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Calcium and metabolism

Calcium and metabolism

Calcium Metabolism Calcium is the znd abundant annd in the metagolism, which plays a pivotal role Satiety and energy levels cell Satiety and energy levels function and Weight control support signaling. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner s are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.

Calcium and metabolism -

Muscle Tissue: Histology Bound to intracellular binding proteins Proteins Linear polypeptides that are synthesized on ribosomes and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits.

Energy Homeostasis e. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation.

Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels. Smooth Muscle Contraction Related videos. Parathyroid Hormone Parathyroid Parathyroid The parathyroid glands are 2 pairs of small endocrine glands found in close proximity to the thyroid gland.

Bones: Structure and Types : PTH stimulates osteoclasts Osteoclasts A large multinuclear cell associated with the bone resorption. Bones: Remodeling and Healing PTH inhibits osteoblasts Osteoblasts Bone-forming cells which secrete an extracellular matrix. Electrolytes Kidneys Kidneys The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs located retroperitoneally against the posterior wall of the abdomen on either side of the spine.

Electrolytes excretion so it does not combine with Ca CA Condylomata acuminata are a clinical manifestation of genital HPV infection.

It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of hydroxycholecalciferol calcifediol. Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.

Parathyroid Glands: Anatomy activated vitamin D Vitamin D A vitamin that includes both cholecalciferols and ergocalciferols, which have the common effect of preventing or curing rickets in animals.

Fat-soluble Vitamins and their Deficiencies GI tract: Calcitriol Calcitriol The physiologically active form of vitamin d. Parathyroid Glands: Anatomy promotes intestinal Ca CA Condylomata acuminata are a clinical manifestation of genital HPV infection. Digestion and Absorption.

License: CC BY 4. Chief cells synthesize and export an inactive enzyme pepsinogen which is converted into the highly proteolytic enzyme pepsin in the acid environment of the stomach. Stomach: Anatomy of the parathyroid Parathyroid The parathyroid glands are 2 pairs of small endocrine glands found in close proximity to the thyroid gland.

Parathyroid Glands: Anatomy glands Primarily regulated by calcium Calcium A basic element found in nearly all tissues. Parathyroid Glands: Anatomy gland has plasma membrane Plasma membrane A cell membrane also known as the plasma membrane or plasmalemma is a biological membrane that separates the cell contents from the outside environment.

A cell membrane is composed of a phospholipid bilayer and proteins that function to protect cellular DNA and mediate the exchange of ions and molecules. The Cell: Cell Membrane calcium Calcium A basic element found in nearly all tissues.

Electrolytes receptors Receptors Receptors are proteins located either on the surface of or within a cell that can bind to signaling molecules known as ligands e. Binding of calcium Calcium A basic element found in nearly all tissues.

Electrolytes to its receptors Receptors Receptors are proteins located either on the surface of or within a cell that can bind to signaling molecules known as ligands e. Receptors in the parathyroid Parathyroid The parathyroid glands are 2 pairs of small endocrine glands found in close proximity to the thyroid gland.

Vitamin D Although a vitamin, vitamin D Vitamin D A vitamin that includes both cholecalciferols and ergocalciferols, which have the common effect of preventing or curing rickets in animals. Functions The most important impacts of vitamin D Vitamin D A vitamin that includes both cholecalciferols and ergocalciferols, which have the common effect of preventing or curing rickets in animals.

In the GI tract: promotes absorption Absorption Absorption involves the uptake of nutrient molecules and their transfer from the lumen of the GI tract across the enterocytes and into the interstitial space, where they can be taken up in the venous or lymphatic circulation.

Digestion and Absorption of calcium Calcium A basic element found in nearly all tissues. Electrolytes from the intestines Mechanism: upregulating the expression of the intracellular calcium-binding protein, calbindin D9k Calbindin D9k is required for the absorption Absorption Absorption involves the uptake of nutrient molecules and their transfer from the lumen of the GI tract across the enterocytes and into the interstitial space, where they can be taken up in the venous or lymphatic circulation.

Digestion and Absorption of dietary Ca CA Condylomata acuminata are a clinical manifestation of genital HPV infection. Calbindin levels are the rate-limiting step for Ca CA Condylomata acuminata are a clinical manifestation of genital HPV infection.

In the bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow. Bones: Structure and Types : stimulates osteoblasts Osteoblasts Bone-forming cells which secrete an extracellular matrix.

Bones: Development and Ossification In the kidneys Kidneys The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs located retroperitoneally against the posterior wall of the abdomen on either side of the spine. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing.

The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation Glucose Glucose A primary source of energy for living organisms.

It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.

Lactose Intolerance and cholesterol Cholesterol The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.

Cholesterol Metabolism metabolism Inhibition of angiogenesis Angiogenesis Bartonella Cell signaling, growth, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis Apoptosis A regulated cell death mechanism characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, including the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA, at regularly spaced, internucleosomal sites, I.

It is genetically-programmed and serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth. Ischemic Cell Damage Absorption of dietary calcium, which requires calbindin D9k: Vitamin D increases the production of intracellular calcium-binding protein, calbindin D9k.

Image by Lecturio. Synthesis Synthesis Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR of vitamin D Vitamin D A vitamin that includes both cholecalciferols and ergocalciferols, which have the common effect of preventing or curing rickets in animals.

Fat-soluble Vitamins and their Deficiencies Vitamin D Vitamin D A vitamin that includes both cholecalciferols and ergocalciferols, which have the common effect of preventing or curing rickets in animals. In skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body.

Fat-soluble Vitamins and their Deficiencies 3 cholecalciferol In liver Liver The liver is the largest gland in the human body. The liver is found in the superior right quadrant of the abdomen and weighs approximately 1.

Its main functions are detoxification, metabolism, nutrient storage e. Liver: Anatomy : Vitamin D Vitamin D A vitamin that includes both cholecalciferols and ergocalciferols, which have the common effect of preventing or curing rickets in animals.

Fat-soluble Vitamins and their Deficiencies 3 is hydroxylated to hydroxy-vitamin D 3. Abbreviated as 25 OH D 3 , and also known as calcidiol , calcifediol, and hydroxy-cholecalciferol 25 OH D 3 is the primary circulating form of vitamin D Vitamin D A vitamin that includes both cholecalciferols and ergocalciferols, which have the common effect of preventing or curing rickets in animals.

Fat-soluble Vitamins and their Deficiencies in the body. Half-life Half-Life The time it takes for a substance drug, radioactive nuclide, or other to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics is 2—3 weeks. In the kidneys Kidneys The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs located retroperitoneally against the posterior wall of the abdomen on either side of the spine.

Kidneys: Anatomy : 25 OH D 3 undergoes 2nd hydroxylation and forms the physiologically active 1,dihydroxy-vitamin D 3. Abbreviated as 1,25 OH D 3 and also known as calcitriol Calcitriol The physiologically active form of vitamin d.

Parathyroid Glands: Anatomy Most active form Half-life Half-Life The time it takes for a substance drug, radioactive nuclide, or other to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics is 4—6 hours. Fat-soluble Vitamins and their Deficiencies receptors Receptors Receptors are proteins located either on the surface of or within a cell that can bind to signaling molecules known as ligands e.

Receptors Intracellular receptors Receptors Receptors are proteins located either on the surface of or within a cell that can bind to signaling molecules known as ligands e. Receptors located inside the cell rather than on the cell surface The vitamin D-receptor complex binds to the hormone-response elements in DNA DNA A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells.

DNA Types and Structure. Directly stimulates or inhibits gene Gene A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.

Basic Terms of Genetics expression of target genes Genes A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms. DNA Types and Structure Related videos. Calcitonin Synthesis Synthesis Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR : produced by C cells in the thyroid Thyroid The thyroid gland is one of the largest endocrine glands in the human body.

The thyroid gland is a highly vascular, brownish-red gland located in the visceral compartment of the anterior region of the neck. Bones: Structure and Types : Inhibits osteoclasts Osteoclasts A large multinuclear cell associated with the bone resorption.

Bones: Structure and Types breakdown Stimulates osteoblasts Osteoblasts Bone-forming cells which secrete an extracellular matrix. Electrolytes deposition in bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow.

Bones: Structure and Types ossification Ossification The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification. Bones: Development and Ossification In kidneys Kidneys The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs located retroperitoneally against the posterior wall of the abdomen on either side of the spine.

Other Regulators of Bone Metabolism Other factors that help regulate bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow.

Bones: Structure and Types metabolism include: Estrogens: Promotes and maintains bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow.

Bones: Structure and Types mineral density in both sexes Act on both osteoblasts Osteoblasts Bone-forming cells which secrete an extracellular matrix. Bones: Development and Ossification and osteoclasts Osteoclasts A large multinuclear cell associated with the bone resorption.

Bones: Development and Ossification Necessary for closure of the epiphyseal plates Growth hormone: Stimulates cartilaginous endplates Stimulates endochondral bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow.

Bones: Structure and Types formation Glucocorticoids Glucocorticoids Glucocorticoids are a class within the corticosteroid family. Glucocorticoids are chemically and functionally similar to endogenous cortisol. There are a wide array of indications, which primarily benefit from the antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive effects of this class of drugs.

Glucocorticoids : Inhibit bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow.

Bones: Structure and Types formation by promoting the survival of osteoclasts Osteoclasts A large multinuclear cell associated with the bone resorption.

Bones: Development and Ossification and the death of osteoblasts Osteoblasts Bone-forming cells which secrete an extracellular matrix. Bones: Development and Ossification Cause of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis Osteoporosis Osteoporosis refers to a decrease in bone mass and density leading to an increased number of fractures.

Osteoporosis Thyroid Thyroid The thyroid gland is one of the largest endocrine glands in the human body. Thyroid Gland: Anatomy hormones Hormones Hormones are messenger molecules that are synthesized in one part of the body and move through the bloodstream to exert specific regulatory effects on another part of the body.

Hormones play critical roles in coordinating cellular activities throughout the body in response to the constant changes in both the internal and external environments.

Hormones: Overview and Types thyroxine Thyroxine The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines monoiodotyrosine and the coupling of iodotyrosines diiodotyrosine in the thyroglobulin.

Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroid Hormones , triiodothyronine Triiodothyronine A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine T4.

The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly t3. Thyroid Hormones : Increase both bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow. Bones: Structure and Types formation and bone resorption Bone resorption Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.

Bones: Structure and Types turnover. Clinical Relevance Osteoporosis Osteoporosis Osteoporosis refers to a decrease in bone mass and density leading to an increased number of fractures. Osteoporosis : a decrease in bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow.

Bones: Structure and Types mass Mass Three-dimensional lesion that occupies a space within the breast Imaging of the Breast and density leading to an increased number of fractures.

Osteoporosis Osteoporosis Osteoporosis refers to a decrease in bone mass and density leading to an increased number of fractures. Osteoporosis is most commonly caused by a loss of protective estrogen Estrogen Compounds that interact with estrogen receptors in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of estradiol.

Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female sex characteristics. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.

Ovaries: Anatomy later in life, or as a result of immobilization Immobilization Delirium , underlying medical disorders, or the long-term use of certain medications. Osteoporosis most often presents clinically with frequent fractures and a loss of vertebral height.

Diagnosis is established by measuring bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow.

Bones: Structure and Types mineral density. Management includes lifestyle modifications, maintaining adequate calcium Calcium A basic element found in nearly all tissues. Electrolytes and vitamin D Vitamin D A vitamin that includes both cholecalciferols and ergocalciferols, which have the common effect of preventing or curing rickets in animals.

Fat-soluble Vitamins and their Deficiencies levels, and the use of bisphosphonates Bisphosphonates Bisphosphonates are pyrophosphate analogs most well-known for treating osteoporosis by preventing bone loss.

Osteomalacia Osteomalacia Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness.

Osteomalacia and Rickets and rickets Rickets Disorders caused by interruption of bone mineralization manifesting as osteomalacia in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal bone formation.

The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of vitamin d; phosphorus; or calcium homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances. Bones: Development and Ossification.

Rickets Rickets Disorders caused by interruption of bone mineralization manifesting as osteomalacia in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal bone formation. Osteomalacia and Rickets affects the cartilage Cartilage Cartilage is a type of connective tissue derived from embryonic mesenchyme that is responsible for structural support, resilience, and the smoothness of physical actions.

Perichondrium connective tissue membrane surrounding cartilage compensates for the absence of vasculature in cartilage by providing nutrition and support. Cartilage: Histology of the epiphyseal growth plates Growth Plates The area between the epiphysis and the diaphysis within which bone growth occurs.

Osteosarcoma in children, whereas osteomalacia Osteomalacia Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. Osteomalacia and Rickets affects the sites of bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow.

Bones: Structure and Types turnover in the bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow.

Bones: Structure and Types matrix in children and adults. Osteomalacia and Rickets are most commonly caused by vitamin D deficiency Vitamin D Deficiency A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of vitamin D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites.

It is manifested clinically as rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Fat-soluble Vitamins and their Deficiencies. Osteomalacia and Rickets commonly presents with skeletal deformities and growth abnormalities, whereas osteomalacia Osteomalacia Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness.

Osteomalacia and Rickets can present with bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow. Bones: Structure and Types pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons.

Pain: Types and Pathways , difficulty with ambulation, and pathologic fractures. Treatment includes supplementation with vitamin D Vitamin D A vitamin that includes both cholecalciferols and ergocalciferols, which have the common effect of preventing or curing rickets in animals.

Fat-soluble Vitamins and their Deficiencies and calcium Calcium A basic element found in nearly all tissues. Paget disease of bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow.

Bones: Structure and Types : a focal disorder of bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow.

Bones: Structure and Types metabolism that commonly affects the skull Skull The skull cranium is the skeletal structure of the head supporting the face and forming a protective cavity for the brain.

The skull consists of 22 bones divided into the viscerocranium facial skeleton and the neurocranium. Skull: Anatomy , spine Spine The human spine, or vertebral column, is the most important anatomical and functional axis of the human body.

It consists of 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, and 5 lumbar vertebrae and is limited cranially by the skull and caudally by the sacrum. Vertebral Column: Anatomy , pelvis Pelvis The pelvis consists of the bony pelvic girdle, the muscular and ligamentous pelvic floor, and the pelvic cavity, which contains viscera, vessels, and multiple nerves and muscles.

Pelvis: Anatomy , and long bones Long bones Length greater than width. Bones: Structure and Types of the lower extremities. The 2 main clinical manifestations of Paget disease are bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow.

Pain: Types and Pathways and the consequences of bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow.

Bones: Structure and Types deformities, such as fractures, osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis OA is the most common form of arthritis, and is due to cartilage destruction and changes of the subchondral bone.

The risk of developing this disorder increases with age, obesity, and repetitive joint use or trauma. Patients develop gradual joint pain, stiffness lasting Osteoarthritis , or nerve impingement. Treatment includes bisphosphonates Bisphosphonates Bisphosphonates are pyrophosphate analogs most well-known for treating osteoporosis by preventing bone loss.

Bisphosphonates , calcitonin Calcitonin A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. Other Antiresorptive Drugs , and surgery for the management of fractures, deformities, and complications. Hyperparathyroidism: a condition associated with elevated blood levels of PTH.

Hyperparathyroidism may be due to an inherent disease of the parathyroid gland or abnormalities in calcium metabolism. Electrolytes , and phosphate Phosphate Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.

Electrolytes , and urinary calcium Calcium A basic element found in nearly all tissues. Electrolytes levels. Management is typically surgical and the treatment of any underlying conditions.

Hypoparathyroidism Hypoparathyroidism Hypoparathyroidism is defined as reduced parathyroid hormone PTH levels due to poor function of the parathyroid glands. The cause of hypoparathyroidism is most commonly iatrogenic following neck surgery, but it can also be associated with genetic or autoimmune disorders as well as infiltrative diseases causing destruction of the normal parathyroid tissue.

Hypoparathyroidism : low levels of PTH due to poor function of the parathyroid Parathyroid The parathyroid glands are 2 pairs of small endocrine glands found in close proximity to the thyroid gland.

Parathyroid Glands: Anatomy glands. Hypoparathyroidism is most commonly iatrogenic Iatrogenic Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment.

Anterior Cord Syndrome following neck Neck The part of a human or animal body connecting the head to the rest of the body. Peritonsillar Abscess surgery but can also be associated with genetic, infiltrative, or autoimmune disorders, causing the destruction of normal parathyroid Parathyroid The parathyroid glands are 2 pairs of small endocrine glands found in close proximity to the thyroid gland.

Parathyroid Glands: Anatomy tissue. Deficiency of PTH results in hypocalcemia Hypocalcemia Hypocalcemia, a serum calcium Hypocalcemia , which leads to increased neuromuscular excitability Excitability Skeletal Muscle Contraction e.

This condition is associated with unstable depolarization of axonal membranes, primarily in the peripheral nervous system. Tetany usually results from hypocalcemia or reduced serum levels of magnesium that may be associated with hyperventilation; hypoparathyroidism; rickets; uremia; or other conditions.

Author s : F. Lumachi, R. Motta, D. Cecchin, S. Ave, V. Camozzi, S. Basso and G. Abstract: Calcium is essential for many metabolic process, including nerve function, muscle contraction, and blood clotting.

Lumachi F. Basso S. and Luisetto G. Recent Advances in the Application of Marine Natural Products as Antimicrobial Agents. Luisetto Volume 18, Issue 23, Page: [ - ] Pages: 8 DOI: Purchase PDF.

Mark Item. Current Medicinal Chemistry. Luisetto Affiliation: Keywords: Calcium metabolism , hypercalcemia , PTH , CaSR , PRHrP , vitamin D , RANKL , fibroblast growth factor , Klotho , TPRV5 Abstract: Calcium is essential for many metabolic process, including nerve function, muscle contraction, and blood clotting.

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Original Author s : Calcuum Moody Last updated: Anr July Satiety and energy levels Immune defense solution is the fifth most abundant Satiety and energy levels in the body. Cacium is vital for several biological processes including neurotransmissionmuscle contractionhormone secretion and the clotting cascade. In this article, we will review calcium regulation throughout the body and consider the clinical relevance of this vital element. There are three molecules which regulate the amount of calcium in the blood and ensure it is maintained within the normal range. Calcium and metabolism

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