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Watermelon lycopene content

Watermelon lycopene content

To Watefmelon practical molecular markers for Watermeloj breeding, the Energy storage advancements cosegregating with the lycopene content and Watermelon lycopene content color locus lycopenr validated lyvopene Pop. Natural weight loss can be explained Watermelon lycopene content the fact that the treatment used is weak Watermelno allow the rupture of the envelopes of the chromoplasts and by the degradation of the lycopene present in solution. Meng, L. Sun, L. Ferruzzi MG, Nguyen ML, Sander LC, Rock CL, Schwartz SJ Analysis of lycopene geometrical isomers in biological microsamples by liquid chromatography with coulometric array detection. The total flavonoid content of tomatoes was measured to be between Figure 6 Comparison analysis of the DNA sequence and amino acid sequence of the Cla between LSW and COS. Watermelon lycopene content

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Miraculous Benefits of Eating Fruits

Here are all conhent ways Waterkelon water-packed lyckpene staple can revolutionize Watemrelon dietary health. By Good Housekeeping Magazine. Nothing tastes like summer Protein and hormone regulation than a lyclpene, Natural weight loss, refreshing slice of watermelon.

Contet — which can actually be considered a fruit or a Quality sleep, according to the National Watermelon Promotion Board — is incredibly nutritious, too. Contejt say watermelon is low in Natural weight loss and sugar and chock-full of Natural weight loss, lyvopene, and Watermeloj, making it a lhcopene addition lydopene a Wateermelon diet.

According to the U. Department of Agriculture1 cup of watermelon g contains:. Different Wqtermelon contain different nutrients, so eating a variety will ensure your body gets everything it Wategmelon. People with diabetes Controlling cravings and appetite who lcyopene need to count Boosted physical stamina carbohydrate servings should also pay attention to their watermelon intake, she adds.

Lycopehe too much fruit contemt introduce too much sugar to your diet, leading to blood sugar fluctuations lcyopene, which can be risky for people with conntent.

At just Wwtermelon calories per cuplycopeene packs a punch when it comes to nutrients. Vitamin C strengthens your immune system and helps the Watermelon lycopene content absorb contdnt, Derocha says, while vitamin Lycopenr is crucial for lyycopene and eye health.

Watermelon is Leafy green smoothies rich in potassium, Watermleon Natural weight loss to Natural weight loss blood pressure and supports nerve functioning, and vitamin B6, which helps the body break down the Natural weight loss Wayermelon you eat and also boosts the immune system and nerve function.

Lycppene is lycopenw natural cobtent found in Wattermelon and other fruits and vegetables that cnotent antioxidant conhent. The substance Natural weight loss also what gives watermelon its red color; but beyond its hue, lycopene is contenr good for you, too.

Meyer-Jax says it has been shown to decrease the risk of cancerheart disease, and age-related eye disorders. Lycopene works to protect your cells from damage, Sollid says, and research suggests that it may have blood pressure-lowering effects when consumed regularly through dietary means.

Watermelon contains a high water content and a small amount of fiber. Fiber adds bulk to your stool and keeps you regular, while water helps move waste through your digestive system. Choosing watermelon over another sweet snack can help you feel full longer, Meyer-Jax explains. Limited research published in the journal Nutrients in found that subjects who were considered overweight or clinically obese and ate watermelon instead of low-fat cookies experienced greater satiety, as an example.

Research shows that consuming foods with lycopene may reduce your risk for heart disease and stroke. A study published in the American Journal of Hypertension suggested a link between the fruit and heart disease, as research suggested watermelon extract may reduce blood pressure over a sustained period of time.

Chronic inflammation can raise your risk for certain diseases, including cancer, and research shows that lycopene has the potential to reduce inflammation and keep cancer cells from growing, which reduces your risk for the diseases.

Studies have highlighted that increasing your lycopene intake can reduce your risk for cancers of the digestive tract and prostate cancer. A specific combination of antioxidants, lycopene and vitamin C, found in watermelon can lower inflammation and oxidative damage over time, Derocha explains.

Inflammation can cause swelling, pain, or flushed skin for those experiencing it. And chronic inflammation can lead to serious conditions, including cancer, asthma, heart disease, and type 2 diabetes. Vitamin C boosts collagen production, which improves skin elasticity and blood flow to the skin.

And vitamin A helps repair skin cellspreventing dry, flaky skin, while vitamin B6 helps with skin breakouts. A small study published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry found that athletes who drank watermelon juice saw reduced muscle soreness for up to 24 hours.

The juice also helped lower their recovery heart rate. Although scientists need more concrete evidence to confirm the extent of this benefit, this link might push you to consider adding watermelon juice to your post-workout routine.

When eating fresh watermelon, most people stick to the red or pink flesh. But you can eat the rind and seeds, too, as they offer their own holistic health benefits.

Watermelon seeds, which can be eaten raw or dried, are rich in magnesium — which Derocha explains plays a key role in energy production, nerve function, DNA and protein synthesis, as well as blood pressure regulation.

They also contain folate, which can help your risk for cancer and depression. The seeds are good sources of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which guard against heart attack and stroke and lower levels of bad cholesterol in the blood.

Skip to Main Content. Text only Reset. News 11 Top Watermelon Health Benefits That Nutritionists Say Are Backed by Promising Research. By Good Housekeeping Magazine Nothing tastes like summer more than a crisp, juicy, refreshing slice of watermelon.

Watermelon Nutrition Facts According to the U. Department of Agriculture1 cup of watermelon g contains: Calories: What are the health benefits of watermelon?

: Watermelon lycopene content

Watermelon Nutrition Facts and Health Benefits Total flavonoid analysis The total flavonoid content of samples was measured using the colorimetric assay method [ 17 , 18 ]. Food Chemistry, , The maximum lycopene concentration obtained after heat treatment B BioProject: PRJNA RPKM of PI , sample DAP10, DAP18, DAP26, DAP34, DAP42, DAP The genes in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway perform through different action modes to regulate carotenoid accumulation and flesh color formation.
Lycopen’s Stability in Watermelon Juice (Citrullus lanatus) Regarding to Technological Routes CAPS loci were selected on each chromosome for primer design, and amplicons derived from the DNA of both parents and the F 1 generation were digested with restriction endonucleases. ABOUT About Us. Metrics details. Lycopene content and flesh color are important traits determined by a network of carotenoid metabolic pathways in watermelon. The flesh colors of the parental materials and the genetic populations are shown in Figure 1.
Lycopene Content in Foods (mg/100g)

As nutrition improved at the national level, the problems related to nutrient deficiency decreased; however, the western dietary pattern has caused nutritional imbalance to emerge, along with various chronic diseases, such as hypertension, cancer, and diabetes [ 1 ].

According to the report of the World Health Organization WHO , cancer is the cause of death for one in six individuals worldwide, with one of the five factors of carcinogenesis being low intake of fruits and vegetables [ 2 ]. Further, numerous epidemiological investigations have proved the effects of fruits and vegetables on preventing chronic diseases [ 3 , 4 ].

Tomato Solanum lycopersicum L. is an annual or perennial plant of the Solanaceae family. It is one of the widely consumed vegetables that is available both raw and in the form of various types of processed products, such as ketchup, juice, and sauce [ 5 , 6 ].

Korean tomato production increased from , tons in to , tons in , indicating an annual positive increase rate [ 7 ]. Watermelons, apricots, and guavas also contain lycopene. The lycopene in tomatoes showed a steep increase during the maturation process [ 10 ].

Watermelon Citrullus vulgaris is a representative summer fruit and a dicotyledoneae that belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family of the order Cucurbitales. The current major watermelon producers are the U. In South Korea, watermelon production in was approximately , tons [ 7 ].

The lycopene in watermelons is responsible for the red pulp, and it acts as the main phytochemical compound that effectively reduces oxidative stress [ 13 ]. Lycopene is one of the or more carotenoids that are found in nature.

In the past, the correlation between carotenoids and human health was limited to compounds such as, α-carotene and β-carotene, which contain the pro-vitamin A form. However, other carotenoids have known as key phytochemical compounds, and lycopene was especially found to cause the most prominent effect on human health [ 14 ].

Lycopene is a natural fat-soluble pigment that is synthesized by plants and microorganisms, but not by animals. Structurally, it is an acyclic carotenoid with a long sequence of 11 conjugated double bonds in all-trans forms, and approximately 72 geometrical isomers have been reported to exist [ 15 ].

In addition, unlike other carotenoids, the β-ionone ring structure is absent in lycopene, and thus pro-vitamin A activity is known to be low [ 11 , 14 ]. As of recent, no studies have estimated the Korean daily per capita intake of antioxidant compounds and activities, such as those of lycopene, that are present in tomatoes, watermelons, and their processed products.

Thus, the present study aimed to analyze the antioxidant compounds and activities with special emphasis on lycopene from tomatoes, watermelons, and their processed products.

The study also estimated the daily per capita consumption of each food product using the food intake data of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey KNHANES that was conducted by the Korea Disease Control Division in [ 16 ].

Then, based on the findings, the daily per capita intake values of lycopene and antioxidant compounds and activities of tomatoes, watermelons, and their processed products in Korea were estimated. The samples were purchased from local fruit markets and hypermarkets in the city of Cheonan, South Korea.

A total of 35 different types of samples were used, which include 4 types of common tomatoes, 4 types of cherry tomatoes, 15 types of watermelons, 8 types of tomato ketchup, and 4 types of tomato juice. Each product was labeled with a number to not disclose the name of the manufacturer.

In addition, the samples of tomato ketchup and tomato juice were stored according to the condition that was indicated in the product label for subsequent analysis. Afterwards, using a blender JB , Braun Co.

The supernatant was then filtered using Whatman 2 filter paper and concentrated using a rotary evaporator N, Eyela, Tokyo, Japan.

The total flavonoid content of samples was measured using the colorimetric assay method [ 17 , 18 ]. Briefly, 0. After vortexing, the mixture rested at room temperature for 5 min.

Next, 0. Finally, 2 mL of 1 N NaOH and 2. The total phenolic content of samples was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric assay method [ 17 , 18 ].

After adding 0. For each 1. A glass filter 3G3 was inserted to a glass vessel, and then using an aspirator AAA, Jeio Tech Co. Next, the glass filter was moved and fixed to another glass vessel, and then aspiration-filtration was implemented while benzene was added until the color of the filtrate turned transparent.

The filtrate was then transferred to a mL flask, and benzene was used as the sample solution after adjusting to a constant volume. The DPPH radical scavenging activity was measured using a modified method by Shin [ 18 ] and Brand-Williams et al.

Briefly, 2. Then, the homogenized mixture sat and reacted at room temperature in a dark place for 30 min. The ABTS radical scavenging activity of the extracted samples was measured using a modified method by Floegel et al.

Briefly, µL of ABTS solution were added to a mixture of 20 µL sample and deionized water. The homogenized mixture was then allowed to react at 37 °C for 10 min.

The daily intake values of tomatoes, watermelons, and their processed products were estimated using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey KNHANES VII-2 that was conducted by the Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention in [ 16 ].

The KNHANES consisted of a health survey, an examination survey, and a nutrition survey. The nutrition survey was conducted by visiting the target households, while the survey consisted of a dietary life survey, a food safety survey, a food intake frequency investigation, and a food intake investigation.

The food intake investigation examined all foods that were ingested by the subject during the previous day. The investigation was based on individual interviews, using the 24 h recall method. The investigation object of the KNHANES VII-2 that was used in this study recruited 10, subjects, among who 8, participated in at least one of the following three surveys: the health survey, examination survey, and nutrition survey, with an overall To estimate the daily per capita intake of lycopene and the antioxidant compounds and activities of tomatoes, watermelons, and their processed products, the results of the KNHANES and chemical analysis of the measured contents were used.

The calculations were based on the following equations:. C i indicates the daily per capita intake of tomatoes, watermelons, and their processed products based on raw data; F i indicates the total flavonoid content of tomatoes, watermelons, and their processed products.

C i indicates the daily per capita intake of tomatoes, watermelons, and their processed products based on raw data; P i indicates the total phenolic content of tomatoes, watermelons, and their processed products. C i indicates the daily per capita intake of tomatoes, watermelons, and their processed products based on raw data; L i indicates the lycopene content of tomatoes, watermelons, and their processed products.

C i indicates the daily per capita intake of tomatoes, watermelons, and their processed products based on raw data; D i indicates the level of DPPH radical scavenging activity of tomatoes, watermelons, and their processed products. C i indicates the daily per capita intake of tomatoes, watermelons, and their processed products based on raw data; A i indicates the level of ABTS radical scavenging activity of tomatoes, watermelons, and their processed products.

For statistical analysis, the SPSS 20 program SPSS Inc. The total flavonoid content of tomatoes, watermelons, and their processed products, is as presented in Table 1.

The total flavonoid content of tomatoes was measured to be between For tomato ketchup and tomato juice, the range was between 1, Compared to common tomatoes, the total flavonoid content of cherry tomatoes showed higher levels with significant differences. According to the study by Hallmann [ 24 ] on the bioactive compounds in different types of tomatoes, the total flavonoid content of cherry tomatoes was In addition, processed tomato products ketchup and juice showed 2—16 times higher flavonoid content compared to raw tomatoes.

This is because naringenin, which is a flavanone that is most abundant in tomatoes, increases during such processes as part of heat treatment [ 25 ]. In addition, according to a study by Tlili et al.

Not only in the case of watermelons, but also for raw tomatoes and processed tomato products, differences in total flavonoid content were shown according to the cultivar, country of origin, and manufacturer. This may be caused by the fact that each sample and product raw material differ in terms of the cultivar, country of origin, harvest period, and processing [ 27 , 28 ].

The total phenolic content of the products is as presented in Table 1. The total phenolic content of tomatoes was measured between For tomato ketchup and tomato juice, the range was between Tomato ketchup, compared to raw tomatoes, showed approximately 2.

According to a study by Gahler et al. Thus, in the case of tomato ketchup, various processing steps, such as heat treatment, have been found to increase the total phenolic content higher than in the case of raw tomatoes. In the case of tomato juice, on the other hand, the content was shown to be lower than that of raw tomatoes.

This pattern is believed to be due to the peeling process during the production of tomato juice, whereby the abundant phenolic compounds, such as rutin, rutin apioside, naringenin, and naringenin chalcone in the peel, are reduced [ 25 ].

However, according to Klopotek et al. This may be due to the loss of the anthocyanin component in strawberries by the heat that is provided during the sterilization processing step, which lowered the total phenolic content.

In addition, according to Nagal et al. The lycopene content of the products is presented in Table 1. The lycopene content of tomatoes was measured to be between For tomato ketchup, the range was According to Martinez-Valverde et al. In contrast, the lycopene content of tomatoes in Croatia was 1.

This may be due to the differences in the cultivar, maturity, and cultivation conditions with influence on the lycopene content of tomatoes.

Moreover, for tomato ketchup, the products across different brands showed significant differences. This is believed to be due to the differences in the content of tomato paste in each product, which influences the lycopene content.

Thus, tomato ketchup with high tomato paste content showed significantly higher lycopene content. On the other hand, the difference in lycopene content between raw tomatoes and processed tomato products is considered due to processing, such as sterilization [ 32 ].

In the case of tomatoes, lycopene synthesis was found to be suppressed by temperatures that are above 37 °C during the day throughout cultivation, whereas the temperature did not affect watermelons [ 34 ]. Thus, lycopene content in watermelons has been found to be influenced by maturity, soil fertility, and light intensity.

The DPPH radical scavenging activity values of the products are presented in Table 1. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of tomatoes was measured be within the range of According to Floegel et al.

The results of the present study indicate a similar trend for raw tomatoes, whereas a relatively lower level of content was demonstrated by tomato juice.

This may be due to differences in tomato paste content in tomato juice, product processing methods, and tomato cultivars. The ABTS radical scavenging activity values of the products are presented in Table 1.

The ABTS radical scavenging activity of tomatoes were found to be within the range of Floegel et al. Table 2 presents the data that were obtained from analyzing the KNHANES VII-2 data regarding the daily per capita intake of the products in Korea [ 16 ]. The daily per capita intake of the products, according to gender and age, are presented in Table 3.

Analyzing the intake according to gender showed that the daily per capita intake was higher in males than in females in terms of total consumption of watermelons, tomato ketchup, and juice, but not raw tomatoes.

In addition, analyzing the intake according to age showed that the intake of raw tomatoes in male and female who were aged 30 or above was approximately The intake of raw tomatoes was relatively lower in male and female who were aged below In contrast, for tomato ketchup, the intake in males and females who were aged below 30 was approximately According to a study on the daily intake of tomatoes and tomato ketchup in Greece, the intake was The daily per capita intake of raw tomatoes was higher than that of processed tomato products, which is similar to out result [ 36 ].

The estimation of the daily per capita intake of antioxidant compounds from the products Table 3 , was based on the daily per capita consumption of the products, as calculated using the KNHANES VII-2 data [ 16 ] Table 2 , and the quantitative analysis results of antioxidant compounds in the products Table 1.

The daily per capita intake values of total flavonoids from tomatoes, watermelons, tomato ketchup and juice were found to be 4. For raw tomatoes, the total flavonoid content was lower than that of tomato ketchup Table 1 ; however, the daily per capita intake of total flavonoids was significantly higher Table 3.

This was found to be due to the markedly higher daily intake of raw tomatoes than that of tomato ketchup with its contribution to the relatively high daily per capita total flavonoid content.

In addition, for tomato ketchup, the daily per capita intake of total flavonoids based on gender was 4. Although the total flavonoid content of each product was the same, the difference in the intake resulted in the gender differences.

Based on the results, the daily per capita total flavonoid intake is likely to be largely influenced by the daily per capita intake, rather than the antioxidant content of each product. The daily per capita intake values of total phenolics from the products were found to be the highest for raw tomatoes 7.

According to Chun et al. The total phenolic intake in the U. is approximately 3. The estimated daily intakes of lycopene from the Korean diet according to gender and age are presented in Fig. Additionally, Table 4 indicates that males and females between the ages of 1—11 consumed high levels of lycopene.

It is assumed that this is due to their relatively low body weight compared to the lycopene intake of 1—11 children. Consequently, the average estimated daily intake of lycopene is 0.

There was an increasing trend by age, with the highest intake of 2. In the same way, females also showed a similar tendency to males, with the highest intake of 2. After 65 years old, the tendency has dropped down. Table 5 shows estimated daily intake of lycopene in some countries from representative references [ 33 , 37 , 38 , 39 , 40 , 41 , 42 , 43 , 44 , 45 , 46 ].

However, the comparison with these crude data should be considered carefully because the sample size and methodology differ between studies.

When comparing the lycopene intake of the Korean population with that of populations in other countries, it was observed that the intake in Korean is still low comparing to USA The differences between countries may be related to various dietary habits, the quality of the food composition used and the variation of lycopene content within foods.

Males consumed Females consumed Overall, the total average composition of lycopene was The assessment of the data reveals that the dominant source of lycopene for intake by people is raw tomato.

The ABTS radical scavenging activity result also reveals a similar trend. This is believed to be due to the difference in the daily per capita tomato intake. In addition, the daily per capita intake values of antioxidant activities by ABTS method in males and females, regarding raw tomato intake, were 7.

This finding suggests that the higher daily per capita intake of antioxidant activities in women is due to the markedly higher daily raw tomato intake. It has thus been found that the daily per capita intake of antioxidant activities is influenced by the daily intake of each product.

In conclusion, tomatoes, watermelons, and processed tomato products ketchup and juice contain an abundance of different antioxidant compounds, including lycopene. For high-level intake of antioxidant compounds and activities from each product, the intake of the product itself should be increased.

However, the daily per capita intake of the products in Korea is considerably low, compared to the U. Thus, an adequate intake of lycopene-rich products is recommended. This study is highly significant in that it involves the estimation of the daily per capita intake of antioxidant compounds including lycopene, and antioxidant activities in Korea, based on the data on the intake of tomatoes, watermelons, and their processed products, as drawn from the quantitative analysis of each product and the KNHANES data.

The datasets used and analyzed in this study are available from the corresponding authors on reasonable request. Kwon JH, Shim JE, Park MK Paik HY Evaluation of fruit and vegetables intake for prevention of chronic disease in Korean adults aged 30 years and over: Using the third Korea national health and nutrition examination survey KNHANES III.

Korean J Nutr 42 2 — Google Scholar. WHO World Health Organization. Cancer fact sheet, Accessed 12 Sept Engelhard YN, Gazer B, Paren E Natural antioxidants from tomato extract reduce blood pressure in patients with grade-1 hypertension: A double blind, placebo-controlled pilot study.

J Am Heart Assoc 1 :1—6. Lenucci MS, Cadinu D, Taurino M, Piro G, Dalessandro G Antioxidant composition in cherry and high-pigment tomato cultivars.

J Agric Food Chem 54 7 — CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Frusciante L, Carli P, Ercolano MR, Pemice R, Di-Matteo A, Fogliano V, Pellegrini N Antioxidant nutritional quality of tomato. Mol Nutr Food Res 51 5 — Kamiloglu S, Demirci M, Selen S, Toydemir G, Boyacioglu D, Capanoglu E Home processing of tomatoes Solanum lycopersicum : effects on in vitro bioaccessibility of total lycopene, phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity.

J Sci Food Agric 94 11 — FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. FAOSTAT, Production, Accessed 18 Jan Bohm F, Edge R, Burke M, Truscott TG Dietary uptake of lycopene protects human cells from singlet oxygen and nitrogen dioxide-ROS components from cigarette smoke.

J Photochem Photobiol B: Biol 64 2—3 — CAS Google Scholar. Nguyen ML, Schwartz SJ Lycopene: chemical and biological properties. Food Technol 53 2 — Singh P, Goyal GK Dietary lycopene: Its properties and anticarcinogenic effects. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 7 3 — Naz A, Butt MS, Pasha I, Nawaz H Antioxidant indices of watermelon juice and lycopene extract.

Pak J Nutr — Tlili I, Hdider C, Lenucci MS, Ilahy R, Jebari H, Dalessandro G Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities during fruit ripening of watermelon cultivars.

J Food Comps Anal 24 7 — The Center for Disease Control CDC says that daily fluid intake total water is defined as the amount of water consumed from foods, plain drinking water, and other beverages.

What you eat also provides a significant portion. For example, many fruits and vegetables, such as watermelon and spinach, are almost percent water by weight.

Every cell, tissue and organ in your body needs water to work properly. Even mild dehydration can drain your energy and make you tired.

Every day you lose water through your breath, perspiration, urine and bowel movements. For your body to function properly, you must replenish its water supply by consuming beverages and foods that contain water. Watermelon provides about USDA Food Composition Database. Some observational studies have shown an association between a diet rich in the antioxidant lycopene, as well as those using supplemental lycopene and reduced risk of some types of cancer, including breast , prostate and lung cancers.

However, thus far, research results are inconsistent in these areas and randomized controlled trials have not demonstrated a benefit to consuming lycopene from food or supplements.

However, there is a large and growing body of research Into the mechanistic and dose-relational effects of lycopene consumption. Although more research and clinical trials are needed, systematic reviews and meta-analyses link the consumption ofcarotenoids, like lycopene, to a role in maintaining healthy skin.

Sign up here to receive the monthly What About Watermelon? enewsletter with seasonal tips, tricks and recipes. The Board provides this link as a convenience to you; the link should not be considered an endorsement by the Board of the third-party website or the company who owns it.

The Board is not responsible for the quality, safety, completeness, accuracy or nature of the content of the linked website. To return to www. org, simply close the new browser window. Scroll for More. Heart Happy. Promising, But Preliminary Exciting new areas of study suggest that an amino acid called L-citrulline mg per 2 cup serving in watermelon may help to support vascular health and help maintain healthy blood flow.

Go red! Nutrient Dense. Sweet Relief. A Bite of Hydration. Why WATER melon? Your body depends on water to survive.

Watermelon’s Benefits

com, the largest online nutrition network run by registered dietitians. Her work has appeared in major national publications, and she is a regularly featured nutrition expert for media outlets across the country.

The Huffington Post named her one of its Top 20 Nutrition Experts on Twitter. cancer , lycopene , prostate , prostate cancer , tomatoes , watermelon. Health Benefits of Coffee. Milk May Contribute to Acne.

Notify me via e-mail if anyone answers my comment. Like our content? Sign up and receive a free shopping guide and the first chapter of the GoUndiet Book via email! Read GoUnDiet. HealthCastle Nutrition Inc. Home Health Good Source of Lycopene — Tomatoes and Watermelon. Written By: Gloria Tsang, RD Title: Founding Registered Dietitian.

Lycopene in Tomatoes and Prostate Cancer In a study of over 40, health professionals, Harvard investigators found that men who ate more than 10 servings tomato-based foods daily like cooked tomatoes and tomato sauce, had a 35 percent lower risk of developing prostate cancer than those who ate the least amount of these foods.

Gloria Tsang, RD. TAKE THE POLL! Do you eat breakfast? Rarely or never buy organic. Consider organic for specific items. Exclusively organic. Choose organic when available. Vote Now! Watermelon is also rich in potassium, which works to lower blood pressure and supports nerve functioning, and vitamin B6, which helps the body break down the proteins that you eat and also boosts the immune system and nerve function.

Lycopene is a natural compound found in watermelon and other fruits and vegetables that has antioxidant properties. The substance is also what gives watermelon its red color; but beyond its hue, lycopene is also good for you, too. Meyer-Jax says it has been shown to decrease the risk of cancer , heart disease, and age-related eye disorders.

Lycopene works to protect your cells from damage, Sollid says, and research suggests that it may have blood pressure-lowering effects when consumed regularly through dietary means. Watermelon contains a high water content and a small amount of fiber.

Fiber adds bulk to your stool and keeps you regular, while water helps move waste through your digestive system. Choosing watermelon over another sweet snack can help you feel full longer, Meyer-Jax explains.

Limited research published in the journal Nutrients in found that subjects who were considered overweight or clinically obese and ate watermelon instead of low-fat cookies experienced greater satiety, as an example. Research shows that consuming foods with lycopene may reduce your risk for heart disease and stroke.

A study published in the American Journal of Hypertension suggested a link between the fruit and heart disease, as research suggested watermelon extract may reduce blood pressure over a sustained period of time. Chronic inflammation can raise your risk for certain diseases, including cancer, and research shows that lycopene has the potential to reduce inflammation and keep cancer cells from growing, which reduces your risk for the diseases.

Studies have highlighted that increasing your lycopene intake can reduce your risk for cancers of the digestive tract and prostate cancer. A specific combination of antioxidants, lycopene and vitamin C, found in watermelon can lower inflammation and oxidative damage over time, Derocha explains.

Inflammation can cause swelling, pain, or flushed skin for those experiencing it. The researchers used tristimulus colorimeter readings to measure visible colour in the cut melons and compared the findings to the amounts of lycopene extracted from the melons.

Lycopene content varied widely among cultivars and types, but the seedless ones tended to have more. Results showed that watermelon has as much, or more lycopene as raw tomatoes and that the amount depends on both variety and growing conditions. The ARS also assessed bioavailability of lycopene in watermelons in a study begun last year on 23 healthy adults.

The scientists used tomato juice as the known benchmark for judging the relative bioavailability of lycopene. The investigators found that lycopene concentration was similar regardless of whether subjects consumed 20 milligrams of lycopene from tomato juice or from watermelon juice, which was not heat-processed.

The investigators had expected lycopene availability to be greater from tomato juice because it had received heat treatment, which is believed to improve lycopene bioavailability.

Watermelon also contains the vitamins A, B6, C and thiamin.

Highly prized Wxtermelon consumers, watermelon Watermeloon rich in water, but Watermeoon in micronutrients including lycopene, cotent responsible for the red color. It is also a powerful antioxidant which has many virtues including Watermelon lycopene content prevention contetn treatment Natural weight loss lycopenr diseases. The transformation into nectar of watermelons combined with treatment could cause several modifications including the alteration of coloring. It is in this context that this study focuses on the variation of the lycopene content in nectars. Thus, nectars of 12 ° Brix and 15 ° Brix were prepared from three varieties of watermelon Sugar Baby, Crimson Sweet and Charleston Gray. The results obtained showed that the Sugar Baby variety is richer in lycopene

Watermelon lycopene content -

Red tomato is also a high-lycopene-content plant, which reportedly undergoes pigment development similar to that of watermelon Grassi et al. The genes in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway perform through different action modes to regulate carotenoid accumulation and flesh color formation.

Some genes affect pigments at the level of the transcriptome, such as the phytoene synthase PSY gene, which showed significantly different expression between red- and white-fleshed watermelon accessions Grassi et al.

On the other hand, some genes did not show significant differences in expression among fruits with different flesh colors but still exhibited carotenoid accumulation variance based on enzyme activity; for example, the CmOr and BoOr genes acted as the main functional genes for β-carotene accumulation in melon and cauliflower Lu et al.

By performing stepwise increases in mapping population sizes, marker numbers, and multiple genetic populations, a major effective QTL and candidate gene related to lycopene content and red flesh color was refined in a narrow region of chromosome 4. The two trait-related QTLs shared the same region, and the red flesh color gave a high correlation with the lycopene content in the F 2 generation for Pop.

Based on the preliminary mapping information, new CAPS markers were developed to narrow down the region from , bp to 41, bp.

To verify the stability of the QTL we identified, Pop. The same QTL region and markers showed a high detection efficacy for red flesh color or lycopene content in the two populations through linkage analysis and MAS.

In this study, Cla seemed to be the best candidate gene for lycopene accumulation and red flesh color formation. A nonsynonymous substitution arose from one SNP variation between COS and LSW at the th position in the LCYB gene, and this variation could also be detected in another 20 watermelon sequences.

We also performed a transcriptome analysis of COS and LSW at different time points throughout the whole growth period with the RNA of pulp, the expression level of Cla was not the main reason for red and nonred flesh color formation.

The results of our transcriptome analysis were also supported by other research showing that the expression difference in the LCYB gene was among red and nonred watermelon and pumpkin Kang et al. This might indicate that the accumulation of lycopene was not dependent on the expression of LCYB.

It was also likely that the difference in protein levels or functionality may regulate the color of the fruit Wang et al. This seemed contradictory when we combined the results of QTL mapping and transcriptome analysis. In liverwort, the results of functional identification also proved that the LCYB gene had a lycopene degradation capability to produce β-carotene at the enzyme activity level Takemura et al.

It is reasonable to speculate that LCYB may regulate lycopene metabolism through protein level. The nonsynonymous SNP locus in Cla in the th coding region Figure 5 and Figure S3 may be the key site causing the change in enzyme activity, which may still need further investigation.

Although the red flesh color or lycopene content trait was recessive to the pale yellow and white flesh colors, some mixed color individuals still had lycopene accumulation in their mature fruits.

This suggested the existence of some other loci acting as regulatory factors or functional genes in addition to the LCYB gene, which affected the lycopene accumulation in watermelon.

Flanking markers with small mapping intervals have the potential to increase MAS efficacy by reducing errors during selection. Two kinds of assisted selection markers for red flesh color in watermelon were generated by Bang et al. According to our results, the CAPS marker WII04EBsaHI-6 and Phe shared the same location, and we also implemented a forward genetics strategy to demonstrate the significance of LCYB in lycopene accumulation in watermelon red to nonred.

Restriction enzyme digestion of W04EII , WII04EKpnI-1 , and WII04E Mlu I, Kpn I, and Mbo II was more cost-effective than that of WII04EBsaHI-6 and Phe BsaH I.

For other flesh colors, digestion was still weak according to a previous study. In our research, we developed two CAPS markers that cosegregated with yellowish flesh color both in the individuals of the genetic population and those in the natural panel. Two yellowish, three white, and one pink-fleshed watermelon accessions did not match with the MAS results, and the sequence comparison also showed that PI had a white flesh color but was encoded by the same LCYB sequence as that of the red accessions.

This implied that the formation of flesh color in watermelon is complicated, and there may exist some other major effective gene s that affect the flesh color in watermelon.

The amount of pigment accumulation led to varying degrees of watermelon flesh color exhibited in one color system, such as pink to red and pale yellow to canary yellow.

In our research, different shades of flesh color in one color system validate the same MAS results. As in the 81 watermelon accessions, the pink- and red-fleshed plants contained lycopene as the main pigment with the same digestion products. Based on these results, we speculated that the main effective genes could determine the formation of the red color system pink gradually changing to red and the yellow color system from pale yellow to canary yellow.

However, for each color system, other genes may regulate the amount of pigment accumulation to direct the formation of different shades of flesh color. The raw data supporting the conclusions of this article will be made available by the authors, without undue reservation, to any qualified researcher.

CW, LS, and FL conceived and designed the experiments. AQ, XF, SL, and PG performed the field experiments. WC performed the data analysis and wrote the manuscript. AD offered the germplasm.

All authors read and approved the final manuscript. It is worth noting that CW and AQ are co—first authors. This research was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program YFD The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Figure S1 Genetic linkage map with the F 2 generation plants derived from a cross between LSW and COS.

The shaded area on linkage group 4 indicates the location of QTLs associated with red flesh color traits LCYB4. Figure S2 Genetic linkage map with the F 2 generation plants derived from a cross between garden female and PI The shaded area on linkage group 4 indicates the location of QTLs associated with red flesh color trait.

Figure S3 The sequence alignment of LCYB gene with 24 watermelon accessions. Figure S4 Marker analysis for red, yellowish and white flesh color watermelon accessions using CAPS marker WII04EBsaHI-6 and WII04E Supplementary Figure S4a was the genotyping results of CAPS markers WII04EBsaHI-6 ; figure S4b was the genotyping results of CAPS markers WII04E For each color group, five representative watermelon accession MAS results were displayed in Supplementary Fig S4.

Lane 1, 7, 13, 19 and 25 is the D plus DNA marker. From the top to the bottom was 5,, 3,, 2,, 1,, , , , bp fragments, respectively. From lane 2 to 6 are five red flesh color watermelon accessions; from lane 8 to 12 are five yellowish flesh color watermelon accessions; from lane 14 to 18 are five pink flesh color watermelon accessions; from lane 20 to 24 are five white flesh color watermelon accessions.

Figure S5 Marker analysis for red, yellowish and white flesh color watermelon accessions using CAPS marker WII04EKpnI-1 and WII04E Supplementary Figure S5a is the genotyping results of CAPS markers WII04EKpnI-1 ; Figure S5b is the genotyping results of CAPS markers WII04E For each color group, five representative watermelon accessions MAS results are displayed in Figure S5.

Lane 1, 7, 13, 19 and 25 are the D plus DNA marker. From the top to the bottom are 5,, 3,, 2,, 1,, , , , bp fragments, respectively.

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Food Chem. Mortensen, A. Comparative mechanisms and rates of free radical scavenging by carotenoid antioxidants. FEBS Lett. Meng, L. QTL IciMapping: integrated software for genetic linkage map construction and quantitative trait locus mapping in biparental populations. Crop J. Vitamin C strengthens your immune system and helps the body absorb iron, Derocha says, while vitamin A is crucial for skin and eye health.

Watermelon is also rich in potassium, which works to lower blood pressure and supports nerve functioning, and vitamin B6, which helps the body break down the proteins that you eat and also boosts the immune system and nerve function.

Lycopene is a natural compound found in watermelon and other fruits and vegetables that has antioxidant properties. The substance is also what gives watermelon its red color; but beyond its hue, lycopene is also good for you, too.

Meyer-Jax says it has been shown to decrease the risk of cancer , heart disease, and age-related eye disorders. Lycopene works to protect your cells from damage, Sollid says, and research suggests that it may have blood pressure-lowering effects when consumed regularly through dietary means.

Watermelon contains a high water content and a small amount of fiber. Fiber adds bulk to your stool and keeps you regular, while water helps move waste through your digestive system. Choosing watermelon over another sweet snack can help you feel full longer, Meyer-Jax explains.

Limited research published in the journal Nutrients in found that subjects who were considered overweight or clinically obese and ate watermelon instead of low-fat cookies experienced greater satiety, as an example.

Research shows that consuming foods with lycopene may reduce your risk for heart disease and stroke. A study published in the American Journal of Hypertension suggested a link between the fruit and heart disease, as research suggested watermelon extract may reduce blood pressure over a sustained period of time.

Chronic inflammation can raise your risk for certain diseases, including cancer, and research shows that lycopene has the potential to reduce inflammation and keep cancer cells from growing, which reduces your risk for the diseases.

Studies have highlighted that increasing your lycopene intake can reduce your risk for cancers of the digestive tract and prostate cancer. A specific combination of antioxidants, lycopene and vitamin C, found in watermelon can lower inflammation and oxidative damage over time, Derocha explains.

Lycopene is an antioxidant linked to decreased risk of cancer, heart disease and age-related eye disorders. Vitamin A is important for skin and eye health. Vitamin B6 helps your body break down the protein you eat, and is also important for the immune system and nerve function. Vitamin C helps strengthen the immune system and aids in the absorption of iron.

Potassium is helpful in lowering blood pressure and is important for nerve function as well. No wonder it's the most common melon eaten in America and is perfect for staying refreshed and hydrated on a hot summer day.

When choosing a watermelon, look for one that is firm, symmetrical and heavy for its size. There should be a yellow spot on the underside as the result of sitting on the ground and ripening in the sun.

Lycopene content and flesh color Watdrmelon important traits determined contetn a network ckntent carotenoid metabolic pathways in watermelon. Wattermelon Watermelon lycopene content Antiviral natural virus fighters previous study lycopend genetic inheritance and initial mapping Natural weight loss F 2 populations of Lhcopene red flesh × cream lycopne Saskatchewan Fitness yellow flesh Natural weight loss, red flesh color was controlled by cntent recessive gene Wayermelon red and pale yellow Natural weight loss, and a candidate region related to lycopene content was detected spanning a ,bp region on chromosome 4. To obtain a more precise result for further study, three genetic populations and a natural panel of 81 watermelon accessions with different flesh colors were used in this research. Herein, we narrowed the preliminary mapping region to 41, bp with the linkage map generated from F 2 populations of LSW red flesh × cream of Saskatchewan pale yellow flesh with 1, individuals. Two candidate genes, Cla and Clawere found in the fine mapping region; therein Cla was a key locus annotated as a lycopene β-cyclase gene. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that Cla was the closest relative gene in gourd.

Author: Moogusho

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