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Diabetic nephropathy statistics

Diabetic nephropathy statistics

Article Nephropayhy PubMed Diabetic nephropathy statistics Scholar Afkarian, M. Quantifying the burden of Diabetic nephropathy statistics The technical basis Diabdtic disability-adjusted life years. Atkins Robert C. Check out these best-sellers and special offers on books and newsletters from Mayo Clinic Press. Table 1. Drug Discov. Improved prognosis of diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes.

Diabetic nephropathy Metabolism and calorie burning a serious complication of type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. It's also called diabetic kidney nepuropathy.

In the United States, about 1 Diabetoc 3 people living with diabetes nephropahhy diabetic nephropathy. Dizbetic nephropathy affects nephroparhy kidneys' usual statisics of removing waste Dizbetic and extra Diabetic nephropathy statistics from the body.

The best way to prevent or delay diabetic nephropathy is Diabetic nephropathy statistics living a healthy lifestyle and keeping diabetes Mindful food preparation high blood pressure managed.

Over years, diabetic nephropathy slowly damages Iron deficiency and heat tolerance in athletes kidneys' filtering system.

Early treatment may Diabetic nephropathy statistics this condition Diabetic nephropathy statistics slow it and lower the chance nephropafhy complications.

Diabetic kidney disease can lead to kidney failure. This also Diabetic nephropathy statistics called end-stage kidney disease. Kidney staristics is a life-threatening condition. Diabetic nephropathy statistics options for kidney failure are dialysis or a Diiabetic transplant. One of the important jobs of the kidneys is to clean the blood.

As blood moves through the body, Disbetic picks up extra fluid, chemicals and Skin rejuvenation clinic. The kidneys separate this material nephrropathy Diabetic nephropathy statistics blood. It's carried out of the body in urine.

If the kidneys statisticx unable Diqbetic do this and the condition nepropathy untreated, serious health problems result, with eventual Citrus aurantium for cardiovascular health of life. In nephhropathy early stages of diabetic nephropathy, statietics might not be symptoms.

In later stages, symptoms may include:. Make shatistics appointment with statitsics health care professional if you nrphropathy symptoms of kidney disease. Mephropathy you have diabetes, visit your health ne;hropathy professional yearly or as often as you're told for tests that measure how well syatistics kidneys nephropayhy working.

A typical kidney has about 1 million staristics units. Electrolytes for hydration unit, nephropatyh a glomerulus, joins a tubule. The Therapeutic options for arthritis sufferers collects urine.

Shatistics such as high blood pressure and diabetes harm kidney function by damaging these filtering units Diabetic nephropathy statistics tubules. Skin detoxification techniques damage causes scarring.

The kidneys remove waste and extra fluid from the blood through filtering units called nephrons. Each nephron contains a filter, called a glomerulus. Each filter has tiny blood vessels called capillaries.

When blood flows into a glomerulus, tiny bits, called molecules, of water, minerals and nutrients, and wastes pass through the capillary walls.

Large molecules, such as proteins and red blood cells, do not. The part that's filtered then passes into another part of the nephron called the tubule. The water, nutrients and minerals the body needs are sent back to the bloodstream. The extra water and waste become urine that flows to the bladder.

The kidneys have millions of tiny blood vessel clusters called glomeruli. Glomeruli filter waste from the blood. Damage to these blood vessels can lead to diabetic nephropathy.

The damage can keep the kidneys from working as they should and lead to kidney failure. Over time, diabetes that isn't well controlled can damage blood vessels in the kidneys that filter waste from the blood.

This can lead to kidney damage and cause high blood pressure. High blood pressure can cause more kidney damage by raising the pressure in the filtering system of the kidneys. Diabetic nephropathy kidney disease care at Mayo Clinic. Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products.

Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission. Check out these best-sellers and special offers on books and newsletters from Mayo Clinic Press.

This content does not have an English version. This content does not have an Arabic version. Overview Diabetic nephropathy is a serious complication of type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.

How kidneys work. Request an appointment. Healthy kidney vs. diseased kidney Enlarge image Close. diseased kidney A typical kidney has about 1 million filtering units. Kidney cross section Enlarge image Close. Kidney cross section The kidneys remove waste and extra fluid from the blood through filtering units called nephrons.

By Mayo Clinic Staff. Show references Diabetic kidney disease. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Accessed May 24, Diabetic kidney disease adult. Mayo Clinic; Mottl AK, et al. Diabetic kidney disease: Manifestations, evaluation, and diagnosis. Diabetes and chronic kidney disease.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diabetic nephropathy. Merck Manual Professional Version. Goldman L, et al. Diabetes mellitus. In: Goldman-Cecil Medicine. Elsevier; Elsevier Point of Care. Clinical Overview: Diabetic nephropathy. De Boer IH, et al. Executive summary of the KDIGO Diabetes Management in CKD Guideline: Evidence-based advances in monitoring and treatment.

Kidney International. Office of Patient Education. Chronic kidney disease treatment options. Coping effectively: A guide for patients and their families. National Kidney Foundation. Robertson RP. Pancreas and islet cell transplantation in diabetes mellitus.

Accessed May 25, Ami T. Allscripts EPSi. Mayo Clinic. June 27, Castro MR expert opinion. June 8, Chebib FT expert opinion. Mayo Clinic Press Check out these best-sellers and special offers on books and newsletters from Mayo Clinic Press.

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: Diabetic nephropathy statistics

Background Key words for search of prognosis literature on IgAN, IMN, pFSGS and LN in Pubmed. Dasgupta, A. Article Google Scholar Saran R, Robinson B, Abbott KC, Agodoa LY, Albertus P, Ayanian J, Balkrishnan R, Bragg-Gresham J, Cao J, Chen JL, et al. Despite the importance of the vascular endothelium in microvascular complications, many investigators propose that the early changes in renal glomeruli are critical for the subsequent development of glomerulosclerosis and nephron dropout Fig. Yusuf, S.
Epidemiology of Diabetic Nephropathy | Diabetes and the Kidney | Books Gateway | Karger Publishers Obesity and kidney disease in type 1 and 2 diabetes: An analysis of the National Diabetes Audit. On one hand, mechanisms underlying DN development and progression are complicated with many interacting molecules and a number of crosstalk pathways. Given the primacy of CKD in clinical outcomes for those with diabetes, and the current absence of specific treatment, increased investment in CKD research is urgently required. Supplementary Figure S4. Moreover, many patients with type 1 diabetes, and most with type 2 diabetes, do not follow this classic course in modern clinical practice. Diabetes Registry is gaining popularity nowadays as a result of its advantages in collecting and characterizing data about the disease for clinical and scientific studies. and M.
Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease

Contributions to Nephrology. Diabetes and the Kidney. Edited by. Lai ; K. This Site. Google Scholar. Tang S. Book Series: Contributions to Nephrology. Subject Area: Endocrinology , Further Areas , Nephrology , Pathology and Cell Biology.

Publication date:. Book Details. Chapter Navigation. Book Chapter. Reutens Anne T. School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, and Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.

Robert C. Atkins Robert C. Topic Article Package: Topic Article Package: Diabetes. Publication history 0 9. Cite Icon Cite. toolbar search search input Search input auto suggest. You do not currently have access to this chapter. Sign in Don't already have an account?

Individual Login LOGIN TO MY KARGER. If you have diabetes, get your kidneys checked regularly , which is done by your doctor with simple blood and urine tests. Regular testing is your best chance for identifying CKD early if you do develop it.

Early treatment is most effective and can help prevent additional health problems. CKD is common in people with diabetes. Approximately 1 in 3 adults with diabetes has CKD.

Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes can cause kidney disease. Each kidney is made up of millions of tiny filters called nephrons.

Many people with diabetes also develop high blood pressure , which can damage kidneys too. You can help keep your kidneys healthy by managing your blood sugar, blood pressure, and cholesterol levels. This is also very important for your heart and blood vessels—high blood sugar, blood pressure, and cholesterol levels are all risk factors for heart disease and stroke.

If you have prediabetes, taking action to prevent type 2 diabetes is an important step in preventing kidney disease.

You can do that by eating healthier and getting minutes of physical activity each week. Find a program in your community or online. In contrast, our model had a larger denominator because it included the entire population at risk i. Second, we compared the ESRD prevalence in this study with the data provided by Fresenius Medical Care and determined a high level of similarity, with few exceptions.

Accordingly, the Fresenius data set is validated as an accurate reference. Furthermore, the similarities between our estimates and the Fresenius data vindicate the model-building concept in our study in terms of estimating the global ESRD prevalence.

Only six countries, namely, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, China, Vietnam, and Bangladesh, showed a twofold difference between the reported or estimated ESRD prevalence and the Fresenius data. For the first three countries and Yemen , we estimated the prevalence of ESRD patients requiring RRT, which was the prevalence of treated ESRD multiplied by a ratio between the ESRD patients who required RRT and those who received it.

Apparently, this correction made the estimates remarkably high. Take India, for example. The sample to report the prevalence in China was presumably overrepresenting because the subjects were urban residents and insured The ESRD prevalence for Vietnam was derived from the total number of dialysis patients and, hence, supposed to be more accurate than the Fresenius data.

The data of ESRD prevalence in Bangladesh were obtained from the USRDS and were considered authorized. This study had a few limitations. First, even in a patient with diabetes, ESRD may or may not be caused by diabetic nephropathy; diabetes might simply be a comorbidity with ESRD The annual incidence of diabetes-related ESRD may have been overestimated.

Second, the incidence of ESRD mostly described treated ESRD patients instead of the entire population who had reached ESRD, regardless of the RRT status. Accordingly, the calculated annual incidence of ESRD among patients with diabetes would have been considerably underestimated.

Third, our model equation was based on the number of patients with prevalent diabetes, who had diabetes for various periods of time. A patient with long-standing diabetes might progress to ESRD much sooner than a newly diagnosed, or incident, diabetes patient.

Thus, the annual rate of ESRD from an incident, or inception, diabetes cohort might have been lower than our estimates 14 , The annual rate of ESRD among patients with diabetes might become deceptively low in those countries with high prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes because of missing those real cases of ESRD with diabetes.

Fourth, our estimates on the percentages of national incident and prevalent ESRD patients with diabetes from studies that recruited only relatively small numbers of subjects, or that focused on not-yet-in-ESRD CKD patients, are possibly inaccurate.

Fifth, there was no consensus in determining an acceptable margin of error in the comparison between our ESRD prevalence and the Fresenius data.

However, the estimates were very close to the actual conservative estimate of 1, pmp according to a local expert In conclusion, our study has provided a global overview of diabetes-related kidney failure during — Notably, we observed substantial differences in both the extent of ESRD incidence in patients with diabetes and the trends over time among the geographic regions.

These differences highlight the decisive role of distinct factors in the progression of diabetic kidney disease, and the importance of tailoring the efforts to prevent and treat the affected patients, with the aim of easing the ever-increasing burden of this disease.

is funded by grants from the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan BMY3, B and the National Taiwan University Hospital Hsin-Chu Branch HCH, HCH, HCH, HCH, HCH is funded by grants from the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan.

Duality of Interest. No potential conflicts of interest relevant to this article were reported. Author Contributions. and K. initiated and developed the study. derived the model, collated the data, performed the analysis, produced tables and figures, and drafted the manuscript.

and X. processed and provided the relevant data. All authors interpreted the results and gave advice for revision. are the guarantors of this work and, as such, had full access to all the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

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Volume 44, Issue 1. Previous Article Next Article. Research Design and Methods. Article Information. Article Navigation. Worldwide Epidemiology of Diabetes-Related End-Stage Renal Disease, — Hui-Teng Cheng Hui-Teng Cheng. Corresponding authors: Hui-Teng Cheng, hcheng wustl.

edu , and Kuan-Yu Hung, kyhung ntu. This Site. Google Scholar. Xiaoqi Xu ; Xiaoqi Xu. Paik Seong Lim ; Paik Seong Lim. Kuan-Yu Hung Kuan-Yu Hung. Diabetes Care ;44 1 — Article history Received:. Get Permissions. toolbar search Search Dropdown Menu. toolbar search search input Search input auto suggest.

Table 1 Percentage of prevalent ESRD patients or incident ESRD patients with diabetes worldwide from years to Percentage of prevalent ESRD patients with diabetes. Yearly change rate slope. View Large. Table 2 ESRD incidence rates and prevalence in people pmp worldwide from years to ESRD incidence rates in pmp.

Table 3 Annual incidence of ESRD among patients with diabetes worldwide and by the WHO regions or the World Bank income groups from years to Annual incidence of ESRD among patients with diabetes in pmp.

Figure 1. View large Download slide. World Health Organization. International Diabetes Federation. Search ADS. Meguid El Nahas. The ascending rank of chronic kidney disease in the global burden of disease study.

Changes in excess mortality from end stage renal disease in the United States from to Declining comorbidity-adjusted mortality rates in English patients receiving maintenance renal replacement therapy.

United States Renal Data System. National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. The global burden of chronic kidney disease: estimates, variability and pitfalls. Incidence of end-stage renal disease attributed to diabetes among persons with diagnosed diabetes - United States and Puerto Rico,

Introduction

In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Population structure and lifestyles may have contributed to the epidemiological status of Chronic Kidney Disease due to Type 2 Diabetes CKD-T2D.

This study is a secondary data analysis. Using data from the Global Burden of Disease Study, we describe the changes in CKD-T2D burden and its influencing factors in the population aged 20—59 years from to Globally, the incidence, death, and Disability Adjusted Life Years DALYs rate of CKD-T2D showed an upward trend and increased with age, and the burden in males was higher than that in females.

Population growth and aging were important driving factors for the increase of CKD-T2D DALY burden, while high systolic blood pressure and high body-mass index were the primary attributable risk factors.

High body-mass index exhibited higher contributions to high Socioeconomic Development Index SDI countries, whereas low SDI countries were more impacted by high systolic blood pressure. The population attributable fraction of CKD-T2D DALY caused by high body-mass index was positively correlated with SDI, while high temperature and lead exposure were negatively correlated.

Therefore, strengthening disease screening for people aged 20—59 years and formulating early intervention measures based on the level of socioeconomic development may effectively alleviate the burden of CKD-T2D. Without aggressive interventions, DKD ultimately progresses to End-Stage Renal Disease ESRD 1.

Elderly patients with T2D, especially those with diabetes for more than 10 years, are more likely to progress to CKD than those without T2D 5. As the population ages, longer life expectancy 6 , and lifestyles change, the incidence of Chronic Kidney Disease due to T2D CKD-T2D continues to rise 7 , 8 and has become a principal contributor to the global burden of ESRD 9 , 10 , Studies have shown that obesity and hypertension are important risk factors for the development and progression of DKD 12 , 13 , 14 , Male sex has also been reported to be a risk factor for the development of DKD 16 , 17 , and in addition, the incidence and mortality of CKD due to diabetes are closely related to socioeconomic, cultural, and national disease management factors, as well as age Several studies have reported global and regional trends in incidence, prevalence, and mortality of DKD over time and sex differences across all age groups 18 , 19 , Pan and Liu et al.

focused on the disease burden of diabetes and DKD in China 20 , 21 , and another study reported mortality and trends in diabetes before 25 years of age However, few studies have focused on the epidemiological characteristics of people with DKD under the age of 60 years.

Since it usually takes several years for diabetes mellitus to progress to DKD, and the intervention for DKD needs long-term persistence to benefit 23 , the focus should be on early prevention, early recognition, and early intervention within a younger adult demographic.

To prevent or delay the disease progression, and further improve the quality of life and survival of the CKD-T2D population 24 , understanding the global burden of CKD-T2D in the population under 60 years old, especially analyzing the factors affecting the disease burden, is particularly important for seeking strategies to prevent and treat DKD and further reduce the incidence rate.

In this study, we focused on describing the global epidemiological characteristics of CKD-T2D in people aged 20—59 years by analyzing the related data from Global Burden of Disease GBD , including trends in disease from to , differences between countries and regions, gender and age, also, we analyzed the driving factors and attributable risk factors for the increase in CKD-T2D Disability Adjusted Life Years DALYs , as well as the correlation between attributable risk factors and Socio-Demographic Index SDI.

The GBD is a multinational collaborative study that estimates the burden of disease associated with diseases and injuries in countries and territories from to The GBD data is obtained for each disease or injury from national and 24, subnational vital registration systems, 16, published studies, and household surveys, as well as other relevant data sources, such as population censuses, health service utilization, satellite imaging, etc Annual updates include updates to diseases, data sources, and methods, designed to capture annual changes in the same diseases and injuries by age, gender, country, and region using standard epidemiological and health measures such as incidence, prevalence, death rates, and DALYs DALYs are a commonly used measure of disease burden in epidemiological research, representing the total healthy life years lost by patients from disease onset to death, including years of life lost due to premature death from disease and years of healthy life lost due to disability, and can be expressed as a number or rate This study is a secondary data analysis based on the GBD study.

This data was stratified by age, region, and gender. The primary aim of the analysis was to elucidate the global epidemiological characteristics of CKD-T2D, with a specific emphasis on the 20—59 age group. We conducted a decomposition analysis Supplementary Methods of age structure, population growth, and epidemiological changes to discern the principal drivers of DALY burden attributable to CKD-T2D among the target population.

Furthermore, our investigation sought to identify the primary attributable risk factors contributing to CKD-T2D within diverse SDI categories across regions and countries. The disease in this study is CKD-T2D ICD code E In our study, we classified countries into quintiles according to the SDI.

SDI is a composite indicator that quantifies the level of social and demographic development of a country or region based on metrics such as per capita income, average years of education, and the fertility rate among women under age It ranges from 0 to 1, with 0 representing the lowest per capita income, lowest education level, and highest total fertility rate, and 1 representing the highest per capita income, highest education level, and lowest total fertility rate The GBD study estimated the disease burden attributable to 87 risk or risk cluster factors at the global, regional, and national levels Risk factor exposures were estimated using population-representative survey and surveillance data, spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression models, or DisMod-MR 2.

In this study, we estimated the attributable DALY of CKD-T2D by multiplying the DALY results for each age-sex-location-year with the Population Attributable Fraction PAF To assess temporal trends of incidence, death, and DALY of CKD-T2D in the global population aged 20—59 years from to , we used the Joinpoint Regression Program software version 4.

More detailed information is provided in the Supplementary Methods. The age-period-cohort model 33 based on the Poisson distribution can reflect the temporal trend of disease incidence or death across three dimensions: age, period, and cohort.

We further fitted the two-factor and three-factor models, including age-period, age-cohort, and period-cohort models for the former, and the APC-IE model 34 for the latter, and selected the best model to analyze the effects of age, period, and cohort on the incidence and death of CKD-T2D Supplementary Methods.

Statistical analyses were conducted using R version 4. This research has been conducted using publicly available aggregated data from GBD As the authors did not collect any new data and only used pre-existing, de-identified data, no additional ethics review board approval was required for this study.

In , The number of deaths due to CKD-T2D was The number of DALYs was The global incidence and death rates of CKD-T2D increased with age, peaking in the 75—79 age group and declining subsequently Supplementary Fig. The trends in crude and age-standardized incidence, death, and DALY rates of CKD-T2D in the population aged 20—59 years in different regions globally between and were illustrated in Supplementary Fig.

Incidence, deaths, and disability-adjusted life years DALYs of chronic kidney disease due to type 2 diabetes CKD-T2D from to total numbers, crude rates, and age-standardized rates.

Furthermore, we performed trend analysis using the Joinpoint software. Burden of chronic kidney disease due to type 2 diabetes CKD-T2D patients aged 20—59 years, globally and by socio-demographic index SDI from to a Age-standardized incidence rate, b age-standardized deaths rate, c age-standardized disability adjusted life years DALYs rate.

In , the age-standardized incidence rate of CKD-T2D in the population aged 20—59 years in countries globally ranged from 5. The age-standardized death rate ranged from 0. The age-standardized DALY rate ranged from 7. Global burden of chronic kidney disease due to type 2 diabetes CKD-T2D patients aged 20—59 years per , population in a Age-standardized incidence, b age-standardized deaths rate, c age-standardized disability adjusted life years DALYs.

From to , the percentage change in the age-standardized incidence rate of CKD-T2D in the population aged 20—59 years demonstrated significant variation across countries, with Bahrain experiencing the largest increase of During the same period, the largest increase in age-standardized death rate occurred in Armenia El Salvador For the population aged 20—59 years, the number and rate of incidence, death, and DALY all increased with age Supplementary Fig.

S4 , Table S2 , with similar trends for both sexes, but males bore a higher burden. In the 55—59 age group, the number of deaths Supplementary Fig.

S4 b and DALYs Supplementary Fig. S4 c were roughly 1. The effects of age, period, and cohort on the risk of CKD-T2D incidence, death, and DALYs were further explored Fig. Our findings demonstrated a persistent increase in the risk of CKD-T2D incidence, death, and DALYs with age, even after controlling for period and cohort effects.

Specifically, in the 55—59 age group, the Rate Ratio RR values for incidence, death, and DALYs were 8. The period effects for incidence, death, and DALYs showed a slightly increasing trend from to Fig.

S5 , with the incidence risk increasing from RR 1. The cohort effects indicated that the later-born cohorts had a lower risk of CKD-T2D incidence, death, and DALYs Fig.

Age, period, and cohort effects on the global relative risk of chronic kidney disease due to type 2 diabetes CKD-T2D. a Relative incidence risk, b relative deaths risk, c relative disability adjusted life years DALYs risk. To explore the effects of population growth, aging, and epidemiological changes on the epidemiology of CKD-T2D in the population aged 20—59 years, we performed a decomposition analysis of raw DALYs.

Overall, over the past 30 years, CKD-T2D DALY in the 20—59 age group has increased significantly globally, with the most pronounced increase in middle SDI countries Fig. Population growth and aging were found to be the primary contributors to the CKD-T2D DALY burden globally, accounting for S6 , Table S4.

In middle SDI The epidemiological changes, which reflect the underlying changes in age and population-adjusted CKD-T2D incidence and death rates over the past 30 years, have declined in high-middle SDI, middle SDI, and low SDI countries while aging has only declined in low SDI countries Fig.

Changes in chronic kidney disease due to type 2 diabetes CKD-T2D patients aged 20—59 years disability adjusted life years DALYs according to population-level determinants of population growth, aging, and epidemiological change from to at the global level and by socio-demographic index SDI quintile.

The GBD study attributed CKD-T2D DALY to six risk factors across three primary categories, as outlined in Supplementary Table S5. Overall, globally, the DALY for CKD-T2D in the population aged 20—59 years showed a decreasing trend attributed to diet high in sodium, low temperature, and lead exposure over the past 30 years, while attributed to high systolic blood pressure, high body-mass index BMI , and high temperature showed an increasing trend Supplementary Fig.

In , the top two attributable risk factors for CKD-T2D DALY globally were high systolic blood pressure Notably, CKD-T2D DALY in high SDI countries was more attributed to high BMI, whereas in low SDI countries was more attributed to high systolic blood pressure.

Gender differences in the contribution of different risk factors were insignificant across different SDI countries Fig. Proportion of chronic kidney disease due to type 2 diabetes CKD-T2D patients aged 20—59 years disability adjusted life years DALYs attributable to 6 risk factors in at the global level and socio-demographic index SDI quintile by sex.

Pearson correlation was conducted to examine the relationship between the DALY for CKD-T2D attributable risk factors and SDI. Disparities in health outcomes and disease burdens are commonly observed across different countries and regions due to variations in social development levels 25 , Our findings demonstrate that the age-standardized incidence rate of CKD-T2D among the global population aged 20—59 years is highest in the middle SDI regions, while the age-standardized death and DALY rates are highest in the low-middle SDI regions.

Countries categorized as middle or low-middle SDI tend to experience more rapid social development and economic transformation than those with higher SDI Moreover, countries with lower SDI levels typically exhibit lower levels of social development, economic progress, and effective healthcare coverage for their populations This may be a significant contributing factor to the increased disease burden of CKD-T2D observed in middle SDI and low-middle SDI regions.

As individuals age, renal function gradually declines 37 , 38 , and the prevalence of CKD, including DKD, is significantly higher in the elderly than in the young population 39 , The American Diabetes Association consensus conference notes a steady increase in the incidence of DKD and ESRD caused by DKD among middle-aged African Americans, Native Americans, Hispanics, and other populations 41 , with males identified as a significant risk factor for DKD progression 16 , Our study findings are consistent with these observations and indicate that age and gender are important factors affecting the burden of CKD-T2D.

Therefore, implementing screening and intervention measures for CKD-T2D and its risk factors among the population aged 20—59 years, especially in middle-aged men, may be a crucial public health initiative to mitigate the burden of CKD-T2D. Adjusting modifiable risk factors to reduce disease burden is a crucial measure in developing public health policy Alterations in societal lifestyles have led to an increased number of obese individuals 43 and a concomitant rise in the prevalence of CKD caused by type 2 diabetes 13 , 44 , 45 , 46 , DKD has become the primary contributor to the disease burden and medical costs of obese type 2 diabetes patients The risk of type 2 diabetes patients developing CKD is related to obesity and hypertension, and they often share common risk factors 49 , 50 , 51 , Sodium is an essential mineral for the human body, with the functions of regulating osmotic pressure, blood volume, and vascular smooth muscle contraction, and is important for maintaining normal physiological functions.

Nonetheless, long-term excessive sodium intake can lead to obesity and hypertension, which can in turn cause type 2 diabetes and CKD 53 , 54 , Our findings show that globally, the impact of diet high in sodium on CKD-T2D is decreasing, while high systolic blood pressure and high BMI are increasing.

This suggests that people may have gradually become aware of the harm of high-sodium diets and have reduced sodium intake in their daily diets. However, the pathogenesis of hypertension is complex and related to various factors such as genetics, environment, metabolism, and exercise, in addition to long-term high-sodium diets 53 , 56 , Therefore, it may be an important preventive measure to reduce the burden of CKD-T2D by carrying out promotional education and strengthening management and treatment for hypertensive and high BMI patients.

The Influence of the environment on CKD-T2D should not be underestimated. Lead, a toxic heavy metal, can accumulate in various tissues including the kidneys, brain, and bones via the bloodstream with prolonged exposure, posing a hazard to human health 58 , 59 , Our findings show that a decreasing trend in global CKD-T2D DALY attributable to low temperature and lead exposure and an increasing trend in high temperature among the population aged 20—59 years over the past 30 years.

It suggests that with the development of society, environmental governance, and improvements in living standards, progress has been made in reducing lead exposure and addressing low-temperature issues through measures such as reducing the use of tobacco, leaded gasoline, and lead-based coatings 61 , 62 as well as the advancement of insulation materials and renewable energy technologies.

Nevertheless, the effects of global warming and high temperatures on CKD-T2D necessitate the continuous strengthening of environmental protection measures, such as reducing deforestation, the use of petroleum and coal as fuels, enhancing garbage sorting and treatment, and reducing the use of non-biodegradable plastics to promote better health outcomes.

In the present study, we investigated the attributable risk factors for CKD-T2D DALYs in the population aged 20—59 years and found that high systolic blood pressure was the main contributing factor in low SDI countries, while high BMI had a greater impact in high SDI countries. The analysis also revealed a positive association between the PAF of CKD-T2D DALYs due to high BMI and SDI, while high temperature and lead demonstrated a negative correlation.

The findings suggest that poor public health infrastructure, limited medical resources, and interventions for hypertension may be responsible for the greater impact of high systolic blood pressure in low SDI countries In contrast, advanced economic and educational levels in high SDI countries lead to a greater awareness of environmental factors such as high temperature and lead exposure, and proactive and comprehensive measures to mitigate the risks.

However, countries with higher SDI may have greater availability of high energy density diets, more convenient transportation, and less physical activity or exercise, which could elevate the risk of high BMI Moreover, despite hypertension being a well-established risk factor for CKD-T2D disease progression 65 , our study did not observe any association between high systolic blood pressure and SDI.

This may be attributed to the intricate interplay of multiple factors such as genetics, environment, diet, physical activity, access to healthcare, and medication supply, which differ greatly between countries with different levels of SDI The epidemiology and risk factors of CKD-T2D exhibit significant variability across different regions and countries In countries with higher SDI, which are characterized by pronounced population aging, interventions should focus on addressing this demographic shift and encouraging childbirth On the other hand, strong evidence shows that longer sedentary time, lower physical activity, and higher red meat consumption are closely related to obesity and T2D 68 , 69 , and the promotion and popularization of health-oriented lifestyles should be strengthened to alleviate the disease burden of CKD-T2D caused by risk factors such as high BMI.

In contrast, in countries with lower SDI, the burden of disease has shifted from communicable to non-communicable diseases 25 , such as CKD-T2D, however, due to constraints in the level of health care coverage and sanitation, changes in health systems are slower than changes in the epidemiologic spectrum 36 , and the effective coverage index for non-communicable diseases is much lower than that for communicable diseases 70 , interventions should prioritize disease care and treatment, management and improvement of environmental health conditions We conducted a comprehensive evaluation of the burden of CKD-T2D in the population aged 20—59 using the GBD Study database, including trends in incidence, mortality, and DALYs at global, regional, and national levels, as well as differences based on age and gender.

We further analyzed the impact of underlying driving factors and attributable risk factors. Additionally, we explored the correlation between the PAF of CKD-T2D DALYs linked to attributable risk factors and the SDI.

This is the first study of its kind targeting this age group. Our research findings can provide insights for the development of early health prevention policies to alleviate the burden of CKD-T2D globally. However, our study has several limitations.

Firstly, the insufficient number of risk factors in the GBD study database hindered a more comprehensive analysis, and several common risk factors, such as physical activity, dietary structure, smoking, and drinking, were not included in the evaluation.

Secondly, the absence of suitable disease registration systems in some countries resulted in only estimated numbers of CKD-T2D cases or deaths. Thirdly, discrepancies in the definition of CKD-T2D across data sources, although minimized by the GBD study , still impeded complete bias elimination.

In addition, the burden of CKD-T2D varies depending on detection method, diagnosis accuracy, and disease registration, with regions and countries of lower SDI potentially underestimating the disease burden. CKD-T2D has emerged as a growing global public health concern, especially among adults under 60 years old, with a higher disease burden in males than females.

Population growth and aging are significant drivers of the increasing burden of CKD-T2D DALYs, with high BMI and high systolic blood pressure recognized as primary modifiable risk factors. Notably, high BMI is the primary determinant in high SDI countries, while high systolic blood pressure has a greater impact in low SDI countries.

Therefore, strengthening disease screening for people aged 20—59, and developing tailored early intervention policies based on socioeconomic development levels, may effectively mitigate the CKD-T2D burden. Ruiz-Ortega, M. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar.

Thomas, M. Changing epidemiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus and associated chronic kidney disease. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Breyer, M. The next generation of therapeutics for chronic kidney disease. Drug Discov. Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar.

Fouque, D. et al. Achievement of and kidney disease: Improving global outcomes mineral and bone targets and survival in a French cohort of chronic kidney disease Stages 4 and 5 non-dialysis patients.

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Hill, C. Obesity and kidney disease in type 1 and 2 diabetes: An analysis of the National Diabetes Audit. QJM , — Todd, J. Genetic evidence for a causal role of obesity in diabetic kidney disease. Diabetes 64 , — Leehey, D. BP and renal outcomes in diabetic kidney disease: The veterans affairs nephropathy in diabetes trial.

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Osteoporos Int. However, the severity and type of anemia were various among regions. The higher the SDI value, the lower the increasing rate of anemia-related ASPR, mirroring the gap in life and medical convenience among different SDI quintiles.

In addition, we should attach importance to the fast increase of ASPR in Central Asia. Conversely, in Western Europe, High-income Asia Pacific, and East Asia, ASPR of CKD-T2DM-related anemia decreased sharply, and the reasons should be further evaluated.

In Austria, the incidence of type 1 diabetes is increasing in children aged 5 to 14 years Alarmingly, for CKD-T1DM-related anemia, patients aged of 10—14 years mainly suffered moderate anemia, more severe than other age-groups, which we should pay attention to.

In many cases, the burden of CKD-DM is determined by various factors, which caused gaps in the CKD prevention and management capabilities worldwide Our results reflected a shift of CKD-T1DM burden from high to low SDI quintile, but the ASDR and DALY rate of CKD-DM increased faster in high SDI quintile, which was not fully attributed to medical environment and renal replacement therapies Global burden of CKD-DM was concentrated in middle SDI quintiles, especially in developing countries Additionally, ASIR of CKD-DM increased with SDI value, revealing racial differences in disease susceptibility and medical disparities 32 , The variation in CKD-DM epidemiology reflects huge regional inequities in preventive care White European individuals were reported to have a higher prevalence of CKD-T1DM Race influenced mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and multiple chronic conditions Some studies explained it by economic inequality, socioeconomic status, and segregation 37 — Understanding the burden of CKD-DM in various countries benefited equal kidney health.

China, India, and the USA carrying high disease burden for CKD-DM might partly be owing to their high populations. Notably, China had the lowest ASIR of CKD-T1DM. ASPR of CKD-T1DM was higher in Russia, Canada, and Mongolia.

This was partially attributed to high prevalence of type 2 diabetes, improvements on CKD screening 40 , and the relatively stagnant progress in addressing CKD-DM burden. Although aging and population growth contributed to the increased burden of CKD-DM, risk factors such as diet and metabolism were involved.

A study on children stated that type 1 diabetes was associated with younger age at ESRD onset, whereas type 2 diabetes was related to a higher mortality rate The presence of diabetic nephropathy was associated with age, duration of diabetes, and poor glycemic control Almost one in five CKDs was caused by diabetes Moreover, less than half of the patients were tested for urinary albumin, an early marker of kidney disease caused by diabetes Many countries still lack a well-trained team of kidney experts and universal access to primary health care and renal replacement therapy.

Screening for kidney function in diabetic patients as well as raising awareness are necessary for the early detection of CKD. Some inevitable limitations should be taken into consideration in the interpretation of our findings.

The GBD study estimated the burden of CKD by relying on statistical methods and predicted covariant values. GBD data come from census, disease registration, household survey, health service usage, air pollution monitoring, disease notification civil registration and vital statistics, and other sources.

High-quality results were based on well-established medical registration systems in some countries, such as China, USA, India, Australia, UK, Russia, and so on. GBD location hierarchy includes all WHO member states. Large, high-quality, population-based studies of CKD are scarce in some countries or territories, such as Cook Islands, Niue, Vatican City, Liechtenstein, Order of Malta, Palestine.

There was inevitable information bias of primary data in those districts. Therefore, when specific data were applied to countries or territories that are not members of the World Health Organization, and areas with underdeveloped medical systems, the findings need to be interpreted with caution.

Due to the limited data, we cannot further investigate the burden of CKD-DM at different stages. A greater investment is still needed to improve vital registration and data collection in developing countries. Despite these limitations, the findings from this analysis add novel knowledge on the global burden of CKD-DM.

From to , the increasing burden of CKD-DM varied among regions and countries. All ASRs of CKD-T2DM exhibited upward trends, and from the age of 50, all rates were higher in males than females. ASIR of CKD-DM increased with SDI value. Middle SDI quintile accounted for the majority burden of CKD-DM worldwide.

Asia carried the heaviest burden of CKD-DM, especially in South and East. The three countries with the highest burden of CKD-DM were China, the United States, and India. CKD-T2DM patients with anemia were mainly in mild to moderate grade for females, and in mild grade for males.

Anemia-related YLD was mainly in moderate grade. These findings could help guide the epidemiological monitoring of this disease and prioritize the most appropriate health interventions. Further inquiries can be directed to the corresponding author.

All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version. ZD, JG, and YD designed the study. YD, YW, MW, and SY conducted the initial searches. YiZ and XD collected the data and verified the accuracy of the data.

DX and YuZ contributed to data interpretation. YD, ZZ, and DZ performed the statistical analysis and visualization. YD wrote and revised the manuscript.

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. The authors analyzed and interpreted the data for this manuscript. All aspects of manuscript writing were carried out by the authors.

ASIR, age-standardized incidence rate; ASPR, age-standardized prevalence rate; ASDR, age-standardized death rate; CKD-DM, chronic kidney disease caused by diabetes; DALY, disability adjusted life-year; EAPC, estimated annual percentage change; SDI, socio-demographic index; UI, uncertainty interval; YLD, years lived with disability.

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Diabetic nephropathy statistics

Diabetic nephropathy statistics -

Chronic kidney disease CKD remains a public health problem 1 , which increases and affects over 75 million people worldwide 2 , 3. At present, people suffer from CKD more than osteoarthritis, diabetes, or depression 4.

CKD is ranked as the 12th leading cause of mortality 5 and was listed in as one of the top 10 causes of reduced life expectancy or disability-adjusted life-years DALYs 3. The burden of kidney disease varies greatly across the world, as does its testing and treatment 6 , 7.

The most common causes of increased CKD burden are diabetes and hypertension. Diabetic nephropathy, the leading cause of end-stage renal disease ESRD , is associated with the excess mortality in diabetic patients 8 , 9.

Moreover, diabetic CKD increased kidney disease—associated disability 10 , 11 and triggered arterial disease and cardiovascular complications Type 2 diabetes is gradually replacing infectious diseases as the main cause of CKD in less economically advanced countries, thereby causing competition for scarce medical resources 9.

In addition, the incidence of CKD caused by diabetes CKD-DM is determined by socioeconomic, cultural, and political factors, which have led to gaps in the current status of CKD prevention and management capabilities in countries around the world Understanding the burden of CKD-DM in various countries and implementing early detection and management are important steps towards achieving equal kidney health.

Owing to broad array of data sources and scientific statistical modeling approaches 15 , 16 , GBD study can provide comprehensive estimates of CKD-DM burden to date. GBD study includes diseases and injuries data in countries and territories 4 , In this study, we aimed to investigate CKD-DM epidemiology and its variation trend at the global, regional, and national levels among different sex, age, and socio-demographic index SDI.

In this study, we provided a wide range of latest CKD-DM data, including incidence, prevalence, deaths, DALYs, and sequala among two sexes, four world regions, 21 regions, and 15 age-groups.

These findings could provide specific guidance for decision-making and focus efforts toward the burden of inequities in CKD. We evaluated the CKD-DM burden incidence, prevalence, deaths, and DALYs and impairment prevalence and YLDs in countries and territories within four world regions and 21 specific regions between and Appendix in Supplements.

Four measures, age-standardized rates ASRs , and impairment data of type 1 diabetes—related CKD CKD-T1DM and type 2 diabetes—related CKD CKD-T2DM were collected among different age-groups and gender. Anemia 17 , an impairment related to CKD-DM, was classified into three grades: mild, moderate, and severe.

SDI, ranging from 0 to 1, is a comprehensive measure of development and is an indicator of the overall fertility rate of women under 25 years of age, educational attainment, and lagging per capita income distribution in a country. Based on SDI values in , countries and territories were classified into five categories: high, high-middle, middle, low-middle, and low.

All rates in this study were reported per , individuals. When the EAPC and lower CI limit are positive, ASR increased. In contrast, when the EAPC and upper CI limit are negative, ASR decreased. The DisMod-MR 2. The access to and use of GBD study data did not require informed patient consent.

This study followed the Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates GATHER Reporting guideline. In , diabetes and CKD have become the seventh largest non-communicable diseases, the fourth leading cause of death, and the sixth leading cause of disability worldwide Figure S1.

CKD-T1DM was responsible for Additionally, CKD-T2DM was associated with 2. Type 2 diabetes has become the second leading cause of CKD and CKD—related deaths and the third leading cause of CKD related DALYs in Figure S2. Table 1 The global and regional burden of chronic kidney disease caused by diabetes mellitus type 2.

All ASRs of CKD-T2DM increased among women and men worldwide Table 2. Further analysis indicated that incidence, prevalence, mortality of CKD-T1DM remained stable in all age-groups and gender.

However, DALY rate showed a peak at 40—59 years Figure 1. As for CKD-T2DM, the prevalence, mortality, and DALY rate increased with age. In four world regions, CKD-T2DM occurred mostly in people aged plus years Figure 2.

The main age at which people develop CKD-T2DM, deaths, and DALYs is presented in Figures S3 - 5. Table 2 The age-standardized rates and variation trends of diabetes mellitus type 2—related chronic kidney disease.

Figure 1 The incidence, prevalence, death, and DALY rate of CKD-DM burden from to CKD-DM represents the incidence, prevalence, death, and DALY rate of type 1 diabetes—related CKD in CKD-DM represents the incidence, prevalence, death, and DALY rate of type 2 diabetes—related CKD in CKD-DM represents the incidence, prevalence, death, and DALY rate of type 2 diabetes-related CKD in CKD-DM, chronic kidney disease caused by diabetes; DALY, disability adjusted life-year.

The vertical axis is the incidence, prevalence, death, and DALY rate per , people , and the horizontal axis is the different age-groups years. Figure 2 The number of type 2 diabetes—related CKD incident cases over 30 years.

The vertical axis is the incident cases of type 2 diabetes—related CKD in four world regions America, Asia, Africa, and Europe. The horizontal axis represents 30 years — CKD, chronic kidney disease. From to , middle SDI quintile carried the heaviest burden of CKD-DM Tables 1 and S1.

Figure 3 shows the drift of CKD-DM among five SDI quintiles over 30 years. Figure 3 The age-standardized rates for CKD-DM among SDI quintiles over 30 years. The vertical axis is the age-standardized incidence, prevalence, death, and DALY rate per , person-years , and the horizontal axis is the 30 years — Each point represents the age-standardized incidence, prevalence, death, and DALY rate per , person-years that year.

Each color and shape represents an SDI quintile Global, High SDI, High-middle SDI, Middle SDI, Low-middle SDI, and Low SDI.

CKD-DM, type 1 diabetes—related chronic kidney disease; DALY, disability adjusted life-year; ASIR, age-standardized incidence rate; ASPR, age-standardized prevalence rate; ASDR, age-standardized death rate; SDI, socio-demographic index.

Figure 4 showed the variation of ASRs with the increase of SDI value among 21 regions. ASIR increased with the SDI value. As opposed to CKD-T1DM, ASPR of CKD-T2DM rose before SDI value of 0.

As for ASDR and DALY, they had two turning points with SDI value of 0. Figure 4 The age-standardized rates of CKD-DM among 21 regions based on SDI in The vertical axis is the age-standardized incidence, prevalence, death, and DALY rate per , person-years , and the horizontal axis is the SDI value in Each combination of colors and shapes represents a region, 21 in total.

Each point represents the age-standardized incidence, prevalence, death, and DALY rate per , person-years that year in this region. Each combination of the same color and shape, from front to back, is the data for each year from to A ASIR per , population ; B ASDR per , population ; C ASPR per , population ; D Age-standardized DALY rate per , population.

ASIR, age-standardized incidence rate; ASPR, age-standardized prevalence rate; ASDR, age-standardized death rate; CKD-DM, diabetes-related chronic kidney disease; DALY, disability adjusted life-year; SDI, socio-demographic index.

Asia carried the heaviest burden of CKD-DM, especially in South and East Tables 1 and S1. The region with the highest ASIR of CKD-T1DM changed from High-income North America in ASIR: 2. Similarly, that with the highest ASIR of CKD-T2DM changed from High-income North America in The detailed data of CKD-T1DM and CKD-T2DM among countries and territories are presented in Tables S3 - 6.

China carried the highest burden of CKD-DM, followed by the United States and India. From to , incident cases of CKD-T1DM increased the most in France In , people in China had the lowest ASIR of CKD-T1DM 0. Incident cases of CKD-T2DM increased in most countries and territories. The number of patients with CKD-T2DM increased most in Greenland Only in Solomon Islands, deaths and DALYs of CKD-T2DM decreased, and they grew largely in Armenia and El Salvador Table S5.

CKD-T1DM resulted in , cases of anemia in mild: In addition, CKD-T2DM contributed to , cases of anemia in mild: Years lived with disability YLDs of CKD-T1DM- and CKD-T2DM-related anemia grew by Table 3 The prevalent cases and ASPR of impairment caused by diabetes mellitus—related chronic kidney disease.

The prevalence and YLD rate of CKD-T2DM and CKD-T1DM was different among sex and age Figure 5. The main onset age of CKD-T1DM-related anemia changed from 15—19 years in to 15—39 years for females. But that for males was stable, with two peaks at 15—19 and 55—59 years. The YLD rate of CKD-T1DM-related anemia was higher in females aged 15—24 years and in males aged 10—14 years.

As for CKD-T2DM-related anemia, the prevalence and YLD rate increased with age. Figure 5 The prevalence and YLD rate of CKD-DM-related anemia at various age subgroups by gender.

Each column represents the prevalence or YLD rate per , people of CKD-DM-related anemia Three grades: mild, moderate, and severe. The upper column in each age-group is data for females, and the below column is for males. A Prevalence in ; B Prevalence in ; C YLD rate in ; D YLD rate in CKD, chronic kidney disease; YLD, years lived with disability.

This study investigated the global, regional, and national disease burden of CKD-DM. Globally in , there were 2. Further analysis showed that CKD-T2DM accounted for All ASRs of CKD-T2DM increased from to All measured rates of CKD-T2DM increased with age, mirroring the cumulative risk effects of age.

From the age of 50, all rates were higher in males than females. Interestingly, ASIR and ASPR of CKD-T1DM increased globally, whereas ASDR and age-standardized DALY rate decreased for women but increased for men. As for the sex difference, sex hormones had a vital role in the development of diabetes and renal complications In a previous study, racial differences were observed between women and men in diabetes, and the relationship between life course and diabetes was peculiar to women In High-income North America, Eastern Europe, North Africa, and Middle East, ASIR of CKD-T1DM kept higher than other regions.

One study reported that the incidence of ESRD in diabetic patients was 10 times higher than non-diabetic patients.

In Australia, one of the high-income countries, diabetes had become the leading cause of ESRD over the past 20 years The mortality in ESRD patients was However, the difference was not fully attributed to medical convenience.

ASIR and ASPR of CKD-T1DM increased only in Eastern Europe, with the lowest ASDR of CKD-T2DM. ASIR of CKD-T1DM decreased only in High-income North America, but ASDR and DALY rate increased faster there.

ASDR and DALY rate decreased faster in High-income Asia Pacific and East Asia. The difference of CKD-DM between regions might result from the gap in genetic, ethnic, and dietary risk factors.

Patients with CKD-T1DM- and CKD-T2DM-related anemia had doubled over the past 30 years. Anemia is a common complication of CKD. Among all causes of anemia, malaria, schistosomiasis, and CKD-related anemia have been on the rise However, the severity and type of anemia were various among regions.

The higher the SDI value, the lower the increasing rate of anemia-related ASPR, mirroring the gap in life and medical convenience among different SDI quintiles.

In addition, we should attach importance to the fast increase of ASPR in Central Asia. Conversely, in Western Europe, High-income Asia Pacific, and East Asia, ASPR of CKD-T2DM-related anemia decreased sharply, and the reasons should be further evaluated.

In Austria, the incidence of type 1 diabetes is increasing in children aged 5 to 14 years Alarmingly, for CKD-T1DM-related anemia, patients aged of 10—14 years mainly suffered moderate anemia, more severe than other age-groups, which we should pay attention to. In many cases, the burden of CKD-DM is determined by various factors, which caused gaps in the CKD prevention and management capabilities worldwide Our results reflected a shift of CKD-T1DM burden from high to low SDI quintile, but the ASDR and DALY rate of CKD-DM increased faster in high SDI quintile, which was not fully attributed to medical environment and renal replacement therapies Global burden of CKD-DM was concentrated in middle SDI quintiles, especially in developing countries Additionally, ASIR of CKD-DM increased with SDI value, revealing racial differences in disease susceptibility and medical disparities 32 , The variation in CKD-DM epidemiology reflects huge regional inequities in preventive care White European individuals were reported to have a higher prevalence of CKD-T1DM Race influenced mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and multiple chronic conditions Some studies explained it by economic inequality, socioeconomic status, and segregation 37 — Understanding the burden of CKD-DM in various countries benefited equal kidney health.

China, India, and the USA carrying high disease burden for CKD-DM might partly be owing to their high populations. Notably, China had the lowest ASIR of CKD-T1DM. ASPR of CKD-T1DM was higher in Russia, Canada, and Mongolia. This was partially attributed to high prevalence of type 2 diabetes, improvements on CKD screening 40 , and the relatively stagnant progress in addressing CKD-DM burden.

Although aging and population growth contributed to the increased burden of CKD-DM, risk factors such as diet and metabolism were involved. A study on children stated that type 1 diabetes was associated with younger age at ESRD onset, whereas type 2 diabetes was related to a higher mortality rate The presence of diabetic nephropathy was associated with age, duration of diabetes, and poor glycemic control Almost one in five CKDs was caused by diabetes Moreover, less than half of the patients were tested for urinary albumin, an early marker of kidney disease caused by diabetes Many countries still lack a well-trained team of kidney experts and universal access to primary health care and renal replacement therapy.

Screening for kidney function in diabetic patients as well as raising awareness are necessary for the early detection of CKD. Some inevitable limitations should be taken into consideration in the interpretation of our findings.

The GBD study estimated the burden of CKD by relying on statistical methods and predicted covariant values. GBD data come from census, disease registration, household survey, health service usage, air pollution monitoring, disease notification civil registration and vital statistics, and other sources.

High-quality results were based on well-established medical registration systems in some countries, such as China, USA, India, Australia, UK, Russia, and so on.

GBD location hierarchy includes all WHO member states. Large, high-quality, population-based studies of CKD are scarce in some countries or territories, such as Cook Islands, Niue, Vatican City, Liechtenstein, Order of Malta, Palestine. There was inevitable information bias of primary data in those districts.

Therefore, when specific data were applied to countries or territories that are not members of the World Health Organization, and areas with underdeveloped medical systems, the findings need to be interpreted with caution. Due to the limited data, we cannot further investigate the burden of CKD-DM at different stages.

A greater investment is still needed to improve vital registration and data collection in developing countries. Despite these limitations, the findings from this analysis add novel knowledge on the global burden of CKD-DM. From to , the increasing burden of CKD-DM varied among regions and countries.

All ASRs of CKD-T2DM exhibited upward trends, and from the age of 50, all rates were higher in males than females. ASIR of CKD-DM increased with SDI value.

Middle SDI quintile accounted for the majority burden of CKD-DM worldwide. Asia carried the heaviest burden of CKD-DM, especially in South and East.

The three countries with the highest burden of CKD-DM were China, the United States, and India. CKD-T2DM patients with anemia were mainly in mild to moderate grade for females, and in mild grade for males.

Anemia-related YLD was mainly in moderate grade. These findings could help guide the epidemiological monitoring of this disease and prioritize the most appropriate health interventions. Further inquiries can be directed to the corresponding author.

All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version. ZD, JG, and YD designed the study. YD, YW, MW, and SY conducted the initial searches. YiZ and XD collected the data and verified the accuracy of the data. DX and YuZ contributed to data interpretation.

YD, ZZ, and DZ performed the statistical analysis and visualization. YD wrote and revised the manuscript. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

The authors analyzed and interpreted the data for this manuscript. All aspects of manuscript writing were carried out by the authors. ASIR, age-standardized incidence rate; ASPR, age-standardized prevalence rate; ASDR, age-standardized death rate; CKD-DM, chronic kidney disease caused by diabetes; DALY, disability adjusted life-year; EAPC, estimated annual percentage change; SDI, socio-demographic index; UI, uncertainty interval; YLD, years lived with disability.

Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease Español Spanish Print. Minus Related Pages. Kidney Facts. Kidney diseases are the 9th leading cause of death in the United States. Every 24 hours, people with diabetes begin treatment for kidney failure. How Diabetes Causes Kidney Disease Each kidney is made up of millions of tiny filters called nephrons.

Tips To Keep Your Kidneys Healthy You can help keep your kidneys healthy by managing your blood sugar, blood pressure, and cholesterol levels. Physical activity can help prevent kidney disease. Prediabetes and Kidney Disease If you have prediabetes, taking action to prevent type 2 diabetes is an important step in preventing kidney disease.

Get Tested for Chronic Kidney Disease Take Care of Your Kidneys Manage High Blood Pressure Living With Diabetes CDC Diabetes on Facebook CDCDiabetes on Twitter. Last Reviewed: December 30, Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

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Caused by an epidemic Weight loss tips in obesity and diabetes nephtopathy Diabetic nephropathy statistics syndromes, diabetic nephropathy has become Diabetic nephropathy statistics leading cause of Diabetid renal disease nephroptahy many developed countries. The publication at Diabetic nephropathy statistics provides a concise overview Diabetic nephropathy statistics Daibetic current state of clinical and basic research in the field. Nephgopathy starts with Statidtics summary neprhopathy the epidemiology and genetics of bephropathy nephropathy Energy balance strategies different ethnic groups, followed by Oral medications for diabetes management review of its clinical manifestation, the link with the metabolic syndrome and obesity, and the pathology of diabetic nephropathy. Building on this basis, the latest findings on pathogenetic, epigenetic and inflammatory mechanisms are presented. The publication also looks at advances in the areas of tubulopathy and the kallikrein-kinin system as well as at the latest animal models and the role of lipoproteins and proteomics. This is followed by a discussion of promising therapeutic approaches such as experimental anti-fibrotic strategies, stem cell therapy and pancreatic transplantation; expert reviews on the emerging entity of new onset diabetes after transplantation and the preventive strategies for diabetic nephropathy conclude the material presented. Written by a panel of leading international experts, this book is highly recommended for nephrologists, diabetologists, internist, transplant physicians, scientists, geneticists, epidemiologists and stem cell biologists working in the field of diabetic nephropathy.

Author: Shagor

1 thoughts on “Diabetic nephropathy statistics

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