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Clinically proven weight loss supplements

Clinically proven weight loss supplements

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Clinically proven weight loss supplements -

Studies might also use different and sometimes inappropriate assessment techniques to measure the effectiveness of a given treatment. All of these factors can make it difficult to compare the results of one study with those of another.

Table 1 briefly summarizes the findings discussed in more detail in this fact sheet on the safety and efficacy of the most common ingredients of weight-loss dietary supplements. These ingredients are listed and discussed in the table and text in alphabetical order. Dosage information is provided when it is available.

However, because ingredients might not be standardized and many products contain proprietary blends of ingredients, the active compounds and their amounts might not be comparable among products [ 15 ].

The efficacy and safety of these ingredients might be different when they are combined with other ingredients in a product. African mango, or Irvingia gabonensis , is a fruit-bearing tree that is native to western and central Africa [ 16 ].

Irvingia gabonensis seed kernel extract has been proposed to promote weight loss by inhibiting adipogenesis, as demonstrated in vitro [ 17 ]. In addition, a proprietary extract of Irvingia gabonensis , IGOB, reduces serum levels of leptin [ 18 ], a hormone that is positively correlated with body weight and percentage body fat [ 19 ].

IGOB might also reduce total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein LDL levels [ 18 ]. Studies have examined the effects of Irvingia gabonensis on weight loss to only a limited extent in humans. Participants who received the extract had significantly lower body weight, body fat, and waist circumference at the end of the trial than those taking a placebo.

This trial, along with two others, was included in a systematic review whose authors reported that Irvingia gabonensis extract causes statistically significant reductions in body weight and waist circumference [ 19 ]. The authors noted, however, that the trials included in the review used different study methodologies, small samples, short intervention periods, and varying daily doses of Irvingia gabonensis extract mg to 3, mg ; in addition, the trials were all conducted by the same authors.

Additional trials with larger samples and diverse populations are needed to determine whether Irvingia gabonensis extract is effective for weight loss [ 19 ]. Irvingia gabonensis extract appears to be well tolerated.

Most reported adverse effects are mild, including headache, difficulty sleeping, flatulence, and gas [ 19 ]. However, Irvingia gabonensis has been associated with renal failure in a patient with chronic kidney disease [ 21 ].

Beta-glucans are glucose polysaccharides found in bacteria, yeasts, fungi, and cereal grains such as oats and barley. As soluble dietary fibers, beta-glucans are proposed to increase satiety and gastrointestinal transit time and to slow glucose absorption [ 16 ]. Consumption of beta-glucans from barley has been shown to reduce energy intake and appetite in humans [ 22 ].

Several studies have investigated the effects of beta-glucans on blood lipids, blood pressure, and insulin resistance, with weight loss as a secondary outcome.

In one of these studies, 66 women who were overweight followed a low-calorie diet designed to produce a 0. At the end of the trial, all groups lost weight and had a smaller waist circumference, but there were no significant differences between groups. Beta-glucans appear to be well tolerated.

Reported adverse effects include increased flatulence but not changes in stool consistency, stool frequency, or bloating [ 24 ]. Bitter orange is the common name for the botanical Citrus aurantium. The fruit of this plant is a source of p-synephrine often referred to simply as synephrine and other protoalkaloids [ 28 ].

As alpha-adrenergic agonists, synephrine alkaloids can mimic the action of epinephrine and norepinephrine. However, the extent to which bitter orange and synephrine cause similar cardiovascular and central nervous system effects to epinephrine and norepinephrine e.

Studies suggest that bitter orange increases energy expenditure and lipolysis and that it acts as a mild appetite suppressant [ 25 , 27 ].

After FDA banned the use of ephedrine alkaloids in dietary supplements in [see section on ephedra má huáng ], manufacturers replaced ephedra with bitter orange in many products; thus, bitter orange became known as an ephedra substitute [ 29 ].

Although synephrine has some structural similarities to ephedrine, it has different pharmacological properties [ 27 , 30 ]. Several small human studies have examined whether bitter orange is effective for weight loss [ 30 ]. Interpreting the results of these studies is complicated by the fact that bitter orange is almost always combined with other ingredients in weight-loss supplements.

At the end of the study, participants taking the combination bitter orange product had a significantly greater reduction in percent body fat and fat mass and a greater increase in basal metabolic rate than those in the placebo and control groups.

Participants in all groups lost weight, but the authors did not report whether the mean reduction in body weight in the treatment group 1. The peak rise in resting metabolic rate at baseline was significantly higher in participants taking the herbal supplement than those in the placebo group, but the difference was not significant at the end of the 8-week study.

Participants taking the herbal supplement had a significant increase in mean body weight 1. However, this increase in body weight did not significantly affect body fat and lean tissue levels or waist circumference.

The authors noted that the weight gain might have occurred by chance because the trial was insufficiently powered to detect this small difference. The authors of a review of 23 small human clinical studies involving a total of participants concluded that synephrine increases resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure [ 30 ].

According to all of these reviews, longer term clinical trials with rigorous designs and large samples are needed to determine the value of bitter orange for weight loss.

Products containing bitter orange may have significant safety concerns. Reported adverse effects include chest pain, headache, anxiety, elevated heart rate, musculoskeletal complaints, ventricular fibrillation, ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, and death [ 34 , 35 ].

However, many of the products with these effects contain multiple herbal ingredients, and the role of bitter orange in these adverse effects cannot be isolated. Some studies indicate that bitter orange and synephrine—as bitter orange extract or pure synephrine—raise blood pressure and heart rate, but other studies show that they do not have these effects [ , 31 , ].

Some researchers have suggested that synephrine might not act directly as a cardiovascular stimulant [ 27 , 37 , 39 ]. Instead, caffeine, other stimulants in multicomponent formulations, and other constituents of bitter orange or adulterants such as m-synephrine, which is not naturally present in bitter orange might be responsible for its observed effects.

Many dietary supplements promoted for weight loss contain added caffeine or an herbal source—such as guarana Paullinia cupana , kola or cola nut Cola nitida , and yerba maté Ilex paraguariensis —that naturally contains caffeine. Green tea and other forms of tea also contain caffeine see section on green tea.

Some weight-loss supplement labels do not declare the amount of caffeine in the product and only list the herbal ingredients. As a result, consumers might not be aware that the presence of certain herbs means that a product contains caffeine and possibly other stimulants [ 41 ].

Caffeine is a methylxanthine that stimulates the central nervous system, heart, and skeletal muscles. It also increases gastric and colonic activity and acts as a diuretic [ 42 , 43 ]. Caffeine has a half-life of about 6 hours; blood levels increase within 15—45 minutes of consumption, and they peak at around 60 minutes [ 44 ].

Caffeine increases thermogenesis in a linear, dose-dependent fashion in humans [ 45 ]. A mg dose of caffeine, for example, increased energy expenditure by a mean of 9. Caffeine might also contribute to weight loss by increasing fat oxidation through sympathetic activation of the central nervous system and by increasing fluid loss [ 41 , 45 ].

Habitual use of caffeine however, leads to caffeine tolerance and a diminishment of these effects [ 41 , 43 ]. Caffeine increases energy expenditure and fat oxidation [ 44 ]. However, the extent to which these effects affect weight loss is less clear, partly because clinical trials examining the effects of caffeine on weight loss have all been short and have used combination products.

After 6 months, those in the treatment group lost significantly more weight mean weight loss 5. A product containing caffeine plus glucosyl hesperidin G-hesperidin, a flavonone glycoside found mainly in citrus fruits reduced abdominal fat and BMI in a clinical trial in Japan [ 47 ].

In this study, 75 healthy men and women who were overweight BMI 24—30 received one of five treatments daily for 12 weeks while maintaining their regular lifestyle and eating habits.

The five treatments were placebo and four formulations of 0, 25, 50, or 75 mg caffeine plus mg G-hesperidin. The 75 mg caffeine plus G-hesperidin significantly reduced BMI by a mean of 0. The 50 or 75 mg caffeine plus G-hesperidin also significantly reduced abdominal fat compared to placebo, whereas the G-hesperidin alone or with only 25 mg caffeine did not significantly affect BMI or abdominal fat.

These findings indicate that the higher doses of caffeine might be responsible for the observed effects. At the end of the study, participants taking the herbal product lost a mean of 5.

Data from a year prospective observational study provide some insight into the long-term association between caffeine intake and body weight [ 49 ]. On average, participants gained some weight during the study, but men who increased their caffeine intake during the 12 years of follow-up gained a mean of 0.

For women, the corresponding mean difference in weight gain was 0. However, further research is needed to confirm this finding. For comparison, an 8-ounce cup of brewed coffee contains about 85— mg caffeine.

Caffeine can cause sleep disturbances and feelings of nervousness, jitteriness, and shakiness. Combining caffeine with other stimulants, such as bitter orange and ephedrine, can potentiate these adverse effects. Calcium is an essential mineral that is stored in the bones and teeth, where it supports their structure and function.

Calcium is required for vascular contraction and vasodilation, muscle function, nerve transmission, intracellular signaling, and hormonal secretion [ 56 ]. Several studies have correlated higher calcium intakes with lower body weight or less weight gain over time [ ].

Two explanations have been proposed. First, high calcium intakes might reduce calcium concentrations in fat cells by decreasing the production of parathyroid hormone and the active form of vitamin D.

Decreased intracellular calcium concentrations, in turn, might increase fat breakdown and discourage fat accumulation in these cells [ 59 ]. Second, calcium from food or supplements might bind to small amounts of dietary fat in the digestive tract and prevent absorption of this fat [ 59 , 62 , 63 ].

Dairy products, in particular, might contain additional components that have even greater effects on body weight than their calcium content alone would suggest [ 60 , ]. For example, protein and other components of dairy products might modulate appetite-regulating hormones [ 61 ]. However, the results from clinical trials examining the effects of calcium on body weight have been largely negative.

Compared to placebo, calcium supplementation for 2 years had no clinically significant effects on weight. The authors of four reviews of published studies on the effects of calcium from supplements or dairy products on weight management reached similar conclusions [ ].

These reviews include a evidence report from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality whose authors concluded that, overall, clinical trial results do not support an effect of calcium supplementation on weight [ 70 ]. In addition, a meta-analysis of 41 randomized controlled trials found no benefit of calcium supplementation or increased dairy food consumption for body weight or body fat [ 73 ].

A meta-analysis of 33 randomized trials and longitudinal studies lasting 12 weeks to 6 years found that calcium from foods or supplements had no overall effect on body weight [ 74 ]. However, in subgroup analyses, calcium did reduce body weight in some groups, including children, adolescents, adult men, premenopausal women, women older than 60, and people with normal BMI [ 74 ].

Overall, the results from clinical trials do not support a clear link between higher calcium intakes and lower body weight, prevention of weight gain, or weight loss.

High intakes of calcium can cause constipation and might interfere with the absorption of iron and zinc, although this effect is not well established. High intakes of calcium from supplements, but not foods, have been associated with an increased risk of kidney stones [ 56 , ].

Capsaicinoids give chili peppers their characteristic pungent flavor. Capsaicin is the most abundant and well-studied capsaicinoid [ 78 ]. Capsaicin and other capsaicinoids have been proposed to have anti-obesity effects via their ability to increase energy expenditure and lipid oxidation, attenuate postprandial insulin response, increase satiety, and reduce appetite and energy intake [ ].

Other research suggests that capsaicin increases satiety by inducing gastrointestinal distress e. Most research on capsaicin and other capsaicinoids focuses on their effects on energy intake and appetite, rather than body weight.

A meta-analysis of eight randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials evaluated the effects of capsaicinoids on ad libitum energy intake in a total of participants who had a normal body weight or were moderately overweight [ 78 ]. Doses of capsaicinoids ranged from 0.

Overall, consuming capsaicinoids significantly reduced energy intake by a mean of 74 kcal per meal; body weight was not assessed, so the impact of this calorie reduction on weight loss cannot be quantified. The authors noted that the results suggest that at least 2 mg capsaicinoids are needed to reduce calorie intake but that the studies were very heterogeneous.

However, the calorie reductions did not significantly affect body weight at either 6 weeks or 12 weeks. It might also increase serum insulin and reduce high-density lipoprotein HDL cholesterol levels. Otherwise, capsaicin and other capsaicinoids appear to be safe. Research is underway to reduce the pungency and chili taste associated with capsaicin while retaining its potential biological effects [ 81 ].

Carnitine is the generic term for several compounds, including L-carnitine itself, several acylcarnitines e. It is composed of the amino acids lysine and methionine [ 84 ]. Carnitine is naturally present in animal products such as meat, fish, poultry, and milk and dairy products; small amounts are present in some plant foods.

Humans synthesize carnitine from its constituent amino acids, so dietary carnitine intake is not necessary. Almost all cells of the body contain carnitine, which transports fatty acids into the mitochondria and acts as a cofactor for fatty acid beta-oxidation [ 85 ].

Because of these effects, carnitine has been proposed as a weight-loss agent. A systematic review and meta-analysis combined the results from nine carnitine supplementation clinical trials in adults including the two described above that assessed weight loss [ 85 ].

The trials included a total of participants. In eight trials, the daily carnitine doses ranged from 1. Overall, study participants who received carnitine supplements lost an average of 1. Additional research on carnitine for weight loss is warranted.

Rarer side effects include muscle weakness in patients with uremia and seizures in those with seizure disorders. Some research indicates that intestinal bacteria metabolize carnitine to form trimethylamine N-oxide TMAO , a substance that might increase the risk of cardiovascular disease [ 91 ].

This effect appears to be more pronounced in people who consume meat than in vegans or vegetarians. The implications of this effect are not well understood and require more research.

Chitosan is a manufactured polysaccharide that is commercially prepared from the exoskeletons of crustaceans. It is purported to promote weight loss by binding to some dietary fat in the digestive tract, preventing its absorption [ 16 , 41 ].

Chitosan might also decrease cholesterol absorption [ 16 ]. Chitosan capsules taken before meals total of 2. However, the amount of fat that the chitosan trapped would result in a loss of only 1 lb body fat over about 7 months.

Chitosan had no significant effect on fecal fat excretion in the women compared to the control group. At the end of the study, those in the treatment group lost a mean of 1 kg body weight compared to a mean weight gain of 1. In this study, chitosan treatment reduced body weight mean weight loss about 2.

The authors of a Cochrane Review that included 13 trials examining the effect of chitosan on body weight found that chitosan, when taken for 4 weeks to 6 months, reduced body weight by a mean of 1.

They concluded that chitosan appears to be more effective than placebo for short-term weight loss, but most studies have been of poor quality. The authors also noted that results from high-quality trials indicate that chitosan has minimal effects on body weight, and these effects are probably clinically insignificant.

The adverse effects of chitosan are minor and primarily involve the gastrointestinal tract. They include flatulence, bloating, mild nausea, constipation, indigestion, and heartburn [ 93 , 95 , 96 ]. Because chitosan is derived from shellfish, people who are allergic to shellfish could theoretically be allergic to chitosan [ 97 ].

The trivalent form of chromium chromium III is an essential trace mineral that potentiates the action of insulin. Dietary supplements commonly contain chromium in the form of chromium picolinate, which consists of chromium and picolinic acid, although they might also contain other forms, including chromium nicotinate and chromium yeast [ 99 ].

Poor chromium status might contribute to impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes [ 98 ]. Researchers have hypothesized that chromium supplements increase lean muscle mass and promote fat loss, but study results have been equivocal [ 41 , ].

Some research indicates that these supplements might also reduce food intake, hunger levels, and fat cravings [ ], although data on these effects are sparse. Several studies have evaluated the effects of chromium supplements, usually in the form of chromium picolinate, on weight loss.

Six of the trials included resistance or weight training, and three did not. Chromium picolinate supplementation reduced body weight by 1.

Also in , a systematic review and meta-analysis of 11 randomized controlled trials including most of the trials evaluated in the Cochrane Review examined the effects of chromium supplementation in a total of individuals with overweight or obesity [ 99 ].

The authors concluded that daily doses of to 1, mcg chromium for 8 to 26 weeks reduce body weight by 0. Like the authors of the Cochrane Review, these authors noted that the effect is small and of "uncertain" clinical relevance.

Similar findings were reported from an earlier meta-analysis of 12 trials [ ]. Trivalent chromium appears to be well tolerated. Adverse effects from clinical trials include watery stools, headache, weakness, nausea, vomiting, constipation, vertigo, and urticaria hives [ 99 , ].

Chromium does not have an established UL because few serious adverse effects have been linked to high intakes [ 98 ].

Hexavalent chromium chromium VI is toxic and not found in food or dietary supplements. Forskolin is a compound isolated from the roots of Coleus forskohlii , a plant that grows in subtropical areas, such as India and Thailand.

Forskolin is purported to promote weight loss by enhancing lipolysis and reducing appetite [ , ], possibly by stimulating cyclic adenosine monophosphate cAMP production.

This increased cAMP production, in turn, is thought to activate lipase and promote the release of fatty acids from adipose tissue [ 16 ]. Although animal studies indicate that forskolin reduces food intake [ , ], research in humans is very limited and inconclusive.

Compared to placebo, Coleus forskohlii extract had no effect on body weight, appetite, caloric intake, or macronutrient intake. In a study in mice, Coleus forskohlii extract caused dose-dependent hepatotoxicity, but pure forskolin did not have this effect, suggesting that other component s of Coleus forskohlii extract might be responsible for the hepatotoxicity [ ].

Forskolin has not been evaluated in longer term trials. Additional research is needed to better understand the safety and side effects of both short- and long-term use.

Conjugated linoleic acid CLA is a mixture of linoleic acid isomers containing conjugated double bonds that is present mainly in dairy products and beef. The various isomeric forms of CLA include c9,tCLA and t10,cCLA, and it is available in dietary supplements as a triacylglycerol or as a free fatty acid [ ].

Researchers have suggested that CLA enhances weight loss by increasing lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle, reducing lipogenesis, and promoting apoptosis in adipose tissue [ 17 , ]. Although CLA appears to reduce body fat mass in animals [ 17 ], results from human studies suggest that its effects are small and of questionable clinical relevance [ ].

One double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluated the effects of CLA supplementation as a mixture of c9,tCLA and t10,cCLA in male and female volunteers who were overweight BMI 25—30 consuming an ad libitum diet [ ]. Participants received CLA as a free fatty acid 3.

At the end of the study, body fat mass dropped by significant amounts with both forms of CLA compared with placebo; reductions, on average, were 6.

Supplementation with CLA as a free fatty acid but not as a triacylglycerol also increased lean body mass compared with placebo. In another double-blind crossover trial, daily supplementation with CLA oil 6.

These findings are similar to those from a randomized, double-blind, placebo- controlled trial in 63 adults with overweight or obesity BMI 24—35 that found statistically significant, but small, reductions in mean weight 0.

In contrast, those in the placebo group did not lose a significant amount of body weight 0. However, 3. The authors of a systematic review and meta-analysis of seven randomized controlled trials concluded that taking 2. However, the authors noted that the "magnitude of these effects is small, and the clinical relevance is uncertain.

CLA appears to be well tolerated. Most reported adverse effects are minor, consisting mainly of gastrointestinal disturbances, such as abdominal discomfort and pain, constipation, diarrhea, loose stools, nausea, vomiting, and dyspepsia [ 3 , , , , , ]. CLA might also increase some markers of oxidative stress and decrease breastmilk fat levels, but additional research is needed to confirm these effects [ ].

CLA has been linked to hepatitis in three case reports [ ]. However, whether CLA caused this toxicity cannot be definitively established because the products were not analyzed to rule out the presence of a contaminant. CLA might adversely affect lipid profiles, although results from studies are inconsistent.

Some research indicates that CLA has no major effect on lipid profiles, but other research shows that certain CLA isomers might decrease HDL cholesterol and increase lipoprotein a levels [ , , , ].

The CLA isomer t10,cCLA has also been reported to increase insulin resistance and glycemia in men with obesity and metabolic syndrome [ , ]. Fucoxanthin is a carotenoid in brown seaweed and other algae. Results from laboratory and animal studies suggest that fucoxanthin might promote weight loss by increasing resting energy expenditure and fatty acid oxidation as well as by suppressing adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation [ , ].

Only one clinical trial has been conducted on the possible weight-loss effects of fucoxanthin. This week trial used Xanthigen, a dietary supplement containing brown seaweed extract and pomegranate-seed oil [ ]. Compared to the placebo group, those receiving Xanthigen lost significantly more body weight by the end of the trial mean loss of 6.

The safety of fucoxanthin has not been thoroughly evaluated in humans. Although participants using Xanthigen in the clinical trial described above reported no adverse effects [ ], further investigation of the safety and potential side effects of fucoxanthin at various levels of intake is required.

Garcinia cambogia is a fruit-bearing tree that grows throughout Asia, Africa, and the Polynesian islands [ ]. The pulp and rind of its fruit contain high amounts of hydroxycitric acid HCA , a compound that has been proposed to inhibit lipogenesis, increase hepatic glycogen synthesis, suppress food intake, and reduce weight gain [ 6 , 15 , , , ].

Studies in rats have found that Garcinia cambogia suppresses food intake and inhibits weight gain [ 3 ]. In humans, however, the evidence on whether Garcinia cambogia or HCA is effective for weight loss is conflicting, and any effects it has appear to be small [ 6 , 17 , ].

In one randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 89 women who were mildly overweight mean BMI Women receiving Garcinia cambogia lost significantly more weight 3.

However, Garcinia cambogia did not alter appetite, and the study produced no evidence that the supplement affected feelings of satiety.

Participants in both groups lost weight, but the between-group weight-loss differences were not statistically significant. HCA also had no effect on body fat loss. A review and meta-analysis of 12 randomized controlled trials with a total of participants examined the effects of Garcinia cambogia on weight loss [ ].

Therefore, the effect of Garcinia cambogia on body weight remains uncertain. The reported adverse effects of Garcinia cambogia and HCA are generally mild and include headache, nausea, upper respiratory tract symptoms, and gastrointestinal symptoms [ , , ].

However, dietary supplements containing Garcinia cambogia have been implicated in three cases of mania, which might have been caused by the serotonergic activity of HCA [ ].

Symptoms included grandiosity an unrealistic sense of superiority , irritability, pressured speech, and decreased need for sleep. Reports have also described 10 cases of liver toxicity, resulting in one death and two liver transplants, in people taking products containing Garcinia cambogia [ 43 , ].

In most of these cases, the products contained other botanical ingredients and minerals as well, so the toxicity cannot be definitively attributed to Garcinia cambogia.

Because all clinical trials of Garcinia cambogia and HCA have been short, its long-term safety is unknown. Glucomannan is a soluble dietary fiber derived from konjac root Amorphophallus konjac that can absorb up to 50 times its weight in water [ 16 ].

Like guar gum, glucomannan has been proposed to increase feelings of satiety and fullness and prolong gastric emptying by absorbing water in the gastrointestinal tract [ 16 , , ].

It might also reduce fat and protein absorption in the gut [ 16 ]. Glucomannan appears to have beneficial effects on blood lipids and glucose levels [ ], but its effects on weight loss are inconsistent. At the end of the study, glucomannan produced significantly greater weight loss mean loss of 2.

In another study conducted in the United States, supplementation with glucomannan 3. Eight weeks of glucomannan supplementation 1. The authors of a systematic review of six randomized controlled trials with a total of participants concluded that 1.

Similarly, a meta-analysis of eight trials that included participants found that glucomannan did not significantly affect weight loss compared to placebo [ ].

The authors of an older meta-analysis of 14 studies designed primarily to investigate glucomannan's effect on lipid and blood glucose levels concluded that 1.

Little is known about the long-term safety of glucomannan. Glucomannan appears to be well tolerated for short-term use, with minor adverse effects, including belching, bloating, loose stools, flatulence, diarrhea, constipation, and abdominal discomfort [ , , , ].

The use of tablet forms of glucomannan was reported to be associated with seven cases of esophageal obstruction in — in Australia [ 99 ]. Users should therefore be cautious when taking glucomannan tablets. Powdered and capsule forms have not been associated with this effect [ ].

The seeds or beans of the coffee plant Coffea arabica, Coffea canephora, Coffea robusta are green until they are roasted. Compared to roasted beans, green coffee beans have higher levels of chlorogenic acid.

Green coffee extract, probably because of its chlorogenic acid content, inhibits fat accumulation in mice and humans by regulating adipogenesis. Green coffee extract also modulates glucose metabolism [ ], perhaps by reducing glucose absorption in the gut [ ]. Green coffee beans contain caffeine see section on caffeine above [ ], although decaffeinated forms are available [ 16 ].

In mice, green coffee bean extract in combination with a high-fat diet significantly reduced body weight gain and fat mass [ , ]. Only a few clinical trials have examined the effects of green coffee bean extract on weight loss in humans, and all were of poor methodological quality.

The researchers concluded that green coffee bean extract has a moderate but significant effect on body weight mean weight loss of 2. The authors of another small clinical trial claimed to show a benefit of green coffee bean extract for weight loss [ ], but the study was strongly criticized by the FTC for having several critical flaws in its design [ , ].

Two of the three study authors subsequently retracted the journal publication. Green coffee bean extract appears to be well tolerated, but its safety has not been rigorously studied. Reported adverse effects include headaches and urinary tract infections [ ]. The caffeine naturally present in green coffee beans acts as a stimulant and can cause adverse effects, depending on the dose and whether it is combined with other stimulants see section on caffeine above.

Green tea Camellia sinensis is a popular beverage consumed worldwide that has several purported health benefits [ ]. Green tea is present in some dietary supplements, frequently in the form of green tea extract. The active components of green tea that are associated with weight loss are caffeine see section on caffeine above and catechins, primarily epigallocatechin gallate EGCG , which is a flavonoid [ 41 , ].

A typical brewed cup of green tea has about — mg catechins [ ] and 45 mg caffeine. It has been suggested that green tea and its components might reduce body weight by increasing energy expenditure and fat oxidation, reducing lipogenesis, and decreasing fat absorption [ 41 , ].

Green tea might also decrease carbohydrate digestion and absorption [ ]. Available green tea extracts cover the range from minimally processed tea leaves to highly processed, manufactured concentrates of single constituents, such as EGCG.

The authors of a meta-analysis of six randomized controlled trials with a total of 98 participants found that caffeine alone or in combination with catechins significantly increases energy expenditure in a dose-dependent fashion compared with placebo [ ].

This effect might be important for maintaining weight loss by helping counteract the decrease in metabolic rate that can occur during weight loss.

Catechins combined with caffeine also significantly increase fat oxidation, but caffeine alone does not. Other human research indicates that EGCG alone does not increase resting metabolic rate, fat oxidation, or the thermic effect of feeding the increase in metabolic rate associated with the digestion and absorption of food [ , ].

Taken together, these findings suggest that green tea catechins and caffeine might act synergistically [ 41 , , ]. Several human studies have examined the effects of green tea catechins on weight loss and weight maintenance. A Cochrane Review analyzed the results from 14 randomized controlled trials of green tea preparations in a total of 1, participants with overweight or obesity [ ].

The trials lasted from 12 to 13 weeks, and doses of green tea catechins ranged from to 1, mg; in 10 of the 14 trials, the green tea preparations contained caffeine. Green tea supplementation reduced body weight by a mean of 0.

However, when the authors analyzed the six studies that were conducted outside of Japan where study methodologies were less heterogeneous than in the Japanese studies , they found no statistically significant difference in weight loss for green tea compared to placebo.

The authors reported that green tea catechins combined with caffeine over a median of 12 weeks modestly yet significantly reduced body weight by a mean of 1.

Only two studies in this meta-analysis examined the effects of green tea catechins alone. The result? An improved physique that looks good and feels fantastic, offering users a renewed zest for life.

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Each blend is a meticulously crafted concoction of Mediterranean plants and super nutrients, supporting and optimizing liver function. The Liver Purification Complex offers a detoxifying power vital for a liver burdened by everyday toxins.

By cleansing the liver, it sets the stage for enhanced metabolic health. On the other hand, the Liver Fat-Burning Complex is a metabolic booster, targeting fat in those notoriously stubborn areas.

This two-pronged approach ensures that Liv Pure not only aids in weight loss but also elevates overall vitality. Take control of your weight management with Liv Pure, the ultimate solution for maintaining a healthy liver.

Liv Pure proves that a healthy liver is the foundation for a healthy weight. Understanding that everything consumed eventually passes through the liver, Liv Pure ensures that it functions optimally, deciding whether food is used as energy or stored as fat.

Liv Pure naturally enhances energy, fat-burning, and metabolic rate by focusing on liver health. Liv Pure is manufactured in an FDA-approved and GMP-certified facility and ensures the highest quality standards. With over , lives transformed, from young adults to those in their golden years, Liv Pure is a beacon of hope for those seeking a natural, practical path to weight loss and improved well-being.

In the constantly evolving health and fitness world, navigating claims and counterclaims to find the best weight loss pills can feel like a labyrinth.

To provide clarity and trustworthy guidance, we embarked on a meticulous journey to rank these supplements. Our approach was holistic, rigorous, and grounded in the key factors below, ensuring our recommendations are effective, safe, and sustainable:.

At the foundation of our evaluation was scientific evidence. The caliber of ingredients is crucial. We delved into the source, quality, and purity of ingredients used in each supplement.

Only those with high-quality, natural ingredients, free from harmful additives, made our list. We assessed their effectiveness by examining user testimonials, before-and-after scenarios, and documented case studies, looking for consistent and sustainable weight loss results.

A critical aspect of our ranking process was the safety profile of each supplement. We thoroughly examined the potential side effects and long-term health implications, prioritizing products with minimal to no adverse effects. Real user experiences provided invaluable insights.

We sifted through thousands of reviews and testimonials, looking for patterns of success, satisfaction, and any reported product issues. The credibility of the brand behind a supplement is telling. Convenience in usage plays a significant role in adherence to any supplement regimen.

We looked at the dosage requirements, ease of swallowing the pills, and the practicality of incorporating them into daily routines. Finally, the cost-effectiveness and satisfaction guarantees offered by the brands were crucial.

Weight loss pills typically feature a blend of natural and plant-based ingredients, each selected for its potential to enhance metabolism or increase caloric burn, thereby aiding in fat loss.

While many of these supplements might not be clinically tested or FDA-approved, the science behind their constituent ingredients often has a substantial foundation.

These ingredients, from herbal extracts to vitamins and minerals, are chosen based on their historical use and emerging scientific research.

Capsimax Powder, a concentrated form of capsaicinoids derived from red chili peppers, plays a significant role in weight loss supplements. The science behind its effectiveness is rooted in thermogenesis — the process of heat production in organisms. Capsaicinoids boost thermogenesis, thereby increasing energy expenditure and promoting fat oxidation.

Additionally, Capsimax Powder has been shown to have appetite-suppressing properties, reducing overall caloric intake. Its ability to target metabolism and appetite makes it a sought-after ingredient in weight management.

L-carnitine, a naturally occurring amino acid derivative, is essential in the metabolism of fats. Moreover, L-carnitine has been associated with increased muscle recovery and reduced muscle soreness post-exercise, making it a popular supplement among athletes and individuals engaging in regular physical activity.

Chromium Picolinate is a mineral compound that enhances insulin sensitivity and improves glucose metabolism.

Pure herbal supplement days, you may find Pure herbal supplement inundated with advertisements for products lroven promise to help you wejght weight. Weibht weight loss supplements often Brain function booster plant-based supplementd that are purported to Clijically control wfight appetite, boost proveb metabolism, or facilitate fat burning. And they're extremely Clinicallt. With an ever-increasing Pure herbal supplement of weight loss Clinically proven weight loss supplements out there, it's next to impossible to research them all to evaluate the pros and cons and determine which — if any — might work for you. Here's what experts and current research say about some of the most popular weight loss supplementsand whether or not they're actually effective. Before we get into the details, there are a few things you should know about dietary supplements not to be confused with FDA-approved prescription pills proven to aid weight loss. While these "quick fixes" may be tempting, Zuma Nutrition registered dietitian Nick Sopczak says most don't lead to substantial weight loss, especially without making other lifestyle changes, like improving your diet and increasing physical activity.

Just about anyone loas tried it Cllnically that losing weight is hard. When Clinkcally restriction Pure herbal supplement lods workouts wdight you Clinically proven weight loss supplements and hungry, dupplements that supplenents Clinically proven weight loss supplements progress seems worth a try — especially something as Proper meal timing as a pill.

When it suplpements to diet pills, there are two types: weiyht drugs, Clinicxlly over-the-counter supplements.

And sjpplements are not created or Cliniically equally. Clinicxlly Food Eco-Safe Energy Options Drug Administration has All-natural sunflower seeds five prescription drugs Supplemenrs long-term weight loss based on weoght about their safety supplemments effectiveness.

Only three of them are pills:. Pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm Pure herbal supplement other medications — most commonly phentermine Clinica,ly are approved for short-term use. But prescription weight Clunically medication isn't ;roven everyone.

These Clinicaoly aren't a pfoven solution for obesity. Weight loss weigh are used along with a healthy diet and exercise regimen that need supplementx be continued after treatment. Also, side proveen are common and can be severe.

There weighr many diet pills Blueberry skincare benefits that aren't FDA-approved or -regulated, and Cliniically is minimal evidence that they actually work.

Suppoements over-the-counter dietary Clibically don't have to be supplemsnts for safety or weigt by the FDAit's much easier to get them provej shelves Clnically into your Emotional eating habits cabinet.

In Clinidally, many manufacturers supplemengs weight loss supplements supplemrnts test weigut products in humans Best vitamins for energy taking them to market.

What's more, the Clinicaply has supplementz that some over-the-counter products contain hidden ingredients.

These include suppleements drugs and controlled weigt like sibutraminewhich was removed from provven market in because it substantially increased heart rate and blood pressure.

Poss if you're considering a diet pill supplement, there are a few Cliniclly you might want to know first. These types of supplements pills often contain vitamins, minerals, enzymes, Clinical,y herbs. The welght common ingredients can be found in a database from the National Peppermint oil for bug bites Clinically proven weight loss supplements Health.

One Clinically proven weight loss supplements ingredient supplemenst Garcinia cambogia, which comes in products like Hydroxycut and Plexus Slim. It's supposed weighg suppress appetite Clinlcally decrease the number of fat cells your body makes.

Though it's considered "fairly safe," there's no evidence that it actually helps with weight loss, and excessive use has been linked to liver problems. Other diet pills may contain chitosan, from the shells of crabs, lobsters, and shrimp.

In theory, it's supposed to bind fat in your digestive tract so your body can't absorb it. In reality, according to the NIH, the amount of fat it binds is probably not enough to help you lose a significant amount of weight.

The most common ingredients are stimulants like caffeine, yerba mate, bitter orange, or guarana. When it comes to the data on these ingredients, there's not a lot to suggest they help in any way with weight loss, said Katherine Zeratskya registered dietitian at the Mayo Clinic.

For example, a study found that rats given caffeine burned more calories than rats doing the same amount of exercise without a stimulant. But there is no evidence that the effect carries over to humans. Theoretically, all these ingredients should help with weight loss, but it's extremely difficult to figure out if they work, Zeratsky said.

That's because most diet pills are made up of multiple ingredients and the directions suggest you take them while having a diet that's restrictive in calories. So it's hard to tell whether you lost weight because of the product or because you simply ate fewer calories.

No matter what diet pill ingredient or program you're considering, it's critical that you talk to your pharmacist first, Zeratsky said, especially if you take other medications. Though many of the ingredients are considered safe, they can have toxic effects at high doses. And it's possible that they could interfere with your other medications.

Your pharmacist can walk you through a cryptic ingredient list and point out any red flags. Close icon Two crossed lines that form an 'X'. It indicates a way to close an interaction, or dismiss a notification. Reviews The word Reviews.

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It symobilizes a website link url. Copy Link. This article was medically reviewed by Samantha CassettyMS, RD, a nutrition and wellness expert with a private practice based in New York City.

Our stories are reviewed by medical professionals to ensure you get the most accurate and useful information about your health and wellness. For more information, visit our medical review board. Redeem now. The prescriptions are often reserved for those with a certain BMI or obesity-related complications.

There is little evidence that OTC weight loss pills work, and some have harmful ingredients. Read preview. Thanks for signing up!

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: Clinically proven weight loss supplements

Amazon Best Sellers: Best Fat Burner Supplements Prostate cancer. Taken together, these results indicate that wright effects of Cinically on body weight and All-natural sunflower seeds Core strengthening exercises depend Clinnically several factors, Clinically proven weight loss supplements the poven strain, dose, and duration as well as certain characteristics of the user, including age, sex, and baseline body weight. Research Faculty. Mayo Clinic; Orlistat can cause side effects such as passing gas and having loose stools. The supplement regulates cholesterol levels and balances your mood by reducing stress. Only two studies in this meta-analysis examined the effects of green tea catechins alone.
The Best Weight Loss Pills To Trim Inches And Lose Pounds

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Most Wished For in Fat Burner Supplements. Gift Ideas in Fat Burner Supplements. Essential Fatty Acids. Black Currant Oil. Black Seed Oil. Fat Burners. Fish Oil.

Flax Seed Oil. Krill Oils. Linseed Oil. Omega Oils. Your recently viewed items and featured recommendations. Back to top. Get to Know Us. Make Money with Us.

Amazon Payment Products. Let Us Help You. Conditions of Use Privacy Notice Your Ads Privacy Choices © , Amazon. com, Inc. or its affiliates. This rigorous process required balancing unbiased research with real-world results, ensuring our recommendations were reliable and trustworthy.

Finally, below are our winners for the list of best weight loss pills for :. FitSpresso, leading our list of the best weight loss pills, stands out as a powerhouse in natural weight management. Its formulation is a masterclass in synergy, combining clinically studied ingredients to forge a path toward healthy and sustainable weight loss.

Unlike conventional supplements, FitSpresso is designed to kickstart its magic immediately, offering tangible benefits beyond weight reduction.

The moment you introduce FitSpresso into your regimen, it works wonders. Users report a noticeable boost in energy levels, a vital component in sustaining an active lifestyle essential for weight loss.

This surge in vitality is complemented by an enhanced metabolic rate, a crucial factor in accelerating fat-burning processes.

The result? An improved physique that looks good and feels fantastic, offering users a renewed zest for life.

What truly sets FitSpresso apart is its holistic approach to weight loss. This commitment to lasting change resonates deeply with those on the rollercoaster of weight fluctuations, seeking a more permanent solution. Its production in an FDA-approved and GMP-certified facility supports this acclaim, ensuring the highest quality and safety standards.

Moreover, the capsules are easy to swallow, a subtle yet significant detail that enhances user experience. This unique blend of efficacy, safety, and reliability makes FitSpresso a leading option for anyone seeking a natural, effective solution to weight loss.

LumaLite emerges as a groundbreaking entry in our list of top weight loss supplements, boasting a unique approach to weight management. This innovative formula positions LumaLite as a trailblazer in the weight loss industry.

The core mechanism of LumaLite centers on balancing IL-6, a protein produced by fat cells that signals the body to store and retain fat.

When made in excess, IL-6 can significantly increase fat storage, particularly in stubborn areas. This overproduction creates a cascade effect, triggering a surge in fat-storing hormones.

The supplement supports metabolic health, energy levels, and brain function, contributing to well-being. It also aids in maintaining healthy blood sugar levels, an essential factor in weight management and general health.

Its production in an FDA-approved and GMP-certified facility underscores its commitment to quality and safety. Puravive stands out as a uniquely pure and potent player in the weight loss supplement arena, embodying the essence of nature in its formulation.

The central philosophy of Puravive revolves around boosting brown adipose tissue BAT levels in the body. Recent groundbreaking research from Germany has uncovered a startling link between low levels of BAT and the accumulation of belly fat.

A common thread was discovered in a comprehensive study involving over 52, individuals: those struggling with excess body fat consistently showed lower levels of brown adipose tissue. Puravive addresses this issue head-on, harnessing its natural ingredients and prodigious calorie burners to elevate BAT levels.

From improving energy levels and brain function to supporting cardiovascular health, blood flow, and healthy blood sugar and cholesterol levels, Puravive is a holistic approach to wellness. Produced in an FDA-approved and GMP-certified facility, it is easy to swallow, non-habit-forming, and free from unwanted side effects.

PhenQ emerges as a dynamic force in the weight loss supplement market, distinguishing itself with a formula as effective as innovative. In a relatively short period, PhenQ has significantly impacted over , customers on their weight loss journeys while allowing them to indulge in their favorite treats occasionally.

This balance of effectiveness and flexibility is what sets PhenQ apart. Its natural formulation supports various aspects of weight loss, from accelerating metabolism to crushing cravings, facilitating all-natural and sustainable weight reduction.

Produced in the US and UK in GMP-approved facilities, PhenQ ensures high-quality standards. Its formulation is a testament to modern advancements in natural weight loss solutions, offering a holistic, efficient, and versatile approach to shedding pounds without sacrificing the joys of occasional treats.

Alpilean introduces a refreshing twist in the weight loss supplement landscape, unveiling the secret of Alpine wellness for effective weight management. Its uniqueness lies in targeting a groundbreaking discovery: low inner body temperature is the root cause of slow metabolism and stubborn belly fat.

This innovative approach sets Alpilean apart, offering a new dimension to weight loss strategies. Its plant-based ingredients ensure compatibility with various lifestyles and dietary preferences.

By optimizing internal body temperature, it enhances metabolic efficiency, leading to more effective calorie burning. This process, in turn, supports a healthier, more active metabolism, which is crucial for long-term weight management. Users report additional advantages, including improved mood, better sleep quality, reduced cravings for unhealthy foods, and a noticeable increase in energy levels.

These benefits collectively contribute to overall well-being, making weight loss a more enjoyable and sustainable journey. Easy to take in capsule form and requiring no prescription, Alpilean is accessible and convenient. Its affordability and extra perks and bonuses add to its appeal. In a market where finding a reliable, effective weight loss solution can be daunting, Alpilean stands out as a trustworthy option, promising weight loss and a journey towards improved overall health.

Rounding off our exclusive list of best weight loss pills is Liv Pure, a game-changer in the realm of health and wellness. It features a unique dual-complex system: the Liver Purification Complex and the Fat-Burning Complex.

Each blend is a meticulously crafted concoction of Mediterranean plants and super nutrients, supporting and optimizing liver function. The Liver Purification Complex offers a detoxifying power vital for a liver burdened by everyday toxins.

By cleansing the liver, it sets the stage for enhanced metabolic health. On the other hand, the Liver Fat-Burning Complex is a metabolic booster, targeting fat in those notoriously stubborn areas.

This two-pronged approach ensures that Liv Pure not only aids in weight loss but also elevates overall vitality. Take control of your weight management with Liv Pure, the ultimate solution for maintaining a healthy liver. Liv Pure proves that a healthy liver is the foundation for a healthy weight.

Understanding that everything consumed eventually passes through the liver, Liv Pure ensures that it functions optimally, deciding whether food is used as energy or stored as fat.

Liv Pure naturally enhances energy, fat-burning, and metabolic rate by focusing on liver health. Liv Pure is manufactured in an FDA-approved and GMP-certified facility and ensures the highest quality standards. With over , lives transformed, from young adults to those in their golden years, Liv Pure is a beacon of hope for those seeking a natural, practical path to weight loss and improved well-being.

In the constantly evolving health and fitness world, navigating claims and counterclaims to find the best weight loss pills can feel like a labyrinth. To provide clarity and trustworthy guidance, we embarked on a meticulous journey to rank these supplements. Our approach was holistic, rigorous, and grounded in the key factors below, ensuring our recommendations are effective, safe, and sustainable:.

At the foundation of our evaluation was scientific evidence. The caliber of ingredients is crucial. We delved into the source, quality, and purity of ingredients used in each supplement. Only those with high-quality, natural ingredients, free from harmful additives, made our list.

We assessed their effectiveness by examining user testimonials, before-and-after scenarios, and documented case studies, looking for consistent and sustainable weight loss results. A critical aspect of our ranking process was the safety profile of each supplement.

We thoroughly examined the potential side effects and long-term health implications, prioritizing products with minimal to no adverse effects. Real user experiences provided invaluable insights. We sifted through thousands of reviews and testimonials, looking for patterns of success, satisfaction, and any reported product issues.

The credibility of the brand behind a supplement is telling. Convenience in usage plays a significant role in adherence to any supplement regimen. We looked at the dosage requirements, ease of swallowing the pills, and the practicality of incorporating them into daily routines.

Finally, the cost-effectiveness and satisfaction guarantees offered by the brands were crucial. Weight loss pills typically feature a blend of natural and plant-based ingredients, each selected for its potential to enhance metabolism or increase caloric burn, thereby aiding in fat loss.

While many of these supplements might not be clinically tested or FDA-approved, the science behind their constituent ingredients often has a substantial foundation. These ingredients, from herbal extracts to vitamins and minerals, are chosen based on their historical use and emerging scientific research.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

However, with many options flooding the market, selecting the best supplement becomes daunting. This is where our expertise comes into play. We aim to guide you through this journey, providing clarity and direction in your search for the best natural weight loss solutions.

Ranking the best weight loss pills was a formidable task. This rigorous process required balancing unbiased research with real-world results, ensuring our recommendations were reliable and trustworthy.

Finally, below are our winners for the list of best weight loss pills for :. FitSpresso, leading our list of the best weight loss pills, stands out as a powerhouse in natural weight management.

Its formulation is a masterclass in synergy, combining clinically studied ingredients to forge a path toward healthy and sustainable weight loss. Unlike conventional supplements, FitSpresso is designed to kickstart its magic immediately, offering tangible benefits beyond weight reduction.

The moment you introduce FitSpresso into your regimen, it works wonders. Users report a noticeable boost in energy levels, a vital component in sustaining an active lifestyle essential for weight loss.

This surge in vitality is complemented by an enhanced metabolic rate, a crucial factor in accelerating fat-burning processes. The result? An improved physique that looks good and feels fantastic, offering users a renewed zest for life.

What truly sets FitSpresso apart is its holistic approach to weight loss. This commitment to lasting change resonates deeply with those on the rollercoaster of weight fluctuations, seeking a more permanent solution.

Its production in an FDA-approved and GMP-certified facility supports this acclaim, ensuring the highest quality and safety standards. Moreover, the capsules are easy to swallow, a subtle yet significant detail that enhances user experience.

This unique blend of efficacy, safety, and reliability makes FitSpresso a leading option for anyone seeking a natural, effective solution to weight loss. LumaLite emerges as a groundbreaking entry in our list of top weight loss supplements, boasting a unique approach to weight management.

This innovative formula positions LumaLite as a trailblazer in the weight loss industry. The core mechanism of LumaLite centers on balancing IL-6, a protein produced by fat cells that signals the body to store and retain fat.

When made in excess, IL-6 can significantly increase fat storage, particularly in stubborn areas. This overproduction creates a cascade effect, triggering a surge in fat-storing hormones. The supplement supports metabolic health, energy levels, and brain function, contributing to well-being.

It also aids in maintaining healthy blood sugar levels, an essential factor in weight management and general health. Its production in an FDA-approved and GMP-certified facility underscores its commitment to quality and safety. Puravive stands out as a uniquely pure and potent player in the weight loss supplement arena, embodying the essence of nature in its formulation.

The central philosophy of Puravive revolves around boosting brown adipose tissue BAT levels in the body. Recent groundbreaking research from Germany has uncovered a startling link between low levels of BAT and the accumulation of belly fat. A common thread was discovered in a comprehensive study involving over 52, individuals: those struggling with excess body fat consistently showed lower levels of brown adipose tissue.

Puravive addresses this issue head-on, harnessing its natural ingredients and prodigious calorie burners to elevate BAT levels.

From improving energy levels and brain function to supporting cardiovascular health, blood flow, and healthy blood sugar and cholesterol levels, Puravive is a holistic approach to wellness. Produced in an FDA-approved and GMP-certified facility, it is easy to swallow, non-habit-forming, and free from unwanted side effects.

PhenQ emerges as a dynamic force in the weight loss supplement market, distinguishing itself with a formula as effective as innovative. In a relatively short period, PhenQ has significantly impacted over , customers on their weight loss journeys while allowing them to indulge in their favorite treats occasionally.

This balance of effectiveness and flexibility is what sets PhenQ apart. Its natural formulation supports various aspects of weight loss, from accelerating metabolism to crushing cravings, facilitating all-natural and sustainable weight reduction.

Produced in the US and UK in GMP-approved facilities, PhenQ ensures high-quality standards. Its formulation is a testament to modern advancements in natural weight loss solutions, offering a holistic, efficient, and versatile approach to shedding pounds without sacrificing the joys of occasional treats.

Alpilean introduces a refreshing twist in the weight loss supplement landscape, unveiling the secret of Alpine wellness for effective weight management.

Its uniqueness lies in targeting a groundbreaking discovery: low inner body temperature is the root cause of slow metabolism and stubborn belly fat. This innovative approach sets Alpilean apart, offering a new dimension to weight loss strategies.

Its plant-based ingredients ensure compatibility with various lifestyles and dietary preferences. By optimizing internal body temperature, it enhances metabolic efficiency, leading to more effective calorie burning. This process, in turn, supports a healthier, more active metabolism, which is crucial for long-term weight management.

Users report additional advantages, including improved mood, better sleep quality, reduced cravings for unhealthy foods, and a noticeable increase in energy levels. These benefits collectively contribute to overall well-being, making weight loss a more enjoyable and sustainable journey. Easy to take in capsule form and requiring no prescription, Alpilean is accessible and convenient.

Its affordability and extra perks and bonuses add to its appeal. In a market where finding a reliable, effective weight loss solution can be daunting, Alpilean stands out as a trustworthy option, promising weight loss and a journey towards improved overall health. Rounding off our exclusive list of best weight loss pills is Liv Pure, a game-changer in the realm of health and wellness.

It features a unique dual-complex system: the Liver Purification Complex and the Fat-Burning Complex. So if you're considering a diet pill supplement, there are a few things you might want to know first. These types of diet pills often contain vitamins, minerals, enzymes, and herbs.

The most common ingredients can be found in a database from the National Institutes of Health. One such ingredient is Garcinia cambogia, which comes in products like Hydroxycut and Plexus Slim.

It's supposed to suppress appetite and decrease the number of fat cells your body makes. Though it's considered "fairly safe," there's no evidence that it actually helps with weight loss, and excessive use has been linked to liver problems.

Other diet pills may contain chitosan, from the shells of crabs, lobsters, and shrimp. In theory, it's supposed to bind fat in your digestive tract so your body can't absorb it. In reality, according to the NIH, the amount of fat it binds is probably not enough to help you lose a significant amount of weight.

The most common ingredients are stimulants like caffeine, yerba mate, bitter orange, or guarana. When it comes to the data on these ingredients, there's not a lot to suggest they help in any way with weight loss, said Katherine Zeratsky , a registered dietitian at the Mayo Clinic.

For example, a study found that rats given caffeine burned more calories than rats doing the same amount of exercise without a stimulant. But there is no evidence that the effect carries over to humans. Theoretically, all these ingredients should help with weight loss, but it's extremely difficult to figure out if they work, Zeratsky said.

That's because most diet pills are made up of multiple ingredients and the directions suggest you take them while having a diet that's restrictive in calories. So it's hard to tell whether you lost weight because of the product or because you simply ate fewer calories.

No matter what diet pill ingredient or program you're considering, it's critical that you talk to your pharmacist first, Zeratsky said, especially if you take other medications.

Though many of the ingredients are considered safe, they can have toxic effects at high doses. And it's possible that they could interfere with your other medications.

Your pharmacist can walk you through a cryptic ingredient list and point out any red flags. Close icon Two crossed lines that form an 'X'. It indicates a way to close an interaction, or dismiss a notification. Reviews The word Reviews. Tech Angle down icon An icon in the shape of an angle pointing down.

Reported adverse effects for guar gum are primarily gastrointestinal and include abdominal pain, flatulence, diarrhea, increased number of bowel movements, nausea, and cramps [ , , ].

Case reports indicate that guar gum can cause severe esophageal and small-bowel obstruction if taken without sufficient fluid [ , ]. However, these reports were about a guar gum product that is no longer available [ ].

In their meta-analysis, Pittler and colleagues concluded that given the adverse effects associated with the use of guar gum, the risks of taking it outweigh its benefits [ ]. Hoodia gordonii is a succulent plant that grows in the Kalahari Desert of southern Africa.

The San people have traditionally used hoodia as an appetite suppressant during long hunts. This anecdotal evidence, combined with results of a few animal studies indicating that hoodia reduces food intake [ ], led to the widespread marketing of hoodia as a weight-loss supplement in the United States in the early s.

Scientists have not determined the exact mechanism whereby hoodia might suppress appetite. A glycoside commonly called P57, which may have central nervous system activity [ ], is widely believed to be the main active ingredient, although not all researchers agree [ 16 , ].

Despite its popularity as a weight-loss supplement, very little scientific research on hoodia has been conducted in humans [ ].

Compared to placebo, hoodia extract had no significant effect on energy intake or body weight. Hoodia has been reported to cause significant increases in heart rate and blood pressure [ ]. It also raises bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase levels which may indicate impaired liver function , although the clinical significance of these findings is unclear because hoodia has not been reported to affect levels of other liver enzymes.

Other side effects include headache, dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. In the past, some hoodia products were found to contain little or no hoodia [ ]. The human microbiota, which outnumber human cells by up to fold, have myriad roles in human health [ , ].

Although microbes are found throughout the human body, the vast majority inhabit the colon. The gut microbiota play an important role in nutrient and energy extraction from food. Research in mice suggests that the gut microbiota affect not only use of energy from the diet but also energy expenditure and storage within the host [ ].

Whether these effects translate to humans is unknown. However, manipulating the gut microbiota has been proposed as a method to prevent or treat obesity in humans, and probiotics might provide a way to accomplish this.

Probiotics are in foods, such as some yogurts, as well as dietary supplements. The many different genera of probiotics include Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, and Bifidobacterium, which all have widely varying effects in the body [ , ]. Much of the research on probiotics and its influence on the gut microbiota and obesity has been in mice, and the results have been promising.

For example, probiotic supplementation reduced body weight gain and fat accumulation in obese mice fed a high-fat diet [ ]. In humans, however, results of clinical trials that assessed the impact of probiotics on obesity-related endpoints have been inconsistent.

In another randomized clinical trial, daily supplementation with 3. However, among the 77 female participants, the Lactobacillus supplementation did significantly reduce body weight after 12 weeks loss of 1.

Another recent systematic review and meta-analysis of 15 randomized controlled trials in individuals with overweight or obesity found that supplementation with various doses and strains of probiotics for 3 to 12 weeks resulted in larger reductions in body weight by 0.

However, these effects were small and of questionable clinical significance. The most recent systematic review and meta-analysis, which included 19 randomized trials in 1, participants, found that supplementation with probiotics or synbiotics products containing both probiotic organisms and prebiotic sugars, which microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract use as metabolic fuel reduced waist circumference slightly by 0.

The findings from another meta-analysis of 14 trials in adults, 5 trials in children, and 12 trials in 1, infants suggested that probiotics promote an average loss of 0. Taken together, these results indicate that the effects of probiotics on body weight and obesity might depend on several factors, including the probiotic strain, dose, and duration as well as certain characteristics of the user, including age, sex, and baseline body weight.

Additional research is needed to understand the potential effects of probiotics on body fat, body weight, and obesity in humans. Many probiotic strains derive from species with a long history of safe use in foods or from microorganisms that colonize healthy gastrointestinal tracts.

For these reasons, the common probiotic species—such as Lactobacillus species acidophilus, casei, fermentum, gasseri, johnsonii, paracasei, plantarum, rhamnosus, and salivarius and Bifidobacterium species adolescentis, animalis, bifidum, breve, and longum —are unlikely to cause harm [ ].

Side effects of probiotics are usually minor and consist of self-limited gastrointestinal symptoms, such as gas. In a few cases, mainly involving individuals who were severely ill or immunocompromised, the use of probiotics has been linked to bacteremia, fungemia fungi in the blood , or infections that result in severe illness [ , ].

For individuals with compromised immune function or other serious underlying diseases, the World Gastroenterology Organisation advises restricting probiotic use to the strains and indications that have proven efficacy [ ].

Pyruvate is a three-carbon compound that is generated in the body through glycolysis [ ]. Pyruvate is also available as a dietary supplement, frequently in the form of calcium pyruvate.

Researchers have suggested that pyruvate enhances exercise performance and reduces body weight and body fat, possibly by increasing lipolysis and energy expenditure [ 6 , , ]. Only a few studies have examined the effects of pyruvate supplementation in humans. Although some of these studies suggest that pyruvate decreases body weight and body fat, others do not.

At the end of the trial, the pyruvate group had significant decreases in body weight mean loss of 1. In the placebo group, these measurements did not change significantly compared to baseline. However, a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 23 women who were overweight mean BMI The authors of a systematic review and meta-analysis of six randomized controlled trials in a total of participants concluded that 5—30 g pyruvate for 3—6 weeks reduces body weight by a mean of 0.

However, the authors noted that the methodological quality of all trials is weak, preventing them from drawing firm conclusions.

The safety of pyruvate has not been rigorously studied. Pyruvate might also increase LDL levels and decrease HDL levels [ , ]. Additional research is needed to better understand the safety and possible side effects of this compound.

Raspberry ketone is the primary aroma compound found in red raspberries Rubus idaeus , and it is added to some foods as a flavoring agent [ 16 , ].

In vitro and animal studies suggest that raspberry ketone might help prevent weight gain by increasing fatty acid oxidation, suppressing lipid accumulation, and inhibiting pancreatic lipase activity [ 16 ].

Although it has been touted on the Internet and national television as an effective way to burn fat, little evidence exists to support this claim. In mice fed a high-fat diet, raspberry ketone supplementation reduced food intake and body weight compared to the same diet without raspberry ketone [ ].

Only one randomized controlled trial has examined the effects of a dietary supplement containing raspberry ketone on weight loss. This product contained 2, mg of a proprietary blend of raspberry ketone, caffeine, bitter orange, ginger, garlic, cayenne, L-theanine, and pepper extract along with B-vitamins and chromium.

During the 8-week study, participants followed a calorie-restricted diet approximately calories less per day than estimated needs and engaged in moderate exercise 60 minutes 3 days per week. Compared to the placebo group, those receiving METABO lost significantly more body weight mean loss of 1.

However, 25 of the 70 participants dropped out of the study, and results were reported for only the 45 participants who completed the study i. Furthermore, the product contained many ingredients in addition to raspberry ketone, making it impossible to determine the effects of raspberry ketone alone.

Typical diets provide only a few mg of raspberry ketone a day. Doses contained in dietary supplements typically range from to 1, mg, and the safety of such doses has never been evaluated in humans [ ]. Participants in the METABO study described above had no serious adverse effects [ ].

However, additional research on raspberry ketone is needed to better understand its safety and side effects. Vitamin D, which is fat soluble, is present in a few foods, such as fatty fish, cheese, egg yolks, and vitamin D-fortified milk.

It is also available in many dietary supplements, and humans synthesize it naturally when their skin is exposed to sunlight. Vitamin D promotes calcium absorption in the gastrointestinal tract and is needed for proper bone growth and remodeling [ 56 ]. Observational studies indicate that greater body weights are associated with lower vitamin D status, and individuals with obesity frequently have marginal or deficient circulating levels of vitamin D [ ].

Nevertheless, the association between vitamin D and obesity raises the question of whether increasing vitamin D concentrations might reduce body weight [ , ]. Despite the association between low vitamin D levels and obesity, scientific evidence does not support a cause-and-effect relationship.

The authors commented that the cause of this finding might have been stored vitamin D in body fat and skeletal muscle that was released during weight loss. However, according to a meta-analysis of 12 vitamin D supplementation trials including 5 in which body composition measurements were primary outcomes , vitamin D supplements without calorie restriction did not affect body weight or fat mass compared to placebo [ ].

Overall, the available research suggests that consuming higher amounts of vitamin D or taking vitamin D supplements does not promote weight loss. Vitamin D toxicity can cause anorexia, weight loss, polyuria, and heart arrhythmias.

It can also raise calcium blood levels, which can cause vascular and tissue calcification. White kidney bean or bean pod Phaseolus vulgaris is a legume that is native to Mexico, Central America, and South America and is cultivated worldwide [ ].

Phaseolus vulgaris extract is an ingredient in some weight-loss dietary supplements marketed as carbohydrate- or starch-absorption blockers. Laboratory research indicates that Phaseolus vulgaris extract inhibits alpha-amylase activity, so experts have hypothesized that the plant interferes with the breakdown and absorption of carbohydrates in the gastrointestinal tract [ 16 , ].

Phaseolus vulgaris might also act as an appetite suppressant [ , ]. The effect of Phaseolus vulgaris on weight loss and body fat has been examined in a few clinical trials, which had inconsistent results. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Italy, 60 women who were mildly overweight mean BMI 26 and age 20—45 followed a 2,—2,calorie meal plan and took a tablet containing approximately mg dried aqueous extract of Phaseolus vulgaris Phase 2 Starch Neutralizer IV or a placebo once daily before eating a carbohydrate-rich meal [ ].

After 30 days, those receiving Phaseolus vulgaris extract lost significantly more weight mean weight loss 2. Those in the Phaseolus vulgaris group also experienced a significantly greater reduction in fat mass, adipose tissue thickness, and waist—hip—thigh circumference.

However, the authors noted that the quality of the trials included in their review was poor, making it impossible to draw firm conclusions.

After the publication of that review, a week clinical trial in men and women with overweight or obesity BMI 25—35 showed that Phaseolus vulgaris modestly yet significantly reduced body weight and body fat [ ].

Compared to those taking placebo, those receiving Phaseolus vulgaris lost significantly more body weight mean loss of 2. Reported adverse effects for Phaseolus vulgaris are minor and include headaches, soft stools, flatulence, and constipation [ ].

No serious adverse effects of Phaseolus vulgaris have been reported in clinical trials, but no trials have lasted longer than 13 weeks.

Yohimbe Pausinystalia yohimbe, Pausinystalia johimbe is a West African evergreen tree. Yohimbine has hyperadrenergic physiological effects because it acts as an alpha-2 receptor antagonist [ 6 , ].

Yohimbe extract is an ingredient in some dietary supplements that are promoted for libido enhancement, body building, and weight loss [ ], but it is used primarily as a traditional remedy for sexual dysfunction in men.

The authors of a review of yohimbe concluded that no conclusive evidence indicates that yohimbe affects body weight or body mass [ ]. The author of a review of yohimbe reached similar conclusions, noting that results from small human trials of yohimbine for weight loss are contradictory and the evidence base is insufficient to support a weight loss claim for this compound [ ].

Yohimbe can be dangerous. Taking 20 to 40 mg of yohimbine has been reported to increase blood pressure slightly, whereas doses of mg or higher can cause headaches, hypertension, anxiety, agitation, tachycardia, myocardial infarction, cardiac failure, and death [ 43 , , , , ].

More recently, dietary supplements containing yohimbe accounted for 1, self-reports to U. poison control centers between and [ ]. Although yohimbe is generally well tolerated at low doses [ ], no safe dose has been established for it. Yohimbe should only be used under medical supervision because of its potential to produce serious adverse effects [ ].

Ephedra also known as ma huang , a plant native to China, is the common name for three main species: Ephedra sinica, Ephedra equisentina, and Ephedra intermedia [ ].

The active compounds, which are in the plant's stem and account for about 1. In the s, ephedra—frequently combined with caffeine—was a popular ingredient in dietary supplements sold for weight loss and to enhance athletic performance.

FDA no longer permits the use of ephedrine alkaloids in dietary supplements because of safety concerns that are detailed below, but information is provided here in response to continued interest in this ingredient.

Ephedrine acts as a stimulant in the central nervous system [ , ], and it might increase thermogenesis and act as an appetite suppressant [ ]. The authors of a meta-analysis that included 20 clinical trials concluded that ephedrine and ephedra are modestly effective for short-term weight loss 6 months or less , but no studies have assessed their long-term effects [ ].

While ephedra was available as a dietary supplement ingredient in the United States, its use with or without caffeine was associated with numerous reported adverse effects, including nausea, vomiting, psychiatric symptoms such as anxiety and mood change , hypertension, palpitations, stroke, seizures, heart attack, and death [ , ].

Although these reported adverse effects could not be linked with certainty to the use of ephedra-containing dietary supplements, FDA deemed the safety concerns serious enough to prohibit the sale of dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids in [ ].

As a result of this ruling, manufacturers are no longer permitted to sell dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids in the United States. Like all dietary supplements, weight-loss supplements can have side effects and might interact with prescription and over-the-counter medications.

In some cases, the active constituents of botanical or other ingredients promoted for weight loss are unknown or uncharacterized [ 29 ]. Furthermore, many weight-loss supplements contain multiple ingredients that have not been adequately tested in combination with one another.

Pittler and Ernst noted that for ingredients lacking convincing evidence of effectiveness, "even minor adverse events shift the delicate risk-benefits balance against their use" [ 6 ].

People need to talk with their health care providers about the use of weight-loss dietary supplements to understand what is known—and not known—about these products. FDA and the FTC warn consumers to beware of fraudulent claims about weight-loss dietary supplements [ , ].

At best, products with claims like these do not live up to them, and, even worse, they could be dangerous. Between January and December , dietary supplements were subject to a Class I recall by FDA, indicating a reasonable probability that use of or exposure to these products would cause serious adverse health consequences.

In most cases, the recall was due to the presence of undeclared drug ingredients. In , FDA issued 36 public notifications warning consumers not to purchase specific weight-loss products because they contained a hidden drug ingredient—often sibutramine, a weight-loss medication that was withdrawn from the U.

market in because of safety concerns [ ]. A product represented as a dietary supplement that contains one or more drug ingredients, whether or not these ingredients are declared on the label, is considered an unapproved drug and is therefore subject to enforcement action by FDA.

FDA maintains a webpage listing public notifications about tainted weight-loss products. Some ingredients in weight-loss dietary supplements can interact with certain medications. For example, glucomannan and guar gum might decrease the absorption of many drugs that are taken orally [ , ].

Glucomannan has been reported to lower blood glucose levels [ ] and, therefore, could interact with diabetes medications [ ]. Chitosan might potentiate the anticoagulant effects of warfarin [ ]. Green tea could interact with chemotherapy drugs [ , ]. Garcinia cambogia was associated with serotonin toxicity in a patient taking the supplement together with two selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications [ ].

Other ingredients, such as caffeine and bitter orange, could have an additive effect if taken with other stimulants. Bitter orange has also been shown to inhibit CYP3A4 activity, leading to increased blood levels of certain drugs, such as cyclosporine and saquinavir [ 43 ]. These are just a few examples of interactions between ingredients of weight-loss dietary supplements and medications.

Individuals taking dietary supplements and medications on a regular basis should discuss their use with their health care provider. As this fact sheet shows, the evidence supporting the use of dietary supplements to reduce body weight and stimulate weight loss is inconclusive and unconvincing, and the cost of these products can be considerable [ 6 , 14 , 29 , 41 ].

The best way to lose weight and keep it off is to follow a sensible approach that incorporates a healthy eating plan, reduced caloric intake, and moderate physical activity under the guidance of a heath care provider.

For some individuals with a high BMI who have additional health risks, physicians may prescribe adjunctive treatments, including FDA-approved prescription medications or bariatric surgery, in addition to lifestyle modifications [ 7 ].

Lifestyle changes that promote weight loss might also improve mood and energy levels and lower the risk of heart disease, diabetes, and some cancers [ 5 ].

The Weight Management webpage from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases at the National Institutes of Health provides several helpful publications on weight control, obesity, physical activity, and related nutritional issues.

The federal government's — Dietary Guidelines for Americans notes that "Because foods provide an array of nutrients and other components that have benefits for health, nutritional needs should be met primarily through foods.

In some cases, fortified foods and dietary supplements are useful when it is not possible otherwise to meet needs for one or more nutrients e. For more information about building a healthy dietary pattern, refer to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the U.

Department of Agriculture's MyPlate. This fact sheet by the National Institutes of Health NIH Office of Dietary Supplements ODS provides information that should not take the place of medical advice. We encourage you to talk to your health care providers doctor, registered dietitian, pharmacist, etc.

about your interest in, questions about, or use of dietary supplements and what may be best for your overall health.

Any mention in this publication of a specific product or service, or recommendation from an organization or professional society, does not represent an endorsement by ODS of that product, service, or expert advice. Updated: May 18, History of changes to this fact sheet. Dietary Supplements for Weight Loss Fact Sheet for Health Professionals.

Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources. Table of Contents Introduction Regulation of Weight-Loss Dietary Supplements Common Ingredients in Weight-Loss Dietary Supplements Ephedra Ma Huang , an Ingredient Banned from Dietary Supplements Safety Considerations Choosing a Sensible Approach to Weight Loss References Disclaimer.

Few clinical trials, all with small sample sizes Research findings : Possible modest reduction in body weight and waist circumference. Increase satiety and gastrointestinal transit time and slow glucose absorption. Several clinical trials with weight loss as a secondary outcome Research findings : No effect on body weight.

Increases energy expenditure and lipolysis; acts as a mild appetite suppressant. Synephrine is the proposed active constituent. Small clinical trials of poor methodological quality Research findings : Possible increase in resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure; inconclusive effects on weight loss.

Some safety concerns reported, especially for combinations with other stimulants Reported adverse effects : Chest pain, anxiety, headache, musculoskeletal complaints, and increased blood pressure and heart rate.

Caffeine as added caffeine or from guarana, kola nut, yerba maté, or other herbs. Short-term clinical trials of combination products Research findings : Possible modest effect on body weight or decreased weight gain over time.

Several large clinical trials Research findings : No effect on body weight, weight loss, or prevention of weight gain based on clinical trials.

Increase energy expenditure and lipid oxidation, increase satiety, and reduce energy intake. Several clinical trials, mostly focused on energy intake and appetite Research findings : Might reduce energy intake but no effect on body weight.

Several clinical trials with weight loss as a secondary outcome Research findings : Possible modest reduction in body weight. Small clinical trials, mostly of poor methodological quality Research findings : Minimal effect on body weight. Few safety concerns reported for 0.

Increases lean muscle mass; promotes fat loss; and reduces food intake, hunger levels, and fat cravings. Several clinical trials of varying methodological quality Research findings : Minimal effect on body weight and body fat. Enhances lipolysis and reduces appetite. Forskolin is the proposed active constituent.

Few short-term clinical trials Research findings : No effect on body weight. Several clinical trials Research findings : Minimal effect on body weight and body fat.

Metrics We Factored Into Ranking The Best Weight Loss Pills Amazon Warehouse Great Deals on Quality Used Products. Perreault L. Weigh Clinically proven weight loss supplements experiences provided invaluable insights. The active components Pure herbal supplement green weihgt that Antibiotic-Free Dairy associated with weight loss are caffeine see section on caffeine above and catechins, primarily epigallocatechin gallate EGCGwhich is a flavonoid [ 41]. Like other dietary supplements, weight-loss supplements differ from over-the-counter or prescription medications in that FDA does not classify them as drugs. Accessibility was a key factor, too.
Clinically proven weight loss supplements As we stand All-natural sunflower seeds the cuspthe health and fitness landscape is evolving rapidly. Effects of high blood pressure are the pproven when the prvoen against weight gain Clinically proven weight loss supplements obesity supplmeents a monotonous struggle laden with the same old narratives and solutions. People across the globe are seeking effective yet sustainable methods to manage their weight but often find themselves in a labyrinth of confusion and disappointment. This realization has prompted a paradigm shift towards a more natural approach to weight management. In this era of wellness and self-care, individuals are increasingly turning towards natural weight loss pills. These dietary supplements, heralded as a beacon of hope, offer a stark contrast to prescription drugs.

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