Category: Moms

Beta-carotene and male fertility

Beta-carotene and male fertility

Farimani, Beta-cxrotene. A similar pattern was observed between Beta-carotene and male fertility and SC, Ferility, as well as sperm motility Beta-cwrotene et al. The production of LC-PUFAs is regulated by the fatty acid desaturase enzymes encoded by the FADS gene cluster. The test items included SC, TSC, total motility, and sperm morphology. Agarwal, R.

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Beta-carotene and male fertility -

The results indicated that taking just 1, mg of vitamin C five times a week for three months significantly improved sperm count and motility, while reducing the numbers of deformed sperm cells.

Along with other antioxidants, vitamin E can have powerful benefits for protecting sperm from oxidative injury, and for improving sperm quality and viable sperm number. Additionally, supplementing with selenium enhances semen quality, increases the number of healthy sperm, and has beneficial and protective effects, especially on sperm motility.

In our clinic, we have seen excellent improvements in sperm count using a balanced blend of these antioxidant-boosting nutrients for our male patients.

A significant number of them have been measured with better motility, fewer flawed sperm, and improved pregnancy rates with their partners over time. Daily totals of: Natural mixed carotenes 6,, IU, Vitamin C mg, Vitamin E as d-alpha tocopherol or mixed tocopherols IU, Pantothenic acid or vitamin B5 mg, Selenium as seleno-methionine mcg, Vitamin B12 mcg, B-complex mg, along with calcium and magnesium chelates, chromium, zinc and copper.

Take with any meals, or as directed by your healthcare provider. Low Sperm Count is helped by Antioxidant-Carotene-Rich Multivitamin Megabite Design T For LOW SPERM COUNT, an antioxidant carotene-rich multivitamin will support healthy sperm production and sperm motility, and help men increase their reproductive health and fertility.

Recommendations : Daily totals of: Natural mixed carotenes 6,, IU, Vitamin C mg, Vitamin E as d-alpha tocopherol or mixed tocopherols IU, Pantothenic acid or vitamin B5 mg, Selenium as seleno-methionine mcg, Vitamin B12 mcg, B-complex mg, along with calcium and magnesium chelates, chromium, zinc and copper.

References Ahmadi, Sedigheh, et al. Agarwal A, Saleh RA. Role of oxidants in male infertility: rationale, significance, and treatment. Urol Clin North Am. Ghyasvand, Taiebeh, et al. In addition, Sertoli and Leydig cells are sources of ferritin, an iron transport protein, to developing sperm.

Ferritin also protects testicular tissue , Furthermore, mitochondrial redox reactions create ATP, which support spermatogenesis and contribute to sperm motility, but require oxygen to occur , Iron deficiency anemia, a manifestation of low serum iron, results in reduced circulatory oxygen transport and therefore creates a hypoxic environment to the testes Individuals with health conditions leading to low serum iron such as sickle cell disease often have compromised fertility; men with the condition are known to have reduced ejaculate volume, sperm density, motility, and morphology However, it is difficult to attribute compromised fertility parameters to low serum iron alone.

Though dietary iron relates to individual iron status, individual variation may in part be controlled by genes that regulate iron absorption and transport in the body, specifically TMPRSS6 , TFR2 and TF genes.

The transmembrane protease, serine 6 TMPRSS6 gene codes for matriptase-2, a protein that influences hepcidin, which controls iron absorption at the gut epithelium. The transferrin receptor 2 TFR2 gene regulates the TFR2 protein that aids in iron transport across cell membranes, and the transferrin TF gene codes for transferrin, which carries iron in the blood.

Variation in each of these genes can cause reduced functioning of the proteins they code for, which collectively can impact individual risk for low iron status 32 - Individuals with variants of these genes that increase risk of iron deficiency may require higher dietary iron, or supplemental iron.

Conversely, genetic variation in the human hemochromatosis, or HFE , and sodium-dependent phosphate transport protein 1 SLC17A1 genes can alter coding of HFE and SLC17A1 proteins, which also influence gut absorption of iron and risk of iron overload 33 , 35 , Iron overload poses risk for detrimental effects to the male reproductive system.

Excess iron levels in seminal plasma have been associated with teratozoospermia and decreased motility, with the proposed mechanism being increased levels of reactive oxygen species leading to lipid peroxidation Additionally, high levels of testicular iron are associated with impaired spermatogenesis , as well as direct damage to sperm Iron deposits in the pituitary gland can lead to lower levels of testosterone Further, any antioxidant in high quantities can exhibit pro-oxidative effects.

Iron can cause oxidative damage to sperm DNA 38 , and impair spermatogenesis and fertility in excess , Additionally, individuals at risk for iron overload may be recommended to make dietary changes from sources of heme to non-heme iron, which is absorbed less efficiently than heme iron.

Both low iron status and iron overload are conditions that can adversely impact the reproductive system. Monitoring dietary and genetic factors can help to achieve iron homeostasis. Calcium is important for a variety of functions in the body including promoting bone health, heart function, blood clotting and muscular contractions It also plays a role in reproductive health due to its effects on vitamin D homeostasis, inflammation, and facilitating fertilization Circulating calcium levels and, therefore, calcium available to reproductive tissues can be determined in part by individual genetic differences.

The GC gene encodes vitamin D-binding protein, which helps regulate vitamin D absorption and transport.

This affects circulating calcium levels since vitamin D is necessary for its metabolism and homeostasis. In men, calcium is known to regulate sperm motility and is responsible for triggering the acrosome reaction, which allows for effective fertilization , Epididymal and prostate fluid contains 2—3 times the amount of calcium found in serum , suggesting its essence in sperm development and function.

Though the mechanism through which calcium regulates fertility in men is not fully known, it has been demonstrated that vitamin D deficient mice that become hypocalcemic can restore fertile capabilities with calcium supplements only , This may be due to the positive effect of calcium on sperm maturation 40 , motility 41 , morphology 42 and overall function 43 , Celiac disease CD is an autoimmune-mediated enteropathy of the small intestine characterized by intolerance to dietary gluten in individuals with susceptible genotypes, human leukocyte antigens HLA -DQ2 and -DQ8, which are necessary but not sufficient for onset of disease Two immune pathways are involved in CD; one through deamidation of glutamine residues in gluten peptides by human transglutaminase 2 and generation of autoantibodies, and the other by activation of the innate immune system, leading to atrophy of intestinal villi A viral infection model suggests that reovirus infections may trigger loss of oral tolerance of gluten In addition, the microbiome plays pathogenic and protective roles through interactions that may modulate autoimmune risk in individuals with HLA-DQ2 CD is associated with extra-intestinal symptoms, such as infertility and decreased bone density 63 , , Before treatment with a strict gluten-free diet, men may experience impaired pituitary regulation of gonadal endocrine function The inflammatory response to gluten consumption in individuals with gluten intolerance creates an adverse environment for reproductive tissue maintenance and function Available evidence does not show an increased risk of subfertility in men with CD, although auto-antibodies can be found in seminal fluid of men with unrecognized disease , Anti-sperm antibodies associated with the autoimmune response that CD incurs when gluten is consumed, as well as compromised nutritional status due to the disease, may be related to the pathogenesis of reduced sperm morphology and motility The gut is a site of conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone and influences hormone metabolism In untreated celiac disease, low levels of testosterone and subsequent hormone imbalances can cause hypogonadism 63 and hypothalamic pituitary resistance, oligospermia, and azoospermia, disrupting reproductive function 64 , However, with the removal of gluten from the diet, semen parameters can increase and fertility can be restored Further consequences of untreated CD in men include micronutrient deficiencies.

These can include folate, vitamin A, vitamin E, zinc, and selenium, all of which play an important role in maintaining reproductive health and protecting fertile tissues Further research on this topic is warranted as more fortified, functional gluten-free foods come to the marketplace and these may reduce the risk of micronutrient deficiencies associated with a gluten-free diet , Studies linking caffeine consumption to various health outcomes remain inconsistent.

This may be due, in part, to genetic differences in caffeine metabolism. Slower clearance of caffeine from the bloodstream in combination with high consumption is associated with increased risk of a number of adverse health outcomes, including heart attack In men, caffeine crosses the blood-testes barrier, and can be harbored in the gonadal tissues and excreted into the semen , There is evidence to suggest that caffeine consumption is associated with increased incidence of aneuploidy, and other DNA damage in sperm cells Though some studies have not found a positive or negative effect of this phenomenon on fertility 67 , - , others have reported dose-dependent effects of caffeine on sperm motility, number and morphology, such that consuming 1—2 cups of coffee per day had a positive effect on semen parameters, whereas consumption of zero or more than 2 cups per day was associated with diminished sperm motility and count, as well as poor morphology There may be an inverse relationship between higher caffeine intake in men and lower fecundity , , but additional studies that include analysis of participant CYP1A2 genotype are needed.

Dietary fat has several important functions within the body. Its physiological roles include acting as an energy source, insulating organs and playing a crucial part in the creation of hormones, cell membranes and tissue membranes However, diets high in fat can increase serum and semen triglyceride levels, which may increase oxidative stress in reproductive tissues , and have been linked to a higher risk of obesity , Genetics play a role in dietary preference for fat.

The cluster of differentiation 36 CD36 gene impacts the transport of fat in the blood throughout the body, and overall perception of dietary fat.

Transcription factor-7 like 2 TCFL2 genotype controls the impact of dietary fat on body composition and several metabolic factors. Those with the TT variant who consume a high proportion of dietary fat may be more likely to be overweight and experience insulin resistance compared to those with the CC or TC genotypes 45 , Both of these outcomes can have negative implications on fertility due to hormonal imbalances, oxidative stress causing sperm damage, and increased testicular temperature , , , In men, total dietary fat intake has been negatively associated with sperm count and concentration Diets higher in fat can lead to hormonal disruption and a lack of testicular energy supply, compromising germ cells and mitochondria Observed effects include disrupted sperm membranes, impaired motility and function, and decreased sperm quality However, the most important factor when analyzing the relationship between dietary fat and fertility in men is the type of fat, as the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fat can influence semen quality 47 , Polyunsaturated omega-3 fat is a component of a healthy diet, found in fatty fish, nuts, seeds, and oils, and can help to maintain healthy levels of circulating triglycerides.

The protein nitric oxide synthase NOS regulates the interaction between dietary fat and plasma triglycerides and is encoded by the nitric oxide synthase-3 gene NOS3. Variation in this gene changes how the NOS protein is expressed, and therefore different genotypes can affect circulating triglyceride levels in response to plasma omega-3 levels.

In one study, individuals with the GT or TT genotype of NOS3 had higher circulating triglycerides when plasma omega-3 fats were low, compared to those with the GG genotype Circulating triglycerides have been shown to be positively correlated with sperm concentration, as well as having a concentration-dependent effect on sperm morphology Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are metabolized into long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids LC-PUFAs that modulate blood pressure, blood clotting, and inflammation through the formation of eicosanoids The production of LC-PUFAs is regulated by the fatty acid desaturase enzymes encoded by the FADS gene cluster.

In particular, polymorphisms of the FADS1 and FADS2 genes are known to affect the rate of LC-PUFA synthesis Polymorphisms in these genes influence the circulating levels of various metabolic forms of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids including eicosanoid precursors Multiple studies have found that carriers of the C allele in the FADS1 gene rs had reduced endogenous production of LC-PUFAs 51 , 52 , SNPs in the FADS2 gene rs, rs have also been correlated with altered PUFA metabolism 51 , The effects of these FADS polymorphisms on circulating lipid profiles and levels of eicosanoid precursors may affect male reproductive health through altering inflammatory responses and sperm membrane characteristics.

Omega-3 fats have been suggested to be the most important component in sperm membranes because of their contribution to sperm motility and membrane fluidity, as well as fertile potential of sperm 53 , Polyunsaturated fats in the sperm membrane are targets of lipid peroxidation, creating oxidative stress in the semen Therefore, antioxidants such as vitamins E and C are necessary to protect unsaturated fats composing sperm and oocyte membranes, maintaining the integrity and function of these structures 59 , Lower ratios of omega-6 to omega-3, and saturated to unsaturated fatty acids have been associated with better semen parameters, specifically sperm count, motility and morphology in oligoasthenoteratozoospermic men , In a 3-month trial of omega-3 fatty acid-based supplements from fish and algal oils for 10 men with asthenozoospermia, reduced concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids in seminal plasma and sperm fatty acid profile were seen following supplementation, but no changes in seminal parameters were observed In contrast, a randomized, double blind study of men undergoing evaluation for infertility who were given 1, mg per day of docosahexaenoic acid DHA, a type of omega-3 fatty acid -enriched oil over a week period resulted in improvement in DHA and omega-3 fatty acid content in seminal plasma, and a reduction in the percentage of spermatozoa with DNA damage Giant Panda Systemic Hypertension.

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Several studies suggested that Beta-carotene and male fertility ferrility affects Allergic reactions to food. This cross-sectional analysis from a prospective frrtility study aims to explore the relation Betta-carotene antioxidants intake and sperm parameters in sub-fertile couples referring to a Fertility center. Socio-demographic characteristics, health history, lifestyle habits, and diet information were obtained. A semen sample was analyzed to proceed with assisted reproduction. Three hundred and twenty-three men were enrolled: Beta-carotene and male fertility

Author: Telar

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