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Polyphenols and digestion

Polyphenols and digestion

An R, Wilms Polyphenolss, Masclee AAM, Smidt H, Zoetendal EG, Jonkers D. What Polgphenols Polyphenols? However, potato Polyphenols and digestion diegstion μM Polyphenols and digestion decrease d7-glucose transport compared to phenolic-free control. Anticancer efficacy of polyphenols and their combinations. These microbes support digestion and contribute to the processing of the feces, digestive tract waste, and flatus, the gas generated by the microbial fermentation of undigested food. Teresa Oliviero.

Polyphenols and digestion -

Though tea, dark chocolate, red wine, and berries are likely the best-known sources of polyphenols, many other foods also contain high amounts of these beneficial compounds. Here are the 75 foods richest in polyphenols, listed by category Including foods from each of these categories in your diet provides you a wide variety of polyphenols.

Many plant foods are naturally rich in polyphenols. Including a variety of these foods in your diet is a great strategy to boost your intake of these beneficial nutrients. Supplements have the advantage of offering a consistent dose of polyphenols. However, they also have several potential drawbacks.

Moreover, polyphenols seem to work best when interacting with the many other nutrients naturally found in foods.

Polyphenol supplements may not offer the same health benefits as polyphenol-rich foods. The same cannot be said of supplements, which tend to provide much higher quantities of polyphenols than those typically found in a healthy diet Animal studies show that high-dose polyphenol supplements may cause kidney damage, tumors, and an imbalance in thyroid hormone levels.

In humans, they may result in an increased risk of stroke and premature death 39 , Some polyphenol-rich supplements can interact with nutrient absorption or interact with medications. If you have a diagnosed nutrient deficiency or are taking medications, it may be best to speak to your healthcare provider about polyphenol supplements before taking them.

In addition, some polyphenol-rich foods, such as beans and peas, may be rich in lectins. When consumed in large quantities, lectins may cause unpleasant digestive symptoms, such as gas, bloating, and indigestion Polyphenol-rich foods are considered safe for most people, while supplements may cause more harm than good.

To reduce gas, bloating, and indigestion, try soaking or sprouting polyphenol-rich legumes before eating them. Polyphenols are beneficial compounds in many plant foods that can be grouped into flavonoids, phenolic acid, polyphenolic amides, and other polyphenols.

They may improve digestion, brain function, and blood sugar levels, as well as protect against blood clots, heart disease, and certain cancers. Our experts continually monitor the health and wellness space, and we update our articles when new information becomes available.

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Here's what you should know about this herbal remedy. With this in mind, the objectives of these studies were to determine the extent to which phenolic-rich foods grapes and potatoes exert glucomodulatory properties in model food systems using in vitro and in vivo assessments.

First, mechanisms associated with polyphenol rich extracts or model foods on carbohydrate intestinal digestion and glucose transport were investigated in vitro using a three-stage in vitro digestion model coupled to the Caco-2 human intestinal cell model.

Components of this model used individually or in combination allowed for assessment of the two main mechanistic steps in phenolic modulation of glycemic response starch digestion and glucose transport in the context of interactions with bioaccessible phenolics.

While grape juices remain a major dietary source of phenolics, they are also well recognized to be naturally high in sugar content.

Insights into the ability of natural fruit phenolics to modify glycemic response of grape juice were investigated in vitro. In the first experiment, inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase by GJ extracts and μM total phenolics and ability of GJ extracts 10 to μM total phenolics to modulate labelled glucose and fructose transport across Caco-2 intestinal cell monolayers compared to a phenolic-free control were determined.

GJ extracts decreased α-glucosidase, but not α-amylase activity at both concentrations tested. Further, glucose and fructose transport were significantly pin vitro with a starch-rich model meal. Resulting aqueous digesta AQ from both experiments were used to assess impact of bioaccessible GJ phenolics on carbohydrate digestion and glucose transport.

Concord and Niagara GJs significantly decreased in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of carbohydrate from model meal compared with a sugar-matched control. Further, d7-glucose transport from AQ fraction of GJ and co-digested GJ and carbohydrate-rich meal across Caco-2 human intestinal cell monolayers was significantly decreased compared to phenolic-free sugar-sweetened control.

The second study evaluated potential for phenolics from starch rich white, purple, or red potatoes to modulate carbohydrate digestion or glucose transport in a Caco-2 intestinal cell model. Potato phenolic extracts μM had no impact on α-amylase activity, and marginally decreased α-glucosidase activity.

However, potato phenolic extracts μM did decrease d7-glucose transport compared to phenolic-free control. Interestingly, whole potato phenolic extracts reduced glucose transport to a greater extent compared to those from potato peel.

Blood glucose levels were measured for up to two hours. Peak blood glucose levels were lower for pigmented chips, especially purple chips, compared to white chips without any significant changes in gastric emptying.

These results suggest that potato phenolics may play a role in modulation of intestinal glucose transport and that these effects are translatable to consumer products such as potato chips.

Campus location Australia. Course Doctor of Philosophy. Faculty Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences. Usage metrics. Categories Biochemistry and cell biology not elsewhere classified. Keywords Type 2 diabetes Polyphenols Gut mechanism Starch digesting enzymes Gut glucose transporters COVID Licence In Copyright.

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and Phase II conjugation biotransformations in enterocytes after absorption into the small intestine Figure 2. Then a chain of water-soluble metabolites methyl, glucuronide, derivatives of sulfate, etc. rapidly release into the systemic circulation for advanced organ distribution. Colonic microorganisms are identified to act enzymatically on excess unabsorbed polyphenols in the large intestine, successively creating metabolites of different physiological significance The processing of lactones, phenolic acids, and aromatics with different side chain lengths and hydroxylation, depending on the precursor structures phenylvaleric acids, phenylacetic acids, phenylvalerolactones, hippuric acids, phenylpropionic acids, benzoic acids, etc.

take place consecutively 28 Besides, in the most recent decade, researchers also studied the transformation of non-flavonoid polymeric molecules called ellagitannins or hydrolyzable tannins 30 Tannin structures are exposed to hydrolysis in the intestinal lumen, delivering free ellagic acid, after using ellagitannin-rich foods, such as strawberries and raspberries, pecans, pomegranates, and oaked wines.

Colonic bioconversion of polyphenols is mostly portrayed for flavonoids. It is a profound factor due to three principal reasons: a Variability has been noted in bioconversion of explicit flavonoids 242531and this variability can be attributed to the individual colonic microbiota and has prompted the recognition of low to high flavonoid converters 3233 ; b Little contrasts in substitution pattern of flavonoids can initiate significant changes in colonic bioconversion 3234 ; c Dietary context of ingested polyphenols that can regulate polyphenol—microbiota 35 interaction.

The first part of our digestive system is the mouth. When we eat polyphenols, the gullet esophagus passes into the stomach, and then polyphenol is transferred into the small intestine, and the intestine—from the moment it is first ingested until it is consumed by the body or passed off as feces.

Although certain foods and liquids are absorbed through the lining of the stomach, the rest are immersed in the small intestine, like polyphenols.

Saliva helps to lubricate food and includes enzymes that begin to digest our food chemically, including food-containing polyphenols.

In the colon, a large ~4 13 number of microorganisms are present, where our bodies consist of around the same number of cells ~3 Most animals are living harmlessly; that is, they are commensals.

In the small intestine, where most nutrients present in the food are ingested, digestion begins. The lumen surface of the small intestinal folds called the villi, lined by simple columnar epithelial cells called enterocytes, where every enterocyte on the cellular apical surface, have shorter microvilli cytoplasmic membrane extensions that increase the surface area to allow more nutrient absorption to occur.

The small intestine climate is less harsh, and microbial communities like Lactobacilli, Diphtheroid, fungus Candida, etc.

On the other hand, a diverse and abundant microbiota is found in the large intestine essential for normal function. These microbes include Bacteriodetes the Bacteroides and Prevotella genera, in particular and Firmicutes.

These microbes support digestion and contribute to the processing of the feces, digestive tract waste, and flatus, the gas generated by the microbial fermentation of undigested food. The colonic microbiota could shift polyphenols to bioactive mixes that can affect the intestinal ecology and impact on host health.

In vitro animal model and human studies suggest that particular dosages of experimentally selected polyphenols can alter the microbial composition of the intestine, and while some bacterial groups may be limited, others can thrive in the biome niche accessible.

Phenolic blends change the gut microbiota and consequently alter the balance of bacteroids 36 — Tzounis et al. Yamakoshi et al. have studied that an extract rich in proanthocyanidin from grape seeds given to an adult for about 14 days has been able to increase the number of bifidobacteria significantly Recent research indicates that monomeric sources rich in flavanols and flavanol, such as chocolate, green tea, and blackcurrant or grape seed extracts, can modulate the intestinal microbiota 3941 — A human intercession analysis found that the use of red wine polyphenols substantially increased the number of bacteria groups, including Enterococcus, Prevotella, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, Bacteroides uniformis, Eggerthella, etc.

After the use of a wild blueberry drink, Vendrame et al. observed a substantial increase in the amount of Bifidobacterium, recommending a significant role for intestinal microbiota in this case The role of grape seed flavanols in the production of intestinal bacterial groups using in vitro experiments were analyzed by Cueva et al.

Although the exact mechanisms need to be clarified, preclinical and clinical evidence indicate that dietary polyphenols have prebiotic properties and antimicrobial activities against pathogenic gut microbiota, which may help with a variety of disorders.

Dietary polyphenols, in particular, have been shown to modulate gut microbiota composition and function, interfering with bacterial quorum sensing, membrane permeability, and making bacteria more susceptible to xenobiotics. Colonization and early stages of gut microbiota in the infant can be chaotic as the diversity grows over time.

Interpersonal variability was found to be higher in newborn children relative to adults because of these complex shifts Neonates establish a gut microbiota that takes into account the high concentration of bifidobacteria in which this dominance prevents pathogenic microorganisms from becoming colonized by competitive exclusion The composition of the gut microbiota Figure 3 in newborns changes to an adult-like form more than likely after 1 year due to the presentation of foods and other table nourishments, prompting a microbiota dominated by Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes.

Finally, by 2. Besides, older individuals have been found to have a different microbial composition compared with young adults, especially Bacteroides sp and Clostridium sp 50 The role of gut microbiota in people's health and diseases is essential.

The sound gut microbiota 7 has been shown to exhibit a particular role in a digestion of supplements, b xenobiotic and drug metabolism, c antimicrobial activity, and d immunomodulation. Dietary polyphenols are a large group of bioactive phytochemicals typically found in a wide range of vegetables, fruits, nuts, spices, and drinks, as well as in dry legumes and cereals These are often associated with plant pathogen defenses, and we have a great interest in them because of their medical benefits to humans Figure 4.

They are secondary metabolites and incorporate various molecules with polyphenol structures, with more than 8, fundamental variations. As shown by the number of phenolic rings and their side chains or rings, they are split into separate chemical groups Flavonoids have a standard diphenyl propane carbon skeleton in which a linear three-carbon chain interconnects two benzene rings.

They can be split into a few subclasses that depend on the state of oxidation of the central pyran ring: flavonols, flavones, anthocyanidins, flavanones, flavonols, and isoflavones. Phenolic acids are classified into benzoic acid derivatives such as protocatechuic acid, gallic acid, and cinnamic acid derivatives, including caffeic, ferulic, and coumaric acids, are critical classes of non-flavonoids.

The lignans formed by oxidative dimerization of two phenylpropane units are another essential non-flavonoid group 54 Flavanols are the best known form of flavonoids in foodstuff, with broccoli, apples, tea, blueberries, onions, and red wine being their most lavish sources Flavanone-rich common foods are mainly citrus fruits such as lemon, grapefruit, and orange fruit Flavanols are present in tea, blackberries, apples, pistachios, and almonds In red fruits and vegetables e.

Olive oil, acerola, apricot, apple, nectar, mango, and papaya are examples of sources of flavones 61 Isoflavones are bioactive mixtures mainly found in the legume family, including dried dates, apricot, currants, mango, plums, new coconuts, and sesame seeds 6364although it has been shown that stilbenes are available in grapes, red wine, and berries For instance, red leafy foods, blackberries, strawberries, dark radish, onions, and tea are sources of phenolic acids The role of polyphenols in counteracting different diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, neurodegenerative diseases, and cardiovascular diseases has been highlighted in numerous studies 65 — Polyphenols are antioxidant agents also crucial to balance oxidative stress and chronic inflammation Because of this, several studies have concentrated on their beneficial anti-inflammatory 7273pain-relieving 74 and antimicrobial 5475vasodilatory 76antiallergenic 77anticarcinogenic 78 effects, etc.

It is noteworthy that it is challenging to estimate dietary entry, and a solitary strategy cannot thoroughly evaluate dietary exposure 79mainly when focusing on micronutrients and bioactive substances, including polyphenols.

Polyphenol intake may be affected by a few different variables, for example, dietary propensities, characteristics of the population e. The consumption of polyphenols is closely related to bioavailability and bioaccessibility.

: Polyphenols and digestion

What Are Polyphenols? Types, Benefits, and Food Sources

Interestingly, intestinal permeability during exercise may aid in increasing the levels of polyphenols found in systemic circulation.

A group of walkers and runners received flavonoid supplementation flavanols, quercetin, and anthocyanins for two weeks prior to exercise. After exercise, there was an elevation in gut-derived polyphenols. Researchers think this result could have been due to the acute permeability that occurs during intense exercise, and the increase in polyphenols may aid in attenuating inflammation.

Exercise has also been shown to increase microbial diversity , which can impact levels of polyphenol metabolites.

Catechins and epicatechins are secondary plant metabolites belonging to the flavanol group of flavonoids. Green tea is a rich source of catechins, but catechins and epicatechins can also be found in black tea, red wine, cocoa, and fruit such as pomegranates, pears, and cherries.

An in vitro study showed that Akkermansia muciniphila can metabolize epigallocatechingallate EGCG in the presence of either mucin or glucose, but not in isolation.

This result not only highlights the importance of maintaining a healthy gastrointestinal mucosal layer, but also of eating polyphenol-rich foods in their whole form.

While many studies look at isolated phenolic compounds, consuming whole foods that contain carbohydrates and fiber may be synergistically beneficial for the microbiota.

Genetic expression related to leptin a satiety hormone and the development of fat tissue were also altered. Anthocyanins are known for providing pigments to richly-colored red, blue, and purple fruits and vegetables such as blueberries, strawberries, blackberries, raspberries, apples, and red cabbage.

Researchers in New Zealand sought to further understand the role that anthocyanins play in promoting microbial diversity. They looked at the polyphenolic composition of two different apples with red and white flesh.

The white-fleshed apple had higher amounts of catechins and epicatechins, while the red-fleshed apple was rich in quercetins and cyanidins. The red-fleshed apple increased the abundance of Lactobacillus and Butyricicoccus and decreased Roseburia and Ruminococcus.

This is an interesting finding since Roseburia produces butyrate, an important short-chain fatty acid. The two apples also upregulated the expression of 18 genes, 16 of which were related to immunity.

This study serves as a good reminder to include many kinds of foods in the diet since varieties of the same fruit can contain different phytochemicals.

Anthocyanins have been studied for their effects on metabolic health by way of the microbiome. Mice treated with anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins exhibited improved insulin sensitivity.

The mice were fed a high fat, high sucrose HFHS diet, and those that also received proanthocyanidin supplementation experienced less weight gain and adipose tissue accumulation compared to those only on the HFHS diet.

Germ-free mice that received a fecal microbiota transplant from the HFHS mice experienced consistent metabolic changes with the first group, suggesting that the microbiota was responsible for the polyphenolic effects.

Dietary analyses of adults in northern Germany demonstrated that higher intakes of anthocyanins were associated with lower levels of visceral adipose tissue , which is the fat that accumulates around organs. A higher intake of anthocyanins also correlated with greater microbial diversity and abundance.

There were significant associations between lower visceral adipose tissue and specific bacterial genera such as Roseburia.

Finally, a small group of overweight and obese adults were given a mixture of inulin, beta-glucan, and anthocyanins the equivalent of two cups of blueberries.

After four weeks, participants experienced improved glucose tolerance and satiety. Short-chain fatty acids, which increased in this study, stimulate satiety hormones such as peptide YY. Resveratrol is a stilbene compound that is found in grapes, wine, peanuts, cocoa, and berries. Some of the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet may be attributed to the resveratrol found in red wine.

Trimethylamine N-oxide TMAO is a metabolite produced by gut bacteria that is thought to contribute to cardiovascular disease. After four weeks of resveratrol-rich grape extract supplementation, serum levels of TMAO were significantly lower in the treatment group as compared to placebo Intra-amniotic injections of resveratrol and pterostilbene in Cornish broiler hatchlings led to alterations in gut function , mineral levels, and inflammatory cytokines.

The length and diameter of the intestinal microvilli were significantly increased. The microvilli are hairlike projections that play a direct role in nutrient absorption. Liver and serum iron and zinc levels, as well as calcium and magnesium metabolism markers, were greater in the treatment group, perhaps due to the strength of the microvilli.

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Exp Mol Med. Biasi F, Guina T, Maina M, Cabboi B, Deiana M, Tuberoso CI, et al. Phenolic compounds present in Sardinian wine extracts protect against the production of inflammatory cytokines induced by oxysterols in CaCo-2 human enterocyte-like cells.

Biochem Pharmacol. During A, Debouche C, Raas T, Larondelle Y. Among plant lignans, pinoresinol has the strongest antiinflammatory properties in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Sengottuvelan M, Nalini N. Dietary supplementation of resveratrol suppresses colonic tumour incidence in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-treated rats by modulating biotransforming enzymes and aberrant crypt foci development.

Sanchez-Fidalgo S, Cardeno A, Villegas I, Talero E, de la Lastra CA. Dietary supplementation of resveratrol attenuates chronic colonic inflammation in mice. Eur J Pharmacol. Martin AR, Villegas I, La Casa C, de la Lastra CA.

Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in grapes, suppresses oxidative damage and stimulates apoptosis during early colonic inflammation in rats. Singh UP, Singh NP, Singh B, Hofseth LJ, Price RL, Nagarkatti M, et al. Resveratrol trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene induces silent mating type information regulation-1 and down-regulates nuclear transcription factor-kappaB activation to abrogate dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.

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Chemopreventive effect of dietary curcumin on inflammationinduced colorectal carcinogenesis in mice. Ruan Z, Liu S, Zhou Y, Mi S, Liu G, Wu X, et al. Chlorogenic acid decreases intestinal permeability and increases expression of intestinal tight junction proteins in weaned rats challenged with LPS.

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Syed U, Ganapasam S. Differential inhibitory effects of the polyphenol ellagic acid on inflammatory mediators NF-kappaB, iNOS, COX-2, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 in 1,2-dimethylhydrazineinduced rat colon carcinogenesis.

Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. Okazaki Y, Han Y, Kayahara M, Watanabe T, Arishige H, Kato N. Consumption of curcumin elevates fecal immunoglobulin A, an index of intestinal immune function, in rats fed a high-fat diet.

Dolara P, Luceri C, De Filippo C, Femia AP, Giovannelli L, Caderni G, et al. Red wine polyphenols influence carcinogenesis, intestinal microflora, oxidative damage and gene expression profiles of colonic mucosa in F rats. Mutat Res Mol Mech Mutagen. Varilek GW, Yang F, Lee EY, deVilliers WJS, Zhong J, Oz HS, et al.

Green tea polyphenol extract attenuates inflammation in interleukin-2—deficient mice, a model of autoimmunity. Lin G, Yan X, Liu D, Yang C, Huang Y, Zhao C. Role of green macroalgae enteromorpha prolifera polyphenols in the modulation of gene expression and intestinal microflora profiles in type 2 diabetic mice.

Int J Mol Sci. Pandurangan AK, Mohebali N, Mohd N, Esa C, Y Looi Y, Ismail S, et al. Gallic acid suppresses inflammation in dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in mice: Possible mechanisms. Int Immunopharmacol. Canali R, Vignolini F, Nobili F, Mengheri E.

Reduction of oxidative stress and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant CINC expression by red wine polyphenols in zinc deficiency induced intestinal damage of rat.

Wang K, Jin X, Li Q, Sawaya ACHF, Le Leu RK, Conlon MA, et al. Propolis from different geographic origins decreases intestinal inflammation and Bacteroides spp.

Populations in a Model of DSS-Induced Colitis. Kim YH, Kwon HS, Kim DH, Cho HJ, Lee HS, Jun JG, et al. Piceatannol, a stilbene present in grapes, attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.

Massot-Cladera M, Abril-Gil M, Torres S, Franch A, Castell M, Perez-Cano FJ. Impact of cocoa polyphenol extracts on the immune system and microbiota in two strains of young rats.

Perez-Berezo T, Franch A, Castellote C, Castell M, Perez-Cano FJ. Mechanisms involved in down-regulation of intestinal IgA in rats by high cocoa intake.

Wang K, Wan Z, Ou A, Liang X, Guo X, Zhang Z, et al. Monofloral honey from a medical plant, Prunella Vulgaris, protected against dextran sulfate sodium-induced ulcerative colitis via modulating gut microbial populations in rats. Food Funct. Kim H, Banerjee N, Barnes RC, Pfent CM, Talcott ST, Dashwood RH, et al.

Mol Carcinog. Taira T, Yamaguchi S, Takahashi A, Okazaki Y, Yamaguchi A, Sakaguchi H, et al. Dietary polyphenols increase fecal mucin and immunoglobulin A and ameliorate the disturbance in gut microbiota caused by a high fat diet.

J Clin Biochem Nutr. Zanzer YC, Plaza M, Dougkas A, Turner C, Björck I, Östman E. Polyphenol-rich spice-based beverages modulated postprandial early glycaemia, appetite and PYY after breakfast challenge in healthy subjects: a randomised, single blind, crossover study. J Funct Food. Snopek L, Mlcek J, Sochorova L, Baron M, Hlavacova I, Jurikova T, et al.

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Chlorogenic acid ameliorates experimental colitis by promoting growth of Akkermansia inmice. Ahn SC, Kim GY, Kim JH, Baik SW, Han MK, Lee HJ, et al. Epigallocatechingallate, constituent of green tea, suppresses the LPS-induced phenotypic and functional maturation of murine dendritic cells through inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinases and NF-κB.

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Silk fibroin nanoparticles constitute a vector for controlled release of resveratrol in an experimental model of inflammatory bowel disease in rats.

Foods that are rich in polyphenols include berries, beans, oats, garlic, spinach, and other plant-based foods. While you can also get polyphenols from supplements, know that they are not regulated by the FDA.

Make sure to talk to your provider before trying one. However, researchers believe eating five or more servings of fruit and vegetables daily will provide enough polyphenols to benefit health. Research shows polyphenols help support the health of your gut microbiome, which can keep intestines healthy, support digestion, boost the immune system, and support brain health.

Pizzino G, Irrera N, Cucinotta M, et al. Oxidative stress: harms and benefits for human health. Oxid Med Cell Longev. Cory H, Passarelli S, Szeto J, Tamez M, Mattei J. The role of polyphenols in human health and food systems: a mini-review. Front Nutr. Zhou Y, Zheng J, Li Y, et al.

Natural polyphenols for prevention and treatment of cancer. Hamed M, Kalita D, Bartolo ME, Jayanty SS. Capsaicinoids, polyphenols and antioxidant activities of capsicum annuum: Comparative study of the effect of ripening stage and cooking methods.

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Polyphenols rich diets and risk of type 2 diabetes. Paquette M, Larqué ASM, Weisnagel SJ, et al. Strawberry and cranberry polyphenols improve insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant, non-diabetic adults: A parallel, double-blind, controlled and randomised clinical trial.

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By Ashley Braun, MPH, RD Ashley Braun, MPH, RD, is a registered dietitian and public health professional with over 5 years of experience educating people on health-related topics using evidence-based information.

Best Polyphenols for Your Gut?

Cuevas-Rodríguez, M. Mondor, Y. Arcand and A. Hernández-Álvarez, Food Funct. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3. You can use material from this article in other publications without requesting further permissions from the RSC, provided that the correct acknowledgement is given.

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Jump to site search. You do not have JavaScript enabled. Please enable JavaScript to access the full features of the site or access our non-JavaScript page. Issue 16, In vitro gastrointestinal digestion impact on stability, bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of polyphenols from wild and commercial blackberries Rubus spp.

This article is Open Access. Please wait while we load your content Both epidemiological and clinical evidence support the notion that polyphenol rich foods and beverages may modify glycemic response, glucose homeostasis and subsequent risk of Type-2 diabetes.

In vitro evidence typically derived from experiments with pure phenolics and phenolic rich extracts have pointed to this benefit being associated with two potential mechanisms: 1 the ability of specific polyphenolics to inhibit carbohydrate digestion amylase and glucosidase and 2 polyphenolic inhibition of intestinal glucose transport.

While the high potential of these activities is evident, little is actually known regarding the extent to which these benefits are extendable to the actual food matrix these phenolics are naturally present in.

Further, the extent to which co-consumption of polyphenol rich foods may actually result in decreased glycemic response from a mixed meal remains mostly unknown. Considering these limitations, additional insights are required in order to advance knowledge on the benefits of polyphenolics on glucomodulatory mechanisms and translation of these insights into meaningful recommendations and products for consumers.

With this in mind, the objectives of these studies were to determine the extent to which phenolic-rich foods grapes and potatoes exert glucomodulatory properties in model food systems using in vitro and in vivo assessments.

First, mechanisms associated with polyphenol rich extracts or model foods on carbohydrate intestinal digestion and glucose transport were investigated in vitro using a three-stage in vitro digestion model coupled to the Caco-2 human intestinal cell model.

Components of this model used individually or in combination allowed for assessment of the two main mechanistic steps in phenolic modulation of glycemic response starch digestion and glucose transport in the context of interactions with bioaccessible phenolics.

While grape juices remain a major dietary source of phenolics, they are also well recognized to be naturally high in sugar content. Insights into the ability of natural fruit phenolics to modify glycemic response of grape juice were investigated in vitro.

In the first experiment, inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase by GJ extracts and μM total phenolics and ability of GJ extracts 10 to μM total phenolics to modulate labelled glucose and fructose transport across Caco-2 intestinal cell monolayers compared to a phenolic-free control were determined.

GJ extracts decreased α-glucosidase, but not α-amylase activity at both concentrations tested. Further, glucose and fructose transport were significantly pin vitro with a starch-rich model meal.

Resulting aqueous digesta AQ from both experiments were used to assess impact of bioaccessible GJ phenolics on carbohydrate digestion and glucose transport. Concord and Niagara GJs significantly decreased in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of carbohydrate from model meal compared with a sugar-matched control.

Further, d7-glucose transport from AQ fraction of GJ and co-digested GJ and carbohydrate-rich meal across Caco-2 human intestinal cell monolayers was significantly decreased compared to phenolic-free sugar-sweetened control.

The second study evaluated potential for phenolics from starch rich white, purple, or red potatoes to modulate carbohydrate digestion or glucose transport in a Caco-2 intestinal cell model.

Potato phenolic extracts μM had no impact on α-amylase activity, and marginally decreased α-glucosidase activity. Licence In Copyright. Exports Select an option. RefWorks RefWorks. BibTeX BibTeX. manager Ref. Endnote Endnote. DataCite DataCite. NLM NLM.

Article information Cranberry anti-cancer compounds digestoon Polyphenols and digestion uptake Healthy low-carb options metabolism: an updated Polypphenols. Woting A, Clavel T, Polyphenolls G, Blaut M. Polyphenols and digestion transformation by gut bacteria lowers tumor burden in a gnotobiotic rat model of breast cancer. Dietary assessment methods in epidemiologic studies. If you are an author contributing to an RSC publication, you do not need to request permission provided correct acknowledgement is given. For example, resveratrol has not always been shown to have heart-health benefits. Mol Carcinog.
What Are Polyphenols? Types, Benefits, and Food Sources

These results suggest that potato phenolics may play a role in modulation of intestinal glucose transport and that these effects are translatable to consumer products such as potato chips. Taken together, these data support the notion that phenolics intrinsic to select foods have the ability to modify glycemic response through alteration of glucose transport and to a certain extent starch digestion.

Future research that focuses on hypoglycemic effects of phenolic-rich foods should be larger scale and should evaluate a greater variety of phenolic-rich foods in order to better understand the extent to which phenolic class and food matrix impact hypoglycemic effects.

Regarding meal-effects, a pilot clinical study should be completed to validate in vitro results and to provide information as to what degree various types of meal patterns alter glycemic effects of phenolic-rich foods.

Such information can be leveraged in the development of phenolic-rich food products that have post-prandial glycemic effects and for making recommendations of dietary choices which may result in improved glucose homeostasis.

Moser, Sydney E. Open Access Dissertations. Food Science Commons , Nutrition Commons. Advanced Search. Home About FAQ My Account Accessibility Statement.

Privacy Copyright. Skip to main content. Home About FAQ My Account. Influence of dietary polyphenols on carbohydrate intestinal digestion and absorption. Author Sydney E. Date of Award Degree Type Dissertation. Degree Name Doctor of Philosophy PhD. Additional supervisor 1 Michael J Houghton.

Additional supervisor 2 Elizabeth Barber. Department, School or Centre Nutrition and Dietetics. Campus location Australia. Course Doctor of Philosophy. Faculty Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences. Usage metrics. Categories Biochemistry and cell biology not elsewhere classified.

Polyphenol supplements may not offer the same health benefits as polyphenol-rich foods. The same cannot be said of supplements, which tend to provide much higher quantities of polyphenols than those typically found in a healthy diet Animal studies show that high-dose polyphenol supplements may cause kidney damage, tumors, and an imbalance in thyroid hormone levels.

In humans, they may result in an increased risk of stroke and premature death 39 , Some polyphenol-rich supplements can interact with nutrient absorption or interact with medications.

If you have a diagnosed nutrient deficiency or are taking medications, it may be best to speak to your healthcare provider about polyphenol supplements before taking them. In addition, some polyphenol-rich foods, such as beans and peas, may be rich in lectins. When consumed in large quantities, lectins may cause unpleasant digestive symptoms, such as gas, bloating, and indigestion Polyphenol-rich foods are considered safe for most people, while supplements may cause more harm than good.

To reduce gas, bloating, and indigestion, try soaking or sprouting polyphenol-rich legumes before eating them. Polyphenols are beneficial compounds in many plant foods that can be grouped into flavonoids, phenolic acid, polyphenolic amides, and other polyphenols.

They may improve digestion, brain function, and blood sugar levels, as well as protect against blood clots, heart disease, and certain cancers. Our experts continually monitor the health and wellness space, and we update our articles when new information becomes available.

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How Well Do You Sleep? Health Conditions Discover Plan Connect. Nutrition Evidence Based What Are Polyphenols?

Types, Benefits, and Food Sources. Medically reviewed by Marie Lorraine Johnson MS, RD, CPT — By Alina Petre, MS, RD NL — Updated on October 23, What are polyphenols?

Health benefits of polyphenols.

Polyphenols Benefits and Foods to Eat

Potato phenolic extracts μM had no impact on α-amylase activity, and marginally decreased α-glucosidase activity. However, potato phenolic extracts μM did decrease d7-glucose transport compared to phenolic-free control.

Interestingly, whole potato phenolic extracts reduced glucose transport to a greater extent compared to those from potato peel. Blood glucose levels were measured for up to two hours.

Peak blood glucose levels were lower for pigmented chips, especially purple chips, compared to white chips without any significant changes in gastric emptying.

These results suggest that potato phenolics may play a role in modulation of intestinal glucose transport and that these effects are translatable to consumer products such as potato chips.

Taken together, these data support the notion that phenolics intrinsic to select foods have the ability to modify glycemic response through alteration of glucose transport and to a certain extent starch digestion.

Future research that focuses on hypoglycemic effects of phenolic-rich foods should be larger scale and should evaluate a greater variety of phenolic-rich foods in order to better understand the extent to which phenolic class and food matrix impact hypoglycemic effects.

Regarding meal-effects, a pilot clinical study should be completed to validate in vitro results and to provide information as to what degree various types of meal patterns alter glycemic effects of phenolic-rich foods.

Such information can be leveraged in the development of phenolic-rich food products that have post-prandial glycemic effects and for making recommendations of dietary choices which may result in improved glucose homeostasis.

Moser, Sydney E. Open Access Dissertations. Food Science Commons , Nutrition Commons. Advanced Search. Home About FAQ My Account Accessibility Statement.

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Gallic acid suppresses inflammation in dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in mice: Possible mechanisms. Box 17, Wageningen, The Netherlands E-mail: ruud. verkerk wur. The inhibitory effect of tea polyphenols on starch digestibility can contribute to the control of the glycaemic index of starchy food.

In this study, wheat bread and gluten-free bread were co-digested in vitro with different amounts of tea polyphenols. The kinetics of starch digestion and polyphenol bio-accessibility during in vitro digestion were monitored.

The results showed that co-digestion of bread with tea polyphenols dose-dependently slowed the starch digestion kinetics and this effect is influenced by the types of polyphenols and the presence of gluten.

The presence of gluten lowered the inhibitory efficacy of tannins on starch digestibility to 7. In contrast, the presence of gluten had little impact on the inhibitory efficacy of monomeric polyphenols. This study shows that the release of tea polyphenols in the digestive environment is a promising strategy for controlling the glycaemic index of starchy food and that monomeric and polymeric tea polyphenols differently affect starch digestion according to the presence of gluten.

Kan, E. Capuano, V. Fogliano, T. Oliviero and R. Verkerk, Food Funct. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3. You can use material from this article in other publications, without requesting further permission from the RSC, provided that the correct acknowledgement is given and it is not used for commercial purposes.

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Polyphenols and digestion

Author: Tojakazahn

4 thoughts on “Polyphenols and digestion

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