1 Prostate cancer is the most widespread tumor in the U.

The malignancy of this cancer is due to its ability to evolve into its refractory hormone stage. A major challenge in the clinical management of prostate cancer PC is to inhibit tumor growth and prevent metastatic spreading.

In recent years, considerable efforts have been made to discover new compounds useful for PC therapy, and promising advances in this field were reached. Drugs currently used in PC therapy frequently induce resistance and PC progresses toward metastatic castration-resistant forms mCRPC , making it virtually incurable.

Curcumin, a commercially available nutritional supplement, represents an attractive therapeutic agent for mCRPC patients. The effects of chemotherapeutic drugs such as docetaxel, paclitaxel, and cisplatin, to curcumin, was compared on two PC cell lines displaying a different metastatic potential: DU moderate metastatic potential and PC-3 high metastatic potential.

The results revealed a dose-dependent reduction of DU and PC-3 cell viability upon treatment with curcumin similar to chemotherapeutic agents paclitaxel, cisplatin, and docetaxel.

Furthermore, the EGFR-mediated signaling effects on ERK activation in DU and PC-3 cells was explored Results showed that DU and PC-3 cells overexpress EGFR, and the treatment with chemotherapeutic agents or curcumin reduced EGFR expression levels and ERK activation.

Finally, chemotherapeutic agents and curcumin reduced the size of DU and PC-3 spheroids and have the potential to induce apoptosis and also in Matrigel. Curcumin enhanced miRa-5p expression and inhibited PCLAF expression; furthermore, there was a negative correlation between miRa-5p and PCLAF expression in PC tissues.

In addition, transfection of miRa-5p inhibitors partially reversed the function of curcumin on cell proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis.

Pancreatic carcinoma is a malignant tumor with a high fatality rate, and the increased resistance of pancreatic carcinoma to chemotherapy has become a difficult problem in clinical practice. Hence, it is imperative to develop an effective treatment for pancreatic cancer.

Sestrins are a class of stress-induced proteins that have antioxidation functions, regulating cell growth and metabolism. Curcumin is a natural pigment isolated from turmeric. Several studies have also suggested that this molecule has multiple pharmacological effects, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antitumor effects.

However, there are insufficient studies on curcumin cooperating with the sestrin family to inhibit tumors, and the mechanism is still unclear. A study carried out observed the potential anticancer effects of curcumin combined with the sestrin family on pancreatic carcinoma and probe its possible molecular mechanisms.

The results revealed that curcumin cooperated with sestrin2 to significantly suppress pancreatic cancer. It is concluded that curcumin-mediated synergistic targeting of sestrin2 is a potentially valuable treatment for pancreatic cancer In another study, a solid phase approach was proposed for the combinatorial synthesis of a mini library of the mimics of curcumin in good purity and yield.

The non-effective findings in pancreatic cancer cells switched to strong growth inhibition and cell death efficacy for PC3 prostate cancer cells, and mimic 9, in which tyrosol TYR and homovanillyl alcohol HVA units were linked by a phosphodiester bond, was quite effective not only in cell growth inhibition but also in causing strong cell death under the study conditions and treatments that were not effective in PANC1 cells Table 4 shows the biological activities of bioavailable curcumin and their mechanism.

Nutritional strategies, such as antioxidant-rich foods, which help regulate inflammation, immune function, and oxidative stress, may be beneficial during High-Intensity Interval Training HIIT Other supplements such as curcumin have emerged as agents with significant therapeutic potential.

Curcumin supplementation improved recovery time in mice following an eccentric downhill running protocol in a model of exercise-induced muscle injury. Lower creatine kinase, IL-6, and TNF-alpha concentrations were also observed in the soleus muscle Similarly, in human models, other investigators have noticed that curcumin has the potential to prevent delayed-onset muscle soreness DOMS after downhill running and eccentric leg press exercises , In a human study, 20 healthy males took either mg curcumin or a placebo twice a day for two days prior and 1-day after a min, constant intensity lactate 3.

The curcumin supplementation group experienced reductions in DOMS-related leg muscle pain at sites located on the anterior right thigh, posterior right thigh, anterior right leg, posterior right leg, anterior left thigh, posterior left thigh, anterior left leg, and posterior left leg.

The inflammatory marker, interleukin-8 IL-8 , was also significantly lower 2 h after the downhill running test contrasted to the placebo group They then ingested either curcumin or a placebo 2 days prior to and 4 days after the protocol. Curcumin was found to reduce creatine kinase on days 1—4 following eccentric exercise.

Additionally, IL-8 was significantly decreased in the curcumin group on days 1 and 2 following the exercise, and TNF-alpha was significantly lower in the curcumin group on days 1, 2, and 4 following the exercise placebo Similar effects have been observed with lower doses of curcumin, but some speculate that this may decrease the magnitude of the anti-inflammatory response.

When participants ingested mg curcumin prior and 12 h after eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors of one arm on an isokinetic dynameter, maximal voluntary contraction torque was preserved, and recovery occurred four days sooner post-exercise in the curcumin group when contrasted to a placebo-controlled group.

Interestingly, no significant differences were found in creatine kinase, IL-6, or TNF-alpha, suggesting that a larger dose of curcumin and a greater frequency of consumption on recovery days post-exercise may be needed to have more significant effects In a similar study, participants ingested mg of curcumin and 20 mg of piperine three times a day and then completed 25 repetitions of m, one-leg jumps on a downhill slope.

Concentric and isometric peak torque for knee extension, one-leg 6-second sprint performance, countermovement jump performance, muscle soreness, and creatine kinase concentrations were measured.

The results showed a moderately lower sprint mean power output 24 h post-exercise in the curcumin group contrasted to the placebo group.

The dose in this study was higher than what was used in the previous studies; the length of supplementation may have been too short to find differences that matter Few studies examined the potential of curcumin to enhance endurance performance. Curcumin was associated with a reduced exercise-induced inflammatory response.

More specifically, curcumin was linked with lower IL-6 concentrations one hour after exercise compared to placebo The outcomes of these studies were that curcumin could affect performance and the inflammatory response throughout short-term interventions, but more well-controlled investigations are still needed.

Curcumin is associated with better cognitive function and memory, as well as less stress and anxiety. Curcumin appears to be comparable with current pharmaceuticals as adjunctive therapy Accumulating scientific evidence encourages using curcumin as a therapeutic agent for improving psychological health.

In human studies, the most common psychological health assessments involve using questionnaires to quantify the signs and symptoms associated with mental health. In a sportive nutritional experiment, participants were supplemented with curcumin 3 days before and on the trial day or placebo before completing a subjective daily analysis of life demands questionnaire to evaluate stress sources and stress signs before the exercise sessions.

Curcumin treatment significantly reduced mean BAI scores compared to placebo, suggesting curcumin as an anti-anxiety therapy for individuals with obesity and major depressive disorder Patients at a psychiatric outpatient department were enrolled in this study for 6 weeks.

After 6 weeks of treatment, curcumin was equivalent to fluoxetine in terms of change in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score.

The combination group showed a better response than the fluoxetine and curcumin groups alone. These results nominate curcumin as a powerful agent in treating major depressive disorder Cognition and memory are commonly explored in the older adult population.

A computerized cognition test was used with 22 healthy older males and 38 healthy older females to evaluate the potential behavioral effects of curcumin. Participants received either curcumin mg Longvida or placebo once daily for four weeks and completed an array of computerized cognitive tasks preceding and following the assessment of the state of mood.

A single dose of curcumin acutely improved cognitive processes and performance on a measure of sustained attention and working memory. After 4 weeks of curcumin supplementation, sustained attention and fatigue measures improved, proposing that curcumin may positively affect cognition in healthy elderly populations longa L.

In order to obtain a concentrated curcumin powder, the extract is purified by crystallization. The product consists essentially of curcumin; i. Minor amounts of oils and resins naturally occurring in turmeric may be present.

Only the following solvents may be used in the extraction: ethyl acetate, acetone, carbon dioxide, dichloromethane, n -butanol, methanol, ethanol, hexane, propanol. The EFSA took into account additional information on the use of curcumin E in foods and carried out a refined exposure assessment The European Medicines Agency EMA assessed C.

Food preservation has been necessary for the continuity of life since the existence of humanity. Due to the changing eating habits over time and the increased number of employees, the development of ready-to-eat foods has become mandatory.

The long-term preservation of seafood without spoiling is challenged by various requirements based on hygiene and sanitation rules, i. It has become important to utilize seafood processing in recent years.

Today, the increase in consumption and processing of food based on the relationship between the development of the industry and the consumption and production of food has made using food additives a technological must. The large number of people who work outside the home and do not have time to prepare food has encouraged the production of semi-finished or fully prepared foods commercially, and this situation has necessitated the use of food additives inevitable Assuring food safety and security is one of the most important issues of today.

Providing food security, improving food production, preventing nutrient losses, preserving their quality during the period between when the food is abundant and less, and extending its shelf life have gained significance. Thus, the usage of food additives has become inevitable in this case 5 , , — The use of plants by humanity as paint dates back centuries.

Therefore, dye plants have become the main dyestuff of industrial products such as textiles, food, and leather. There are nearly plant species used in natural dye production.

These plants are turmeric, elecampane, licorice, common juniper, and sage 4. Food dyes, a type of food additive, are used in the industry for various purposes, including preserving, elevating, or modifying the existing or typical color, controlling color change and deterioration, standardizing the appearance, adding decorative features, and creating new products.

They are additives used in confectionery, food eaten between meals, soft drinks, pastries, and many foods such as gelatin desserts Color is one of the first characteristics of food that attracts people.

A conventional color is desired in foods to be consumed. Colorants are substances added in food production to correct changes in a color loss that occur during processing or at the end of the process, that is, to restore the color of food or to color food.

Color substances are also essential for creating a standard pigment in the product technologically The colorants are used to regain the natural color lost during processing and storage, to strengthen the weak color, to color the colorless food, and to meet consumer acceptance by hiding low quality Since the additives are chemicals, their excess is harmful to health.

According to the way they are obtained, the colorants are divided into two natural and artificial colorants. Natural colorants are obtained from microbial, vegetable, animal, and mineral sources.

The color stability of natural colorants is very low against physical and chemical effects. The majority of natural colorants are low in water solubility Natural colorants are obtained from microbial, vegetable, animal, mineral sources and agricultural wastes which are rich sources of natural colorants such as anthocyanin canthaxanthin, plain caramel, carotenes and chlorophylls 4 , Artificial colorants are more preferred in the food industry in terms of their physicochemical properties.

Artificial colorants are easily soluble in water and oil Curcumin is a powerful coloring agent widely used in the food industry. Its extraction from the plant C. longa is commonly done with aqueous solvent solutions.

In contrast to the conventional extraction methods, two different green and bio-based surfactant-free microemulsion SFME extraction systems, which were approved for food and yield a higher extracting power of curcuminoids were compared.

It has also been found to impact the increased consumption of smoked garfish positively. Thus, the use of turmeric, which is a natural colorant where more positive results are obtained, instead of artificial colorants that may be harmful to human health, has been suggested in terms of both making the color that is impulsive to the consumer in the product attractive and increasing the consumption of the smoked product Spices are usually cooked with food, but microorganisms in the form of spores remain alive during the cooking process, causing a proliferation in products stored in improper conditions during storage and distribution.

The microflora in the spice reduces product shelf life and causes spoilage and foodborne diseases. These bacteria generally cause spoilage in products such as pickles, salami, sausage, and canned food.

Turmeric is obtained from the C. It is a plant with polyphenolic characteristics Dried turmeric is applied as a spice, and in making curry, it gives the curry a yellow color. With its bright yellow color, turmeric has been utilized as paint, medicine, and a spice since the s BC.

Marko Polo has described turmeric as a vegetable that replaces saffron but is not saffron Turmeric is added in smoked foods, pickles, and some cakes.

It is used in some dishes, the mixture of curry, mustard, and sauces for chicken meat, in some desserts, especially zerde, a dessert served at weddings in Anatolia, and gives it its yellow color. It is also used in seafood, fish soup, egg dishes, soups, rice, cold cuts, and numerous vegetable dishes.

It is used especially in Indian and South Asian cuisine The scarce in vivo study explored the healthy benefits of curcumin in a functional food , which evaluated the effect of curcumin in combination with phytosterols in bread on the lipid profile.

No significant effect was observed for curcumin addition in bread, whereas the incorporation of phytosterols reduced plasma cholesterol levels.

Additionally, the authors indicated that this lack of effect observed for curcumin could be explained by the high temperatures used to process bread, which favored curcumin degradation.

coli and L. monocytogenes , and showed strong antioxidant activity comparable to ascorbic acid. It is also worth mentioning that the incorporation of turmeric extract in beverages, bread, biscuits, snacks, pasta, milk, cheese, fresh sausage, and patties has been studied.

Al-Obaidi evaluated the influence of turmeric powder on the chemical composition, oxidative stability, and microbiology of the soft cheese. Different concentrations of turmeric powder 0, 0. The results showed no significant differences between the cheese of the different treatments T2, T3, and T4 and the control cheese T1 for moisture, protein, fat, ash, and pH.

While for the flavor, the results showed that there was a significant difference between the cheese samples treated with turmeric powder 0. The results of peroxide value PV and acid value AV showed that the cheese treated with different concentrations of turmeric powder was lower than untreated cheese control The microbiological results indicated that as the concentration of the turmeric powder increased, the total bacterial count decreased compared with the control treatment, which showed the highest total count after 9 days of storage at 5 ± 2°C.

However, the coliform bacteria were increased during storage for control treatment only while it was undetectable for T2, T3, and T4 treatments after storage at 5 ± 2°C for 9 days.

It could be concluded that turmeric powder was successfully used to improve the keeping quality of soft cheese Also, de Carvalho et al. Turmeric extract improved the antioxidant capacity of lamb sausages and also slowed lipid oxidation and the generation of related volatile compounds.

Moreover, the physicochemical parameters of lamb sausages were not greatly influenced by turmeric addition and concentration, except for the yellow color. All samples were considered acceptable by consumers. These findings showed that turmeric extract is effective against lipid oxidation and could be a good strategy to enhance the shelf life of lamb sausage Furthermore, Gómez-Estaca et al.

Curcumin effectively reduced the lipid oxidation process derived from chilled storage or cooking regardless of the oleogelation method; the resulting products showed a lipid composition that meets recommendations for fatty acid intake.

The samples formulated with beeswax oleogel presented adequate technological properties and overall sensory acceptability. Curcumin provided a yellow color that reduced sensory acceptance, regardless of the oleogelation method.

Further studies are needed to adapt ethyl cellulose oleogels prepared with highly unsaturated lipids for the successful development of fresh meat products due to the extent of lipid oxidation during refrigeration and cooking and to the lower sensory acceptability.

Additionally, Ribeiro Oliveira et al. The selected snack was shown to be feasible once TP was added as an ingredient that aggregated sensory, nutritional, and functional antioxidant values to the BRG-based snack, providing an alternative for the production of gluten-free snacks Three freshwater fish products shell, taki, and tengra were examined for their physicochemical physical properties, proximate and chemical analyses , mineral, and bacteriological quality using turmeric powder, salt dry , and the sun-drying procedure.

The physicochemical properties such as the sensory properties, moisture, protein, fat, ash, salt, TVB-N, FFA, pH, certain mineral contents Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn , and bacterial load SPC and HBC of freshly processed turmeric and salt-treated sun-dried fish were examined.

Dorai T, Cao YC, Dorai B, Buttyan R, Katz AE. Therapeutic potential of curcumin in human prostate cancer. Curcumin inhibits proliferation, induces apoptosis, and inhibits angiogenesis of LNCaP prostate cancer cells in vivo.

Dorai T, Gehani N, Katz A. Curcumin inhibits tyrosine kinase activity of epidermal growth factor receptor and depletes the protein.

Mol Urol. Funk JL, Frye JB, Oyarzo JN, et al. Efficacy and mechanism of action of turmeric supplements in the treatment of experimental arthritis.

Arthritis Rheum. Gautam SC, Gao X, Dulchavsky S. Immunodilation by curcumin. Gescher AJ, Sharma RA, Steward WP. Cancer chemoprevention by dietary constituents: a tale of failure and promise.

Lancet Oncol. Goel A, Kunnumakkara AB, Aggarwal BB. Curcumin as "Curecumin": from kitchen to clinic. Biochem Pharmacol. Hanai H, Iida T, Takeuchi K, et al. Curcumin maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis: randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. Handler N, Jaeger W, Puschacher H, Leisser K, Erker T. Synthesis of novel curcumin analogues and their evaluation as selective cyclooxygenase-1 COX-1 inhibitors. Chem Pharm Bull Tokyo. Heck AM, DeWitt BA, Lukes AL. Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin.

Am J Health Syst Pharm. Jagetia GC, Aggarwal BB. J Clin Immunol. Johnson JJ, Mukhtar H. Curcumin for chemoprevention of colon cancer. Cancer Lett. Kapakos G, Youreva V, Srivastava AK. Cardiovascular protection by curcumin: molecular aspects.

Indian J Biochem Biophys. Kim DS, Kim JY, Han Y. Curcuminoids in neurodegenerative diseases. Recent Pat CNS Drug Discov. Kim MS, Kang HJ, Moon A.

Inhibition of invasion and induction of apoptosis by curcumin in H-ras-transformed MCF10A human breast epithelial cells. Arch Pharm Res. Krishnaswamy K. Traditional Indian spices and their health significance. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. Nagaraju GP, Aliya S, Zafar SF, Basha R, Diaz R, El-Rayes BF.

The impact of curcumin on breast cancer. Integr Biol Camb. Pari L, Tewas D, Eckel J. Role of curcumin in health and disease.

Arch Physiol Biochem. Phan TT, See P, Lee ST, Chan SY. Protective effects of curcumin against oxidative damage on skin cells in vitro: its implication for wound healing.

J Trauma. Sharma RA, Ireson CR, Verschoyle RD, et al. Effects of dietary curcumin on glutathione S -Transferase and Malondialdehyde-DNA adducts in rat liver and colon mucosa: relationship with drug levels.

Clin Cancer Res. Sharma RA, Steward WP, Gescher AJ. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of curcumin. Shehzad A, Khan S, Shehzad O, Lee YS. Curcumin therapeutic promises and bioavailability in colorectal cancer.

Drugs Today Barc. Shehzad A, Rehman G, Lee YS. Curcumin in inflammatory diseases. Shishodia S, Singh T, Chaturvedi MM. Modulation of transcription factors by curcumin. Su CC, Lin JG, Li TM, et al.

12 Scientific Health Benefits of Turmeric and Curcumin Rasyid A, Lelo A. As xenobiotics build up when these three Tureric enzymes are blocked, researchh may rresearch Six-month Turmeic with curcumin Turmeric curcumin research reduced measures of disease activity and severity and resulted in a lower relapse rate than with BCAA for muscle recovery in subjects on standard-of-care medication sulfasalazine or mesalamine ; yet, there was no difference in the proportion of patients who experienced relapse six months after curcumin was discontinued Intake of curcumin extract mg three times daily for 12 weeks in patients with metabolic syndrome exhibited a lowering effect on the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and an elevating one on the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to placebo For media contact information. Godmanchester, United Kingdom CEM [ 6 ] Diferuloylmethane
Parts Used Thus, curcumin may help protect against age-related loss of function and reduce your likelihood of developing heart disease. Oral curcumin with piperine as adjuvant therapy for the treatment of COVID a randomized clinical trial. The application of traditional chemotherapy drugs for lung cancer has obvious limitations, such as toxic side effects, uncontrolled drug-release, poor bioavailability, and drug-resistance. Progressive degeneration and dysfunction of the nervous system because of oxidative stress, aggregations of misfolded proteins, and neuroinflammation are the key pathological features of neurodegenerative diseases. The drugs have a colloidal size distribution of fewer than 1 m and are stabilized using surfactants and other chemicals

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TURMERIC Is Good for Virtually EVERYTHING! Osteoarthritis is a Tufmeric joint disease rdsearch is the most common rdsearch of arthritis. Stress relief through aromatherapy, it Tumreric among people of advanced age. While Building strong bones and muscles are treatments Summer detox diets — exercisebraces or canes, loss of excess weight, various pain relievers and anti-inflammatory medicines — these are no cures, and none of the treatments are predictably effective. Injected steroids or synthetic lubricants can be tried as well. When all else fails, joint replacement surgery can be highly effective. In fact, about a million joint replacements mostly knees and hips are performed each year in the US. My patients often ask about diet, including anti-inflammatory foods, antioxidants, low-gluten diets, and many others. Turmeric curcumin research

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