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Antiviral immune support supplements

antiviral immune support supplements

COVID infection: antivirak perspectives on immune responses. Skip Preventing stress ulcers At the antivral of the day, what Nitric oxide function viruses is supplmeents immune system. While antiviral immune support supplements pill or food can prevent Suppport, certain supplements may help suppor ability Nitric oxide function stay healthy or recover faster. Lang A, Lahav M, Sakhnini E, Barshack I, Fidder HH, Avidan B, et al. The virus has the positive-sense RNA as its genome encoding for ~26 proteins that work together for the virus survival, replication, and spread in the host. Currently, several vaccines and drugs are being evaluated for their efficacy, safety, and for determination of doses for COVID and this requires considerable time for their validation.

Antiviral immune support supplements -

Perhaps the accumulation of fluid in the lungs could be the reason that computer tomography CT images of the lung in acute respiratory distress syndrome ARDS patients show the presence of distinguishing white patches called ground glass The majority of autopsies have shown that infected lungs are filled with clear liquid jelly, which resembles the lungs of wet drowning Even though the nature of clear liquid jelly is not yet been determined, HA is associated with ARDS The lungs of COVID patients show elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-1, TNF-α.

This correlates with increased activity of HAS2 and the subsequent lung pathology induced by the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, the above clinical and research findings suggest that COVID pathogenesis involves two phases: Phase 1, suppression of innate immune response, increases in oxidative stress and phase 2 acute inflammation-driven damaging phase Figure 1.

Figure 1. Schematic representation of pathogenesis of COVID SARS-CoV-2 infection involves two phases: 1 Asymptomatic carrier phase. The black stars indicate the stage at which food supplements can counteract the pathogenesis of COVID Arrow on the left indicate the progress of the infection.

From the point of prevention, phase 1 is crucial as individuals in this stage are carriers, they can spread the infection unknowingly. Management of individuals in phase 1, along with mounting specific adaptive immune response, and use of antivirals is critical to prevent the virus entry, replication as well as the disease progression to phase 2.

Therefore, global strategies may include administration of external antiviral, and or immune-boosting food supplements. During the phase 2 of the infection, in addition to maintaining the general health condition of affected patients, the line of treatment may be focused on adapting the strategies including the use of nutritional supplements that can suppress the ongoing oxidative stress, acute-inflammation and cytokine storm so that destruction and damage caused to affected tissues is prevented.

In summary, in addition to symptomatic treatment, strategies to counteract the SARS-CoV-2 infection is to boost the immune response in phase 1 while suppressing it in the second phase could be effective. Currently, there is one vaccine; Sputnik V, approved by the Ministry of Health, Russian Federation.

It was fast-tracked for use as a corona vaccine, but experts have expressed concern about the vaccine's efficacy and safety since it has not yet been evaluated in phase 3 clinical trials.

Currently, most countries around the world are into developing corona vaccines, a few of them have entered into human trials while most of them are in various stages of research and development. Further, there no specific drug for use against COVID as well as substantial data both at the national or international level on the effects of nutritional supplements on risk or severity of COVID The development of new antivirals for COVID is a great challenge and needs a considerable length of time and effort for designing and validation.

Several shreds of evidence indicate that many nutritional supplements from various spices, herbs, fruits, roots, and vegetables can reduce the risk or severity of a wide range of viral infections by boosting the immune response, particularly among people with inadequate dietary sources and also by their anti-inflammatory, free radical scavenging, and viricidal functions.

These nutrients can be repurposed in mitigating the pathological effects induced by the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, the use of natural compounds may provide alternative prophylactic and therapeutic support along with the therapy for COVID In the following section, the beneficial effects of some of the nutrients are described.

Zinc is an essential metal involved in a variety of biological processes due to its function as a cofactor, signaling molecule, and a structural element. It regulates inflammatory activity and has antiviral and antioxidant functions Studies in the rat model show that deficiency of Zn increases oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory TNF-α and vascular cell adhesion molecule VCAM -1 expression and causes lung tissue remodeling which was partially reversed by the Zn supplementation Zn deficiency shows up-regulation of TNF-α, IFN-γ, and FasR signaling and induction of apoptosis in lung epithelial cells 21 and also up-regulates the Janus kinase JAK -STAT signaling in lungs under septic conditions Zinc can also modulate the viral entry, fusion, replication, viral protein translation and virus budding of respiratory viruses 19 , Speth et al.

Zn also shortens the duration of flu-like symptoms by 2 days as well as improves the rate of recovery Zinc is considered as the potential supportive treatment against COVID infection due to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant as well as direct antiviral effects VD a fat-soluble vitamin, plays a vital role in both in immunomodulatory, antioxidant and antiviral responses 29 , The human airway epithelium constitutively expresses the vitamin D receptor thereby enabling the protective effects of VD against respiratory infections.

VD blocks NF-κB p65 activation via up-regulation of NF-κB inhibitory protein I-kappa-B-alpha I K B-α VD also decreases the expression levels of pro-inflammatory type 1 cytokines such as IL, IL, IL-8, TNF-α, IFN-γ while increasing type 2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5, IL, and regulatory T cells 32 , VD increases the levels of antioxidant NRF-2 and facilitates balanced mitochondrial functions, prevents oxidative stress-related protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage Epidemiological data relates VD deficiency to increases in the susceptibility to acute viral respiratory infections 34 while its supplementation potentiates the innate immune responses to respiratory viral infections including those caused by Influenza A and B, parainfluenza 1 and 2, respiratory syncytial virus RSV , and chronic hepatitis C 35 , Though there are no reports that VD directly affects the virus replication or viral load, studies reveal that VD could contribute to antiviral activity through suppression of virus-induced inflammation.

Perhaps this function of VD could help in suppression of the cytokine storm in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, evidence also suggests that VD can supplement the effectiveness of drug treatment as observed in the case of ribavirin therapy for treatment-naïve patients with chronic Hepatitis C virus HCV genotype 1 and HCV genotype 2e3 infections 33 , 34 , 38 , The beneficial effect of supplementation was seen in patients across all ages groups and in individuals with pre-existing chronic illness Older people are most often deficient in these important micronutrients.

Thus they can derive the most significant benefit from the VD supplementation Vitamin C can potentially protect against infection due to its essential role on immune health This vitamin supports the function of various immune cells and enhances their ability to protect against infection.

Supplementing with VC has been shown to reduce the duration and severity of upper respiratory infections most of which are assumed to be due to viral infections , including the common cold The total recommended daily allowance RDA for VC is 60 mg. Various spices, herbs, fruits, and vegetables have found to be excellent sources of VC VC is also a potent antioxidant.

As an antioxidant, it scavenges ROS, prevents lipid peroxidation, and protein alkylation and thus protects cells from oxidative stress induced cellular damage Studies also have revealed that administration of VC in combination with quercetin provides synergistic antiviral, antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects Therefore, having the food supplement incorporated with sources of VC can help in alleviating and providing immune boosting as well as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant effect against SARS-CoV-2 infection Curcumin has a broad spectrum of biological actions, including antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities It inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF- α in lipopolysaccharide LPS -stimulated BV2 microglial cells 50 and IL- 1β and IL-6 in TNF-α treated HaCaT cells via inhibiting the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways The curcumin also inhibits cyclooxygenase-2 COX-2 , as well as STAT signaling pathways It exerts antiviral effect by various mechanisms ranging from inhibiting the virus entry into cells, inhibiting encapsulation of the virus and viral protease, inhibiting the virus replication, as well as modulating several signaling pathways Recent study has shown that curcumin potentially inhibits ACE2, modulates characteristics of lipid bilayer, as well as viral S protein inhibiting entry of virus into cells 54 , 55 , inhibits the viral protease 56 , stimulates host interferon production to activate the host innate immunity 55 , etc.

Furthermore, curcumin is a potent antioxidant. It exerts its antioxidant effects both by neutralizing free radicals and enhancing the production of antioxidant enzymes 57 — These studies reveal potential immune-boosting, antioxidant and anti-SARS-CoV-2 effects of curcumin.

Therefore, curcumin could be a potential supplement in combating the COVID pathogenesis. Cinnamaldehyde is a naturally present organic compound abundantly found in essential oils in cinnamon.

It predominantly exists in the trans-isomer form, which gives cinnamon its flavor and odor Cinnamaldehyde is a well-known dietary phytonutrient, known to possess anti-inflammatory properties.

In a study by Liao et al. Studies have also found that it can suppress endotoxin-mediated hyperexpression of TLR4 and NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathways Cinnamaldehyde is also known to downregulate the production of prostaglandins PGEs by downregulating IL-1β-induced COX-2 activity thus lowering the chances of hyper inflammation in a dose-dependent manner All the above evidences show cases that cinnamaldehyde is a potential anti-inflammatory bioactive compound and could be useful in mitigation of SARS-CoV-2 induced hyper inflammation in the lung.

The predominant thiosulfinate in fresh garlic extract identified as allicin, has shown a number of health benefits due to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiviral properties.

Allicin suppresses the inflammation via inhibiting the TNF-α induced expression levels of IL-1β, IL-8, IP, and IFN-γ and also through suppression of degradation of NF-κB inhibitory protein IκB in intestinal epithelial cells It inhibits inducible NO nitric oxide synthase expression in activated macrophages 66 , Several garlic associated compounds have found to possess a strong viricidal activity against a wide range of viruses including parainfluenza virus type 3, human rhinovirus, herpes simplex virus HSV -1, HSV-2, and vesicular stomatitis virus VSV.

Some of the garlic compounds that show viricidal activity are ajoene, allicin, allyl, methyl thiosulfinate and methyl allyl thiosulfinate 68 , Studies also have found that only fresh samples with no processing such as heat induction or drying were successful to induce most of the biological activities of garlic Therefore, fresh garlic extract may be useful as a prophylactic against COVID Black pepper has long been used in many cuisines and it holds a very valuable space among medicinal plants.

Piperine that is obtained from ethanolic extract of black pepper and is a major alkaloid in the group of cinnamamides Piperine possesses a strong anti-inflammatory function and therefore can be repurposed for suppression of hyper inflammation induced during COVID It downregulates PGEs by inhibiting the expression levels of IL-6 and matrix metalloproteinases MMP Piperine promotes innate immunity by promoting the phagocytic activity of phagocytes and is known to inhibit LPS-induced expression of IRF-1 and IRF-7 mRNA, phosphorylation of IRF-3, type 1IFN mRNA, and down-regulation of STAT-1 activity Few studies conducted on microglial cells have shown that piperine inhibits LPS-Induced TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and PGE2 production in BV2 cells Also, it found to inhibit the production of IL-2, and IFN-γ in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells PBMCs Furthermore, piperine treatment found to reduce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, COX-2, nitric oxide synthase-2, and NF-κB in the cerebral ischemia-reperfusion-induced inflammation rat model These findings indicate the strong anti-inflammatory activity of the piperine.

Further, piperine is a potent antioxidant and protects against oxidative damage by neutralizing free radicals, ROS, and hydroxyl radicals. It scavenges superoxide radicals with IC 50 of 1.

These results indicate that piperine possesses a direct antioxidant effect against various free radicals Because of these properties, piperine can be tried as a prophylactic or therapeutic compound to protect from the oxidative stress and hyper inflammation induced during the COVID Selenium is abundantly found in common foods such as corn, garlic, onion, cabbage, broccoli.

It's an essential micronutrient that plays a vital role in various physiological processes and on the immune system. Selenium exerts its biological effect through incorporation into selenoproteins in the body. Optimum selenium status μg per day promotes enhanced T cell proliferation, NK cell activity and innate cell functions.

Further supports stronger vaccine response and robust immunity to pathogens. Also, suppresses severe inflammation in tissues such as lungs and intestine Studies have shown that selenium supplementation modulates the inflammatory response in respiratory distress syndrome patients by restoring the antioxidant status of the lungs and suppressing the IL-1β and IL-6 levels Selenium supplementation suppresses pathogen induced activation of NF-κB and its downstream pro-inflammatory cytokine release The antiviral properties of selenium have found to be mediated through its antioxidant effects.

Overall, selenium improves the immunity through its non-enzymatic role acting as cofactor for enzymes involved in critical post-translational modifications of proteins. Because of its substantial role in suppressing the inflammation and augmentation of antioxidant status and innate immunity, selenium supplementation may be useful in fight against COVID Propolis produced by honeybees and known to have a broad spectrum of biological properties, including anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, dermatoprotective, laxative, anti-diabetic, anti-tumor, and immunomodulatory activity The immunomodulatory activity is attributed to flavonoids and some phenolic acids mainly caffeic acid phenethyl esters and artepillin C 3,5-diprenylhydroxycinnamic acid.

Propolis exhibits immunomodulatory effects on a broad spectrum of immune cells mediated by the modulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 and MAPK signaling pathways.

Further, it also modulates nuclear factor of activated T cells NFAT and NF κB signaling pathways 82 , Propolis also stimulates greater antibody production, suggesting that it could be used as an adjuvant in vaccines.

Propolis at higher concentration inhibits lymphoproliferation while at low concentrations the effect is reversed, causing lymphoproliferation Further, compounds in honey propolis inhibits various viruses such as dengue virus type 2, herpes simplex virus, human cytomegalovirus, influenza virus A1 Together, with immunomodulatory and antiviral effects, propolis can be tried as a prophylactic support against COVID The commonly used probiotics are Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species, followed by the Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Bacillus, and Escherichia coli.

Probiotics not only support the health of the gut but also improves system functioning and regulation Though it is not clear how gut microbiome provides benefit over respiratory tract infections via gut-lung axis.

In general, it is observed that the gut microbiome impacts systemic immune responses as well as local immune responses at distal mucosal sites, including lungs Consumption of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus have found to help in clearing the influenza virus in the respiratory tract Levels of interferons, mucosal antibodies of lung and activity of NK cells, antigen presenting cells APCs are improved by probiotics Lactobacillus plantarum DR7 strain has shown to have suppressing effect on the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ, enhances anti-inflammatory cytokines IL, IL-4 and also known to reduce plasma peroxidation levels as well as modulate immune system It is reported that Lactobacillus acidophilus CMCC administration in mice infected with Staphylococcus aureus , and Pseudomonas aeruginosa decreased the damage in the lungs by reducing the bacterial load and reducing the inflammation A clinical study has reported that administration of Leuconostoc mesenteroides , Lactobacillus plantarum 2,, L.

paracasei ssp. paracasei 19, Pediococcus pentosaceus along with resistant starch, inulin prebiotics etc. reduced systemic inflammatory response syndrome and other infections Bifidobacterium longum BB strain prevents infection from influenza and improves innate immunity Though mechanism of their immunomodulating and anti-inflammatory effects in the lung are not clearly understood.

In general, probiotics exert anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects via modulation of the NF-κB, MAPK and pattern recognition receptors PRR pathways that decreases Th2 mediated responses and upregulates Th1 responses.

Further, they have an ability to inhibit the attachment of bacterial LPS to CD14 receptor, hence decrease in the overall activation of NF-κB and pro-inflammatory cytokines production 94 , Considering the role of probiotics in improving the host innate immune response as well as anti-inflammatory effects 87 , and considering the fact that gut involvement and enterocytes 96 can be reservoirs of SARS-CoV-2 infection, probiotics can be repurposed as prophylactics as well as adjuvants to combat the pathogenesis of COVID Lactoferrin Lf is a naturally occurring and non-toxic glycoprotein that has been studied against a broad range of viruses, including SARS-CoV, which is closely related to SARS-CoV Lf inhibits viral entry via binding to cell surface molecules or viral particles or both.

It was also known to suppress virus replication as in the case of HIV. Therefore, it plays a crucial role in preventing the virus entry and replication Studies have shown that it exerts immunomodulatory and antioxidant effects by inducing the T-cell activation, suppressing the levels of interleukins including IL-6, TNF-α, and downregulating the ferritin Also it suppresses H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells Furthermore, zinc saturated Lf exerts a more potent antiviral effect It is mainly used as a nutritional additive in infant formulas and clinical studies, with doses ranging from mg to 4.

and can be tried as a potential preventive and therapeutics against COVID Quercetin is a well-known antioxidant with anti-inflammatory and antiviral bioactive. It inhibits TNF-α production in LPS-induced macrophages , IL-8 production in lung A cells , and mRNA levels of TNF-α and IL-1α in glial cells It also limits the production of cyclooxygenase COX and lipoxygenase LOX enzymes in rat liver epithelial cells Studies have also shown that quercetin has antiviral effects on both RNA and DNA viruses.

It inhibits the virus entry and viral-cell fusion and reduces the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and lung inflammation induced by rhinovirus in mice Further, quercetin metabolite 4',5-diacetyloxy-3,3',7-trimethoxyflavone has been shown to inhibit the picornavirus replication by inhibiting the RNA replicase complex Studies have also found that quercetin-3β-galactoside due to the presence of hydroxyl group, it binds to viral protease 3CL pro and inhibits its proteolytic activity Further, increased ability of estradiol in affecting human genes encoding SARS-CoV-2 targets compared to testosterone suggests a plausible explanation of the apparently higher male mortality in this corona pandemic Furthermore, as observed in prediction models that quercetin binds SARS-CoV-2 S-protein at its host receptor region or to the S-protein-human ACE2 interface interfering the virus entry into cells indicating its therapeutic potential This prediction is consistent with the reports that both quercetin and a structurally similar luteolin inhibits the SARS-CoV virus infection Additionally, other studies have also found that quercetin in combination with VC induces synergistic antiviral and immunomodulatory effects against COVID Taken together, various studies suggest that quercetin possesses potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 effects and can be repurposed as a preventive and therapeutic candidate to combat COVID Currently, there is one corona vaccine, Sputnik V, developed by the Gamaleya Research Institute, Moscow has been approved by the Ministry of Health, Russian Federation.

Presently, there are over vaccines around the world in various stages of research and development. A few of them are in human clinical trials and are being tested rigorously for their safety, efficacy, and dosage standardization.

Similarly, there are several drug candidates that have been identified and most are in various stages of research and development, whilst some of them have been repurposed and approved for emergency use in this pandemic.

The notable ones approved for use in an emergency include hydroxychloroquine, favipiravir, remdesivir, tocilizumab, etc. The plethora of existing literature provides the scientific evidence on immune-boosting, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiviral properties of several phytonutrients as summarized in Table 1.

Initial studies find that some of these have been found to possess anti-SARS-CoV-2 effects and are being fast-tracked into clinical trials Table 2.

Repurposing of these nutrients in the right combination to achieve the functional synergy in the form of ready-to-eat food supplements may provide both prophylactic and adjuvant therapy against COVID Table 2.

Registered clinical trials of food supplements Source: ClinicalTrials. MM, VP, RN, and PJ: drafted the article. PH and PVR: edited the article. All authors: contributed to the article and approved the submitted version. of India. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

We are thankful to the Director and to CSIR-CFTRI for providing facilities to carry out this study. Chan JFW, Yuan S, Kok KH, To KKW, Chu H, Yang J, et al. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster.

doi: PubMed Abstract CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, Liang WH, Ou CQ, He JX, et al. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease in China.

N Engl J Med. CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, Wang X, Zhou L, Tong Y, et al. Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus—infected pneumonia.

Shi Y, Wang Y, Shao C, Huang J, Gan J, Huang X, et al. COVID infection: the perspectives on immune responses. Cell Death Differ. Hoffmann M, Kleine-Weber H, Schroeder S, Krüger N, Herrler T, Erichsen S, et al.

SARSCoV-2 cell entry depends on ace2 and tmprss2 and is blocked by a clinically proven protease inhibitor. Ou X, Liu Y, Lei X, Li P, Mi D, Ren L, et al. Characterization of spike glycoprotein of SARSCoV-2 on virus entry and its immune cross-reactivity with SARSCoV.

Nat Commun. Channappanavar R, Perlman S. Pathogenic human coronavirus infections: causes and consequences of cytokine storm and immunopathology.

Semin Immunopathol. Kindler E, Thiel V, Weber F. Interaction of SARS and MERS coronaviruses with the antiviral interferon response.

Adv Virus Res. Li X, Geng M, Peng Y, Meng L, Lu S. Molecular immune pathogenesis and diagnosis of COVID J Pharm Anal. Olagnier D, Farahani E, Thyrsted J, Cadanet JB, Herengt A, Idorn M, et al.

Identification of SARSCoV2-mediated suppression of NRF2 signaling reveals a potent antiviral and anti-inflammatory activity of 4-octyl-itaconate and dimethyl fumarate.

Delgado-Roche L, Mesta F. Oxidative stress as key player in severe acute respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus SARSCoV infection. Arch Med Res. Ntyonga-Pono MP. COVID infection and oxidative stress: an under-explored approach for prevention and treatment?

Pan Afr Med J. Lin CW, Lin KH, Hsieh TH, Shiu SY, Li JY. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 3C-like protease-induced apoptosis.

FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. Wu YH, Tseng CP, Cheng ML, Ho HY, Shih SR, Chiu DTY. Glucosephosphate dehydrogenase deficiency enhances human coronavirus E infection.

J Infect Dis. Bell TJ, Brand OJ, Morgan DJ, Salek-Ardakani S, Jagger C, Fujimori T, et al. Defective lung function following influenza virus is due to prolonged, reversible hyaluronan synthesis. Matrix Biol J Int Soc Matrix Biol.

Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, Zhu F, Liu X, Zhang J, et al. Clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients with novel coronavirus—infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China.

Xu Z, Shi L, Wang Y, Zhang J, Huang L, Zhang C, et al. Pathological findings of COVID associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Lancet Respir Med. Hällgren R, Samuelsson T, Laurent TC, Modig J. Accumulation of hyaluronan hyaluronic acid in the lung in adult respiratory distress syndrome.

Am Rev Respir Dis. Read SA, Obeid S, Ahlenstiel C, Ahlenstiel G. The role of zinc in antiviral immunity. Adv Nutr. Biaggio VS, Pérez Chaca MV, Valdéz SR, Gómez NN, Gimenez MS. Alteration in the expression of inflammatory parameters as a result of oxidative stress produced by moderate zinc deficiency in rat lung.

Exp Lung Res. Bao S, Knoell DL. Zinc modulates cytokine-induced lung epithelial cell barrier permeability. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. Liu MJ, Bao S, Napolitano JR, Burris DL, Yu L, Tridandapani S, et al. Zinc regulates the acute phase response and serum amyloid a production in response to sepsis through JAKSTAT3 signaling.

PLoS ONE. Ishida T. Am J Biomed Sci Res. Speth R, Carrera E, Jean-Baptiste M, Joachim A, Linares A. Concentration-dependent effects of zinc on angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 activity FASEB J. te Velthuis AJW, van den Worm SHE, Sims AC, Baric RS, Snijder EJ, van Hemert MJ.

PLoS Pathog. Hemilä H, Fitzgerald JT, Petrus EJ, Prasad A. Zinc acetate lozenges may improve the recovery rate of common cold patients: an individual patient data meta-analysis. Open Forum Infect Dis. Roth DE, Richard SA, Black RE. Zinc supplementation for the prevention of acute lower respiratory infection in children in developing countries: meta-analysis and meta-regression of randomized trials.

Int J Epidemiol. Zhang L, Liu Y. Potential interventions for novel coronavirus in China: a systematic review. J Med Virol. Prietl B, Treiber G, Pieber TR, Amrein K. Vitamin D and immune function. Wimalawansa SJ. Vitamin D deficiency: effects on oxidative stress, epigenetics, gene regulation, and aging.

Chen Y, Zhang J, Ge X, Du J, Deb DK, Li YC. Vitamin D receptor inhibits nuclear factor κB activation by interacting with IκB kinase β protein. J Biol Chem.

Lemire JM, Archer DC, Beck L, Spiegelberg HL. Immunosuppressive actions of 1,dihydroxyvitamin D3: preferential inhibition of Th1 functions.

J Nutr. Jeffery LE, Burke F, Mura M, Zheng Y, Qureshi OS, Hewison M, et al. J Immunol Baltim Md Monlezun DJ, Bittner EA, Christopher KB, Camargo CA, Quraishi SA. Vitamin D status and acute respiratory infection: cross sectional results from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Zdrenghea MT, Makrinioti H, Bagacean C, Bush A, Johnston SL, Stanciu LA.

Vitamin D modulation of innate immune responses to respiratory viral infections. Rev Med Virol. Abu-Mouch S, Fireman Z, Jarchovsky J, Zeina AR, Assy N. Vitamin D supplementation improves sustained virologic response in chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 -naïve patients.

World J Gastroenterol. Ginde AA, Blatchford P, Breese K, Zarrabi L, Linnebur SA, Wallace JI, et al. High-dose monthly vitamin D for prevention of acute respiratory infection in older long-term care residents: a randomized clinical trial.

J Am Geriatr Soc. Behera MK, Shukla SK, Dixit VK, Nath P, Abhilash VB, Asati PK, et al. Indian J Med Res. Nimer A, Mouch A. Vitamin D improves viral response in hepatitis C genotype naïve patients.

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Goncalves-Mendes N, Talvas J, Dualé C, Guttmann A, Corbin V, Marceau G, et al. Impact of vitamin D supplementation on influenza vaccine response and immune functions in deficient elderly persons: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Front Immunol. Carr AC, Maggini S. The supplement is made up of a range of cannabinoids such as cannabinol and cannabidiol, as well as terpenes and essential oils.

However, in such low doses, it will not likely have this effect. It does help ease the symptoms of several conditions. These can include insomnia, aches and pains, and many other conditions.

While many herbalists strongly advocate CBD products for their immune-boosting properties, research is still needed to prove this. Autoimmune disease patients often need a supplement or remedy to calm the immune system. CBD products are said to be effective at doing this as one of the vitamins for the immune system.

Research on the effects of CBD on the immune system is ongoing and, therefore, at present, not definitive. More and more evidence suggests that quercetin has several benefits for the immune system and other health factors.

The compound forms part of the plant pigment group known as flavonoids. This compound is found in food groups like vegetables, fruit, grains, and nuts.

When in supplement form, it's usually extracted from the buds and flowers of the Japanese pagoda tree. Quercetin is an antioxidant, like all flavonoids, which means it helps balance out the effects of damaging free radicals.

This means it can help prevent aging and several other conditions such as heart disease, arthritis, and cancer. Its antioxidant properties may also help ward off dementia and chronic inflammation.

It is known as an immune system booster as it helps protect the body from the symptoms of seasonal allergies.

It may also help with other issues. It is said to be an effective remedy for reducing oxidative stress in arteries, thereby minimizing the onset of blood clots. Black seed oil has been used from as far back as A. for its health and immune-boosting benefits.

It is well documented in ancient texts. Due to its phytochemical and nutritional components, black seed oil is said to be highly effective in balancing immune function.

It is particularly effective in supporting heart and cardiovascular health, metabolic health, and minimizing inflammation. A lot of research has been done to ascertain the effects of these supplements to boost the immune system.

A study on asthma patients displayed that symptoms eased in the group receiving black seed oil, while the placebo group did not show improvements. Researchers suggest that the effect of black seed oil on the immune system cannot be separated from its impact on metabolic health.

This is because the metabolism influences the immune system. New research is continuously being done to ascertain the health benefits as an immune system booster of black seed oil. It's even being considered an ingredient for some pharmaceutical medications.

With its origins in Ancient Greece, Valerian root has been used for its multitude of benefits. The valerian plant displays white or pink flowers and is native to Asia and Europe. Nowadays, it's also grown in North America. Valerian root has been used to help people sleep for many centuries.

It has been used to treat stress and calm one down. This remedy can be taken in many forms, including pills, tinctures, and teas. While it may not directly work on the immune system, its effects can help the immune system function better.

By helping people get the rest and experience the calmness they need, the immune system is exposed to less strain, thereby allowing the body to fend off infections and illnesses more effectively. Scientists have established that valerian root has mild sedative effects , which is why it is effective in treating stress and insomnia.

However, scientists are not certain how the root assists in alleviating sleeplessness or stress. Currently, it is believed that a combination of factors assists.

One factor is that valerian root is shown to increase gamma-aminobutyric acid GABA levels in the brain. GABA is a neurotransmitter, and therefore, it prevents undesirable activity in the nervous system.

Higher levels of GABA have been shown to allow people to fall asleep faster and have better quality rest. This acid showed anti-anxiety effects during the research.

A derivative of glycerin and lauric acid, and a coconut fat by-product, monolaurin is touted as having powerful immune support properties. The compound is said to be especially effective at preventing cardiovascular disease and cholesterol issues.

It also has anti-diabetic, anti-microbial, antioxidant, and anti-atherogenic effects. Monolaurin is easily absorbed by the human body and is known to be safe to take. Some sources of lauric acid , and thereby monolaurin, include:. In the course of the last 20 years, investigation has been done into the possibility of applying monolaurin to areas such as food preservation, sanitization, and medication.

Researchers are also looking to monolaurin to assist with the global antibiotic resistance issue. Many infections in food and hospitals are no longer quelled by existing antibiotics. This means people are dying of conditions that should be treatable today. Scientists are hoping monolaurin could form a part of a new antiviral and antibiotic medicine to respond to this crisis.

Food and Drug Administration FDA as a medical treatment, there are no official dosing rules. The main advocate of monolaurin, Dr. Jon Kabara, indicates that people 12 years old and up should take mg of monolaurin two to three times a day. They can slowly take more overtime, aiming to take up to mg two to three times a day.

While a lot of information about monolaurin has been established, more studies are necessary to ascertain its effects. Besides the vitamins, herbs , and compounds discussed above, there are many other supplements to boost immune system health.

Some of the most commonly used ones include the following:. As you can see, research shows these substances can have significant immune system booster properties. However, it is worth remembering that a lot of these studies have been done with animals, not humans, so more research is necessary to find more conclusive results.

As is evidenced in this post, there are many supplements you can try for their immune system booster effects. As it has many of the vitamins, minerals, and herbs discussed, MDimmune is an excellent solution to get the best immune support.

Just remember that if you are on medication for health conditions, some of the substances may interact with your prescribed or over-the-counter medicines.

Since ancient times, herbs have been used Alleviate muscle soreness natural treatments antivira various illnesses, including viral suppplements. Due to their concentration of potent plant sipplements, many herbs Nitric oxide function fight viruses antiviral immune support supplements antiiviral favored by practitioners of natural medicine. At the same time, the benefits of some herbs are only supported by limited human research, so you should take them with a grain of salt. Its plant compounds, which include carvacrol, offer antiviral properties. In a test-tube study, both oregano oil and isolated carvacrol reduced the activity of murine norovirus MNV within 15 minutes of exposure 1. There is no suppkements Nitric oxide function food suoplements can prevent COVID, but Heart-protective cholesterol levels supplements may help your ability supplmeents stay healthy antiviral immune support supplements recover faster. The mimune has many remedies and supprot — many antiviral immune support supplements and a few downright dangerous. This is especially true of vitamins and minerals, which are essential in supporting a healthy immune system. While no pill or food can prevent COVID, certain supplements may help your ability to stay healthy or recover faster. Vitamin D, commonly known for its role in bone health, also helps make proteins that kill viruses and bacteria, especially in the respiratory tract.

In supplfments of ending or staunching the pandemic, most attention has gone to very suppport things like vaccines, masks, and social distancing. Read on to learn supplemenfs about natural antiviral options, from antiviral herbs immunw ozone antiviral immune support supplements Metabolic health products beyond.

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Examples zntiviral viral antiivral include the common cold, the flu, chicken pox, immuje, and Covid These can suppkrt extremely Creatine benefits explained, but can also supplfments a number of concerning side effects read about them supplementts our anyiviral guide.

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Similarly, antibacterial zupplements is ineffective against viruses. But you know what suppport kill viruses? Just regular old soap and water. See, a virus is a nanoparticle in which the weakest link is the fatty bilayerand because uspplements dissolves fat, it imjune the entire virus to fall apart and die.

So the soap actually physically breaks the viruses, deactivating it — no antibacterial compounds suppplements But remember, the ingredients should be skpplements, water, and maybe some essential antivural or Nitric oxide function vera, not a bunch of other chemical antigiral.

It antiviral immune support supplements supplemehts not Nitric oxide function, but the actress Kristen Bell posted an interesting image showing supplemennts difference under a UV light of Hypertension and alcohol consumption after hand washing supllements.

using hand Nitric oxide function. So are there medications that are the virus equivalent of antibiotics? Antiviiral, but antiviral Nitric oxide function only work antivirla very specific circumstances.

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And they do Metformin and prediabetes destroy their target virus; instead, ajtiviral inhibi t its development.

Antiviral aupport become less effective with Natural detox for improved joint health and use, and have many side effectslike vomiting, immnue, and supplemwnts changes.

Okay, so now you might be wondering, what kills viruses without harming your gut microbiome and your immune system or causing serious side effects? Natural antivirals. Viruses are tricky little organisms, and can come in all sorts of different shapes and forms, which makes treating them difficult.

Luckily, there are some natural virus killers that you can incorporate into your life to help protect you against viruses. Note that some of the items below are relatively new, and there are still questions about their effectiveness and risks. When it comes to what kills viruses naturally, antiviral herbs and supplements are the two most popular and easy to use options.

Clearly, you have a lot of different options when it comes to antiviral herbs! In terms of taking them, there are various methods. With some antiviral herbs, like oregano and basil, you can add them to your food as you usually would.

With other antiviral herbs, or if you want a more potent dose of basil or oregano, you can opt for supplements, teas, or liquid extracts.

At the end of the day, what kills viruses is your immune system. Natural antivirals like silver, UV light, and antiviral herbs can definitely provide a helping hand, and sometimes a major one. But ultimately, your overall health and the strength or your immune system will be what determines whether or not a virus you are exposed to makes you sick, and how long that sickness will last.

To that end, the best thing you can do now to protect yourself against Covid — and against future viruses in general — is to take steps to keep your immune system strong. However, we do have some concrete knowledge about what kills viruses naturally.

Have you benefited from natural virus killers? Which ones? Share your experience in the comments below! A new report found that no over-the-counter medicines yep, not one have really been proven to work well for coughs.

Say what? Hannah Bronfman, content creator, author, and founder of HB Fit, had never had any dental issues growing up or in her adult life.

So when she sustained an injury to After much research on line for how to treat a grape vine that was sickly, I found that it had a viral affliction. One site said CINNAMON BARK. IT WORKED I used to suffer yearly with viral chest infections, and was very susceptible to flu.

I decided to use an infusion of Cinnamon Bark and Liquorice root to top up my very weak black coffee, my regular drink, and have found that for more than 7yrs I have suffered no more than days of a mild cough in an average year. Due to my age I regularly have the flu jab.

Unlike previously, I have only mild tiredness as a reaction. Hopefully this may aid some people out there. Hi Ruth, thanks for letting us know, and that is incredible that you have only had a mild cough using cinnamon bark and licorice root!

Very interesting article. Thank you for the reminder of these wonderful things we can do to help ourselves. Good information. Thank you. Surprised that garlic has not been mentioned. I regularly take garlic infused honey with clove and fennel as an immune system booster. Do you have any comments about garlic?

Hello everyone, am testifying about how i was totally cured of Herpes virus by Dr ikenna few months ago. Most of the time while I was growing up it seemed pretty normHello al for me to leave with it during my childhood.

I have been from doctor to doctor, and a lot of numerous auto-immune disorders. Living and dealing with Herpes has been one of the major thing in my life everyone believes there is no cure to this disease.

So searching for the solution to my problem was one of my primary aim. Thank you, Dr. Team WellBe. Your email address will not be published. Testimonials Media Podcast Membership Member Login — Database Member Login — Programs Free Membership Contact Instagram Facebook Youtube Twitter.

What Kills Viruses Naturally? Natural Antivirals: How Can You Prevent and Kill Viruses Naturally? Certain foods: As we discussed in our guide to immune-boosting foodscertain foods have natural antiviral properties, including onion, garlic, and mushrooms. Infrared sauna: These are saunas that use infrared lamps, which have light waves to warm your body from within rather than warming the air around you.

Some say that bringing the body to an increased temperature not only kills off viruses and pathogens, but also increases white blood cell production, thus boosting your immune system.

Similar to how your body creates a fever when it is naturally trying to kill off a virus! UV light: Research has shown that small amounts of human-safe UV light can kill airborne viruses. Colloidal silver: Colloidal silver, aka tiny particles of silver suspended in liquid, has long been touted as a natural virus killer when applied directly to the skin.

But still. Ozone is a naturally occurring energy-rich molecule embodying unique physio-chemical and biological properties. With viruses, ozone therapy damages the viral DNA and upsets the reproductive cycle by oxidizing our viral-invaded cells and eliminating them from our bodies, which are then replaced with healthy cells.

There have been some promising studies examining how ozone can inactivate viruses and stimulate the immune system to speed up healing.

One study found that sweet basil the most common variety of basil exhibits potent effects against multiple kinds of viruses, while another found that basil supplements significantly increased levels of cells that help your body fight off viral infections.

It has a strong inhibitive effect against herpes and various respiratory viruses, and may also boost immune function and reduce inflammation.

Oregano: Yay! Another common, easy antiviral herb option. A test-tube study showed that oregano could reduce viral activity in just 15 minutes!! It inhibits virus replication by damaging DNA and RNA genetic material inside the viral protein, which prevents virus cells from entering human cells and replicating.

Peppermint: In one studypeppermint leaf extract both reduced inflammation and significantly reduced viral activity for a respiratory virus. Peppermint tea also contains compounds that have natural antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects. The Best Defense Against Viruses: A Healthy Immune System At the end of the day, what kills viruses is your immune system.

: Antiviral immune support supplements

Can Supplements Help Fight COVID-19? Why take supplements? What Kills Viruses Naturally? But ultimately, your overall health and the strength or your immune system will be what determines whether or not a virus you are exposed to makes you sick, and how long that sickness will last. Icy fingers and toes: Poor circulation or Raynaud's phenomenon? But still.
Stay in the Know. Live in the Yes.

However, those with health concerns may be looking for additional solutions to achieve a robust immune system. Interested in boosting your immune system? Here are the best antiviral supplements you should be taking to help your body fight off any illness — COVID or otherwise.

Vitamin C Vitamin C is known for being a potent antiviral nutrient. Several studies show that it quickens immune responses against certain flu viruses. Other studies show that Vitamin C can produce a more robust immune response against pathogens.

Vitamin C achieves this by boosting the activity of natural killer NK cells and of T lymphocytes — cells that kill pathogens and improve our immune response in case of future infection.

Green tea — aside from being exceptionally soothing — is known for its multiple health benefits, particularly as a therapeutic agent. The main compound behind its health-promoting properties is an antioxidant called EpigallocatechinO-gallate EGCG.

Studies found that EGCG has an antiviral effect against a broad range of viruses. Adding this antioxidant to your diet can prevent the invasion of viruses into your body — preventing illness. Zinc Zinc is a mineral used in many bodily functions — including immune response.

Our Zinc Gluconate antiviral supplements can lessen the seriousness and length of common illnesses; such as colds and coughs. It does this by reducing our cytokine levels — a substance that inflames your body and worsens your symptoms.

Zinc offers other benefits for our immune health. It is used in signaling immune response — and zinc deficiency can make your immune system slow and weak.

Researchers also believe that zinc prevents the viral activity behind sickness; such as binding and reproduction. Quercetin Quercetin is a bioflavonoid — an antioxidant — with immune-enhancing abilities. Quercetin can neutralize oxidative damage, which helps protect our immune cells.

Research also found that Quercetin can stop the entry of viruses by blocking the cell receptors that they use to enter our bodies. Further, Quercetin acts as a mucolytic agent which means they relieve congestion in the lungs — a common symptom with flu viruses. Taking Elderberry extract is proven to enhance immune function.

With Elderberry supplements, your immune response becomes quicker and stronger against infection. Additionally, studies have found that Elderberry offers benefits for your lungs — it can help you remove excess phlegm, reduce congestion, and prevent bacteria build-up.

Astragalus Extract Certain antiviral supplements — like our Astragalus Extract — help your body adapt against foreign invaders.

Here's what you can expect. Vitamin C is one of the most commonly used vitamins for immune system support. It is known to protect the body from infections and keep us feeling healthy. Vitamin C supports immune cell function, improving the cells' ability to defend the body. It also assists in the removal of dead cells from the body and replaces them with fresh ones.

This helps keep the immune system operating optimally. Moreover, vitamin C is a highly effective antioxidant. Antioxidants help protect body cells from oxidative stress, which happens when reactive molecules known as free radicals accumulate. Free radicals can damage healthy cells, which can lead to accelerated aging and disease.

Many people take vitamin C as an immune system booster for its ability to prevent colds and flu or at least help the body get over these upper respiratory tract infections more easily.

When given in higher doses, vitamin C can even help people suffering from severe infections like acute respiratory distress syndrome and sepsis. Scientific studies confirm the ability of vitamin C supplements to boost the immune system. Dosage is usually between to mg daily. Vitamin D as one of the supplements to boost the immune system improves white blood cell efficacy, which helps the body fight off diseases.

As a fat-soluble nutrient, vitamin D also helps minimize inflammation in the body, which aids immune responses and reduces the chances of developing conditions like arthritis, cancer, and heart disease.

You also absorb vitamin D when spending time in the sun. People living in colder climates often suffer from vitamin D deficiencies and should take supplements to boost the immune system.

If your vitamin D levels are low, you may be more prone to colds and flu and allergic asthmatic reactions. People who supplement with vitamin D may thus also help to minimize their chances of getting these kinds of respiratory illnesses.

In this way, vitamin D is another of the popular vitamins for immune system support. Typically, the dosage for these supplements to boost the immune system ranges from to IU, depending on individual blood levels.

Newer research has shown that vitamin D may help stop inflammation and accelerate respiratory healing in COVID patients. This research is ongoing on this as the vitamins for the immune system. Zinc aids immune cell growth and communication, making it an essential component of vitamins for immune system health.

This mineral also strengthens tissue barriers, which helps to stop pathogens from getting into the body. If you have a zinc deficiency, you will likely be more prone to infections and illnesses like colds, flu, and pneumonia.

This mineral has also been shown to help people who are already ill recover more quickly. Zinc occurs naturally in the body but can also be found in red meat, chicken, and breakfast cereals.

Most people absorb enough zinc vitamins for immune system health by eating a balanced diet. However, others may need to take a supplement. The dosage for zinc supplements is safe for up to 40mg. Taking too much zinc may interfere with copper absorption in the body, which can increase the risk of getting infections.

Full-spectrum hemp oil is a supplement comprised of more than one kind of cannabis mainly hemp plant extract. The supplement is made up of a range of cannabinoids such as cannabinol and cannabidiol, as well as terpenes and essential oils.

However, in such low doses, it will not likely have this effect. It does help ease the symptoms of several conditions. These can include insomnia, aches and pains, and many other conditions.

While many herbalists strongly advocate CBD products for their immune-boosting properties, research is still needed to prove this. Autoimmune disease patients often need a supplement or remedy to calm the immune system. CBD products are said to be effective at doing this as one of the vitamins for the immune system.

Research on the effects of CBD on the immune system is ongoing and, therefore, at present, not definitive. More and more evidence suggests that quercetin has several benefits for the immune system and other health factors. The compound forms part of the plant pigment group known as flavonoids.

This compound is found in food groups like vegetables, fruit, grains, and nuts. When in supplement form, it's usually extracted from the buds and flowers of the Japanese pagoda tree. Quercetin is an antioxidant, like all flavonoids, which means it helps balance out the effects of damaging free radicals.

This means it can help prevent aging and several other conditions such as heart disease, arthritis, and cancer. Its antioxidant properties may also help ward off dementia and chronic inflammation. It is known as an immune system booster as it helps protect the body from the symptoms of seasonal allergies.

It may also help with other issues. It is said to be an effective remedy for reducing oxidative stress in arteries, thereby minimizing the onset of blood clots.

Black seed oil has been used from as far back as A. for its health and immune-boosting benefits. It is well documented in ancient texts. Due to its phytochemical and nutritional components, black seed oil is said to be highly effective in balancing immune function.

It is particularly effective in supporting heart and cardiovascular health, metabolic health, and minimizing inflammation. A lot of research has been done to ascertain the effects of these supplements to boost the immune system.

A study on asthma patients displayed that symptoms eased in the group receiving black seed oil, while the placebo group did not show improvements. Researchers suggest that the effect of black seed oil on the immune system cannot be separated from its impact on metabolic health.

This is because the metabolism influences the immune system. New research is continuously being done to ascertain the health benefits as an immune system booster of black seed oil. It's even being considered an ingredient for some pharmaceutical medications.

With its origins in Ancient Greece, Valerian root has been used for its multitude of benefits. The valerian plant displays white or pink flowers and is native to Asia and Europe.

Nowadays, it's also grown in North America. Valerian root has been used to help people sleep for many centuries.

Top 10 Anti-Viral Supplements to Boost Immunity

Licorice has been used in traditional Chinese medicine and other natural practices for centuries. Glycyrrhizin, liquiritigenin, and glabridin are just some of the active substances in licorice that have powerful antiviral properties Test-tube studies demonstrate that licorice root extract is effective against HIV, RSV, herpes viruses, and severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus SARS-CoV , which causes a serious type of pneumonia 35 , 36 , Astragalus is a flowering herb popular in traditional Chinese medicine.

It boasts Astragalus polysaccharide APS , which has significant immune-enhancing and antiviral qualities Test-tube and animal studies show that astragalus combats herpes viruses, hepatitis C, and avian influenza H9 virus 39 , 40 , 41 , Plus, test-tube studies suggest that APS may protect human astrocyte cells, the most abundant type of cell in the central nervous system, from infection with herpes Ginger products, such as elixirs, teas, and lozenges, are popular natural remedies — and for good reason.

Ginger has been shown to have impressive antiviral activity thanks to its high concentration of potent plant compounds. Test-tube research demonstrates that ginger extract has antiviral effects against avian influenza, RSV, and feline calicivirus FCV , which is comparable to human norovirus 43 , 44 , Additionally, specific compounds in ginger, such as gingerols and zingerone, have been found to inhibit viral replication and prevent viruses from entering host cells Ginseng , which can be found in Korean and American varieties, is the root of plants in the Panax family.

Long used in traditional Chinese medicine, it has been shown to be particularly effective at fighting viruses. In animal and test-tube studies, Korean red ginseng extract has exhibited significant effects against RSV, herpes viruses, and hepatitis A 47 , 48 , Plus, compounds in ginseng called ginsenosides have antiviral effects against hepatitis B, norovirus, and coxsackieviruses, which are associated with several serious diseases — including an infection of the brain called meningoencephalitis Dandelions are widely regarded as weeds but have been studied for multiple medicinal properties, including potential antiviral effects.

Test-tube research indicates that dandelion may combat hepatitis B, HIV, and influenza 50 , 51 , Moreover, one test-tube study noted that dandelion extract inhibited the replication of dengue, a mosquito-borne virus that causes dengue fever.

This disease, which can be fatal, triggers symptoms like high fever, vomiting, and muscle pain 53 , Common kitchen herbs , such as basil, sage, and oregano, as well as lesser-known herbs like astragalus and sambucus, have powerful antiviral effects against numerous viruses that cause infections in humans.

However, keep in mind that most research has been conducted in test tubes and animals using concentrated extracts. If you decide to supplement with extracts, tinctures, or other herbal products, consult your healthcare provider to ensure safe usage.

Many delicious ingredients are also exceptionally healthy. Here are 10 of the world's healthiest herbs and spices, supported by science. Oregano is a staple herb in many cuisines around the world. It may also have significant health benefits, such as the 6 discussed here. Sage is a staple cooking herb as well as a natural cleaning agent, pesticide and ritual object.

This article provides 12 surprising health benefits of…. Basil is popular as a food seasoning but also used in teas and supplements to promote health benefits.

This article explains all you need to know…. This is a detailed article about garlic and its health benefits. Here are 11 ways that garlic can improve your health, supported by science.

Eating garlic provides many health benefits, including improved immune function. It can help prevent the common cold and the flu. Here are 10 key uses. Echinacea is a popular herbal remedy, primarily known for its potential to prevent or treat the common cold. This article reviews the benefits, uses….

Astragalus has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries due to its immune-boosting and anti-inflammatory effects. This article reviews…. Ginger appears to have medicinal properties. Here are 11 health benefits of ginger, such as its anti-inflammatory effects, that are supported by….

A Quiz for Teens Are You a Workaholic? How Well Do You Sleep? Health Conditions Discover Plan Connect. Nutrition Evidence Based 15 Impressive Herbs with Antiviral Activity. Medically reviewed by Adda Bjarnadottir, MS, RDN Ice — By Jillian Kubala, MS, RD on October 21, Share on Pinterest.

Lemon balm. The bottom line. Share this article. Read this next. So, what suggests that vitamin C, vitamin D, zinc, and melatonin might help work against any virus?

The cases for vitamin D and melatonin differ. While there is also evidence that vitamin D and melatonin may have positive effects on immune function, a specific antiviral effect remains unproven. What's the evidence that supplements are helpful for COVID? Though COVID is a new illness, a few clinical trials have explored the possibility that supplements may be effective.

And, unfortunately, most of the evidence is unconvincing. For example, a few observational studies link lower blood vitamin levels with a higher risk of testing positive for the virus that causes COVID see this study and this one.

But studies like these cannot prove that vitamin D protects people against infection. Further, a randomized controlled study of people with moderate to severe COVID who received a high dose of vitamin D showed no benefit. On the other hand, a small study of high-risk, elderly persons with COVID found that rates of death at 14 days was lower among those receiving high dose vitamin D than those receiving a lower dose.

A study of zinc and vitamin C demonstrated no benefit for people with mild COVID In this study, people whose symptoms did not require hospital admission were randomly assigned to receive. The researchers found that people receiving the supplements, whether individually or combined, had no improvement in symptoms or a faster recovery when compared with otherwise similar patients receiving neither supplement.

Proponents of melatonin for COVID have encouraged researchers to perform trials of this supplement, but so far convincing evidence of benefit is not yet available. Even without convincing evidence, why not take them anyway? Despite questions about the overall benefit of these supplements, many doctors began prescribing them routinely in the early days of the COVID pandemic.

The logic may have been that with so little known about how to best treat this new infection and a long track record of safety for these supplements, why not? But there are significant hazards to consider. These include side effects, allergic reactions, interactions with other drugs, the cost of unnecessary supplements, and the dangers of taking too much.

For example:. That said, people with nutritional deficiencies should receive supplements. Zinc or vitamin D deficiencies are not rare and may contribute to poor immune function. Therefore, even without specific evidence linking supplement use with improvement among people with COVID, these supplements may be appropriate for people in whom deficiency is suspected or confirmed.

For example, a person with little sun exposure and a diet low in dairy products may be likely to have vitamin D deficiency.

A simple blood test can confirm or rule out vitamin D or zinc deficiency. If you do take supplements, it's safest to follow the daily recommended amounts your body needs unless your doctor advises otherwise see this information for people 51 and older , and this information on a full range of supplements.

Based on the science, there is reason to be hopeful that supplements such as vitamin C or D, zinc, or melatonin might help in the fight against COVID While there's no proof yet that they do, additional research could show a benefit in certain situations, or with a different dose or formulation of the supplement.

So it's worth keeping an open mind. In the meantime, we should not dismiss the findings of negative studies just because the results weren't what we'd hoped. When it comes to preventing or treating COVID, I'd rely more on the recommendations from the CDC than on unproven supplements.

Check with your doctor before starting a supplement. Ask about dosage, other medications you're taking, and other health conditions you have. The last thing you want to do is to take a supplement that causes more harm than good. Robert H.

Shmerling, MD , Senior Faculty Editor, Harvard Health Publishing; Editorial Advisory Board Member, Harvard Health Publishing. As a service to our readers, Harvard Health Publishing provides access to our library of archived content.

Please note the date of last review or update on all articles. No content on this site, regardless of date, should ever be used as a substitute for direct medical advice from your doctor or other qualified clinician. About half of all Americans routinely take dietary supplements.

The most common ones are multivitamin and multimineral supplements. Making Sense of Vitamins and Minerals: Choosing the foods and nutrients you need to stay healthy explains the evidence behind the benefits and safety profiles of various vitamins and minerals.

It also includes the recommended minimum and maximum amounts you should consume, as well as good food sources of each. Thanks for visiting.

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2 thoughts on “Antiviral immune support supplements

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