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Sodium intake and athletic performance

Sodium intake and athletic performance

They performed four shots 2 forehands and 2 backhandsjogged Bitter orange for digestion to collect the four balls intakke returned for another Sodiuk shots peformance 40 had been completed. Freis, T. ORIGINAL RESEARCH article. But, as those losses start to mount up, you need to replace sodium too to avoid your blood becoming diluted. Shirreffs SM, Aragon-Vargas LF, Chamorro M, Maughan RJ, Serratosa L, Zachwieja JJ. Cheuvront SN, Kenefick RW.

Salt consists Skdium sodium and chloride, and Prebiotics for digestion important for normal physiologic function.

Performace sweat rates in athletes preformance Equilibrate food intake loss of Intwke fluids atyletic sodium. Fluid intke with perforrmance solutions will lead perfornance incomplete rehydration and possible complications such as hyponatremia, Sodium intake and athletic performance performance, heat cramps, or other heat-related illness.

Athlftic is significant individual variation Playground injury prevention sodium loss during activity. In some the losses can be replaced by normal dietary intake, whereas in others the losses can be dramatic and increased dietary intake is essential.

There are various methods to increase sodium intake, such as increased use of table salt on foods, salty snacks, adding salt to sports drinks, and use of salt tablets.

Emphasis on replacement of fluids is also important, but care must be taken to avoid overhydration. Simple measures such as recording daily pre- and postexercise body weight can aid in making fluid and sodium ingestion decisions; in some cases, a comprehensive evaluation is necessary.

Abstract Salt consists of sodium and chloride, and is important for normal physiologic function. Publication types Review. Substances Sodium, Dietary.

: Sodium intake and athletic performance

Sodium Needs and Athletes | Nutrition | MyFitnessPal

And everyone sweats at different rates, which means that your net sodium losses could be as much as 10x higher than the person next to you on the start line.

And, in a lot of cases, those losses are many times higher than someone who is not sweating on a regular basis.

This is why the standard government guidelines for sodium consumption should be viewed cautiously by athletes who train a lot. Your blood volume is gradually reduced as your sweat losses increase because sweat is drawn from your blood plasma.

This increases the strain on your cardiovascular system, making it harder to pump blood to your skin to cool you down and to your working muscles.

This obviously has a negative impact on your performance. Other issues like a general feeling of fatigue, a loss of concentration and even muscle cramps can also be experienced if losses are allowed to go uncorrected for long enough.

Electrolytes have a few other jobs as well, like maintaining the proper pH of your blood, but an important thing to note is that when we perspire, sweat takes electrolytes with it on its way out of your pores.

How much you lose can vary, but generally speaking you can lose between half a liter to four liters of sweat per hour during a workout and a liter of sweat has roughly milligrams of sodium, milligrams of potassium, 15 milligrams of calcium and 13 milligrams of magnesium.

In short, you lose way more sodium when you sweat than any other electrolyte. A post shared by Stan "Rhino" Efferding — CSCS stanefferding. What Are the Benefits of Sodium for Athletes?

Maintaining fluid balance is of enormous importance for athletes because those electrical charges help to activate muscle tissue and neurons. A lot of research agrees. Then again, a study co-written by Dr. Weiss did concede that athletes need a higher salt intake than the general population. Too much sodium in the blood can throw off your blood pressure, but the point is that athletes tend to lose a lot more sodium than the general population and since they tend to eat fewer processed foods, they may consume less salt.

Adding this much salt to your diet daily may seem like a lot, however, most adults consume closer to 3,mg a day. Research is evolving on the topic, but most health experts agree too much salt in the diet can contribute to poor health outcomes, especially cardiovascular disease.

Athletes and active people typically need of more salt than the average person. Sodium is lost through sweat, and athletes can have very high sweat rates.

The amount of sweat lost depends on many factors including body mass, temperature, clothing worn, acclimatization and gender. To know your personal sweat rate, weigh yourself before and after workout sessions. While finding your sweat rate is pretty simple, knowing how much sodium is being excreted in that sweat is something only a lab test can determine.

Generally, the more sweat you lose the more sodium you are losing. Also, if you are an athlete whose skin and clothing is caked with white grit after a session, that is salt and you can consider yourself a salty sweater. Sweat can contain anywhere from —2,mg of sodium per liter and athletes have been reported to lose up to 8,mg per hour during intense workouts.

This is an extremely variable amount and makes precise sodium recommendations for athletes difficult. Generally, untrained individuals lose more sodium through sweat than trained athletes and men lose more than women.

Also, studies have shown tennis and football players have some of the highest sodium sweat rates. Athletes who lose too much salt through sweat without properly replenishing the electrolyte are at risk for muscle cramps.

This is one reason electrolyte beverages should be consumed throughout training sessions.

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Participants completed two familiarization trials and an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test CPET , followed by four identical tennis training sessions that were separated by 7 days. The order of the beverages was randomized but was not counter-balanced i. all participants received the beverages in the same order.

Body mass kg and urine osmolality UOsm were measured immediately before and after training sessions to assess fluid loss and hydration status, respectively.

Groundstroke and serve performance, agility, rating of perceived exertion RPE , thirst, and gastrointestinal GI discomfort were recorded during the training sessions, whilst sweat sodium concentration and total sweat sodium loss were assessed immediately afterwards.

Twelve nationally-ranked tennis players [mean SD age: All participants were currently ranked between 50 and 1, in Great Britain based on Lawn Tennis Association LTA national rankings, and regularly competed in LTA Grade 3 tournaments high-level regional standard. Participants were part of the same training group and informed of the experimental procedures prior to signing an institutionally approved informed consent document to participate in the study.

Ethical approval for the study was granted by the Sports, Health and Exercise Science Ethics Committee at the University of Hull. The week prior to the first experimental training session, participants completed two familiarization trials and an incremental CPET on separate days.

Participants initially completed a medical questionnaire and had their body mass, height, resting blood pressure and heart rate recorded. The CPET protocol began with a treadmill speed of 8 km.

Exhaustion was defined as an inability to maintain the required running speed despite strong verbal encouragement. Breath-by-breath data Oxycon Pro, CareFusion, Hoechberg, Germany were recorded throughout and averaged per minute before interpretation.

VO 2peak was determined as the highest VO 2 attained during the final s of the CPET. The familiarization sessions were identical to the tennis training sessions apart from that no data were collected and no restrictions were implemented.

Participants consumed ml of water 4-h before each tennis training session to ensure they started in a euhydrated state. All training sessions lasted 1-h and took place across two in-door tennis courts inside a three-court facility. Participants were instructed not to perform moderate- to vigorous-intensity exercise for at least 48 h prior to each experimental session.

Sessions were performed at the same time of day p. Ambient temperature This reflects the climate set in UK indoor tennis facilities. Participants wore only a t-shirt, shorts, socks, and shoes during the training sessions.

Participants were provided with a 3-min break every min throughout each training session, to allow them to consume the sodium-containing beverage or placebo.

Training sessions began with a standardized min dynamic warm-up, followed by a min tennis-specific warm-up, prior to the main training session.

The tennis-specific warm-up consisted of paired stroke shot rallying 2-min , volleys 1-min , and serve practice 2-min across half a court, followed by 2 × 5-min half-court matches.

Standard tennis rules applied during the half-court games, apart from that players could use the tram-lines during the point. The same opponents were used in each training session, which were matched as closely as possible based on their current LTA ranking.

The stroke performance test involved two technical tennis drills; groundstrokes and serves. First, participants hit 20 forehands and 20 backhands cross-court, aiming for 3 × 3 m 2 target areas in both opposite corners of the court, which were marked with lines.

They performed four shots 2 forehands and 2 backhands , jogged round to collect the four balls and returned for another four shots until 40 had been completed. An LTA qualified coach was stood on the opposite side of the court at the net and threw the ball underarm to the participants in the same place for the forehand and backhand in the corner between the base-line and tram-line marked out by a 1 × 1 m 2 lined target.

After a player sprinted to perform a shot, they were allowed 2 s to return to the center of the baseline ready to perform the next shot emphasizing the need for a quick acceleration and deceleration before and after each shot. The ball bounced once before being struck by the participant.

This drill was performed on two tennis courts with six participants on each court. The same coaches threw the balls for each participant during all experimental sessions. Participants then performed 10 serves from the right and 10 serves from the left, aiming for a 2 × 4. They were allowed 30 s between serve attempts.

To minimize learning effects, the tennis training session involved drills that the participants were highly accustomed to performing during prior routine training sessions. After finishing the tennis drills, participants completed a Pro-Agility test see outcome measures below. Participants then continued to consume 1, ml of the same beverage at set 3-min intervals every min during the training session.

These intervals were chosen to replicate the frequency of rest intervals in competition. The volume of fluid consumed during the 3-min intervals was ad libitum , but participants were instructed to consume the entire 1, ml beverage by the end of the session, which was confirmed by a research team member.

Hence, the concentrations of sodium used in this study reflect lower, similar and higher concentrations for comparison. The flavor of each solution was masked with zero-calorie flavoring Flavdrops TM , MyProtein, Warrington, UK , and participants were blind to the beverage they received.

As per the participant information sheet, participants were told that the researchers were testing the effect of four different sports drinks on performance. All participants confirmed that they did not know which beverage they were receiving after completing the study. They were not permitted to spit out any of the liquid or pour it onto their hair or face.

Beverages in all four experimental conditions were made with the same brand and batch of still water ASDA Still Natural Mineral Water, Asda, Leeds, UK to ensure consistency of the water mineral content.

The mineral concentration of the water was as follows: Calcium, 0. The sodium concentration of each beverage was confirmed prior to training sessions using the B LAQUAtwin Sodium Ion Meter Horiba, Kyoto, Japan , which was calibrated before every session using a standard solution containing parts per million ppm of sodium.

Participants completed a h record of their food and fluid intake before each tennis training session. Participants also refrained from consuming alcohol or caffeine for h before training sessions. Diet records were analyzed for sodium content using the smartphone application MyFitnessPal Under Armor, Baltimore, MD.

Change in hydration status from pre- to post-session was determined with UOsm. After consuming the ml beverage min prior to the tennis training session, participants emptied their bladders and provided a midstream urine sample directly into 30 ml clear, plastic, sterile container.

A second sample was collected post-session. Urine samples were assessed for UOsm within min of collection using a portable osmometer Osmocheck, Vitech Scientific, West Sussex, UK that has previously been validated Immediately before participants began the tennis training sessions, four absorbent sweat pads 8 × 6 cm; Adhesive Dressing, Boots, Nottingham, UK were applied to four sites of the body: 1 on the posterior midline of the right forearm, equidistant between the antecubital fossa and wrist joint, 2 the midline of the widest circumference of the right calf, 3 on the anterior midline of the right thigh, equidistant between the patella and greater trochanter, and 4 5-centimeters lateral from the third lumbar spine vertebra L3.

These sites were chosen to align with previous research 5 and because they are highly correlated to whole-body sweat sodium loss 18 and provide minimum disruption of tennis performance 5.

Prior to application, each patch site was shaved with a handheld razor, cleaned using an alcohol wipe, washed with deionised water and dried with a clean, electrolyte free swab gauze Boots.

Immediately post-session, the sweat pads were removed using a pair of sterile forceps a new pair for each patch and individually placed inside the barrel of a ml plastic syringe King Scientific, Liversedge, UK. Deionised water 5-ml was added to the patch to ensure a sufficient volume of solution was obtained for analysis.

The syringe plunger was then depressed to compress the pad and obtain a minimum 5-ml sample of sweat. This method is a valid field technique of estimating sodium concentration Patches were not assessed for background sodium.

Whole-body sweat sodium concentration was determined through a validated area weighted mean of four skin regions 18 as adapted by previous tennis sweat sodium research 5 , Fluid loss was estimated from the pre-post change in body mass after correcting for the 1, ml of fluid consumed throughout the 1-h training session.

Body mass was measured to the nearest 0. Participants wore only underwear and removed all jewelry. In line with previous research 5 , 18 , 20 , 21 , loss of mass was not corrected for respiratory water loss or loss due to substrate exchange because this would be impractical for practitioners to include when assessing fluid requirements Total sweat sodium loss g was calculated by multiplying the volume of fluid loss L by the molecular mass of sodium Rating of perceived exertion RPE , gastrointestinal GI discomfort, and perceived thirst data were collected during each min break during the 1-h training session and after the session had finished total of 4 times.

A point Borg scale arbitrary units [AU] was used to collect RPE data Participants were formally familiarized with the scales during the two prior familiarization sessions. The four scores in each outcome were averaged prior to analysis to reduce the number of statistical comparisons made.

The number of forehand strokes, backhand strokes, and serves to land in the pre-specified target areas during the tennis training session were recorded. Forehand and backhand stroke scores were combined to provide an overall tennis groundstroke score maximum of A point was given if any part of the ball touched the line encompassing the target area.

The drills were recorded by a 50 Hz video camera Panasonic Lumix DC-TZ , with the videos being viewed post-session to determine the number of successful attempts. Agility performance was assessed with the Pro-Agility test. A distance of 9.

Participants began in a neutral 3-point position with feet placed equally either side of the midline. Time began with initial movement and ended when the participant crossed the midline a second time, covering a total distance of Two researchers recorded time with a stopwatch, with the average time recorded to the nearest to the nearest 0.

Three trials were performed, separated by 3-min of rest, with the fastest time used for analysis. Participants completed the test in the same order during each session. Data were analyzed in R R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.

Descriptive statistics are reported as mean ± SD or median interquartile range. Paired t -tests with a Bonferroni correction were used to compare pre-trial UOsm and body mass between conditions.

Differences in study outcomes between conditions were assessed with a multilevel linear model. For pre-post changes in UOsm and body mass, the pre-session value was also entered into the model as a covariate. If there was a significant main effect of condition i.

Subsequently, we conducted a linear trend analysis using the stats::contr. poly function in R to investigate whether there was a linear dose response effect. Descriptive statistics are presented in Table 1.

For outcomes with a significant main effect of condition, follow-up comparisons and linear trend analyses are presented in Table 2.

Table 1. Descriptive statistics of outcomes in each experimental condition mean ± SD or median [IQR]. However, there was a significant main effect of condition for the pre-post change in UOsm Table 1.

There was a significant main effect of condition on whole-body-sweat concentration Table 1. Groundstroke, serve, and agility performance are presented in Table 1 and Figure 1.

Figure 1. Groundstroke A , serve B , and agility C performance during each experimental condition. The dashed horizontal line represents the mean score across all conditions. There was a significant main effect of condition on all perceptual responses. This is the first study to evaluate the effectiveness of consuming different sodium concentrations on markers of hydration and tennis skill performance in nationally-ranked tennis players.

There was also evidence of dose-response effects, demonstrating that ingesting greater concentrations of sodium promoted proportionately greater improvements in hydration status and groundstroke performance. These results provide novel evidence for sodium consumption as an effective nutritional strategy for enhancing tennis skill.

It is well-established that hypohydration reduces aerobic capacity and cognitive function 24 — Given that tennis skills are dependent on a combination of physical and cognitive factors, hypohydration may also account for impaired technical skill 3.

Indeed, whilst research in tennis is scarce, studies with basketball 27 , 28 and soccer players 29 have reported impaired execution of sport-specific skills, although this is not always the case 30 , A novel finding of our study was that there was a dose-dependant increase in the effects of sodium on tennis performance in a randomized placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

Pre-trial UOsm was insignificant between trials, but values increased numerically higher. As the pre-trial urine sample was collected min after the initial ml bolus had been consumed, the placebo drink may have increased urine output and produced a more dilute urine concentration, potentially affecting the difference between pre-post exercise UOsm.

Therefore, measurement of urine volume should be considered in future studies. Nevertheless, this difference in UOsm at baseline did not reach statistical significance, and we controlled for differences in baseline values and regression to the mean effects by including the baseline scores as a covariate in the statistical model.

Trend analyses provided evidence for dose-response effects of sodium ingestion on hydration and groundstroke performance. This result provides further support for our findings and the use of sodium as an ergogenic aid in tennis, and warrants further research evaluating the optimal dose of sodium to enhance sport performance.

Sodium consumption may improve hydration status by increasing plasma sodium concentration, which helps retain ingested fluid via osmotic processes. Improved hydration status has a direct effect on physical performance by maintaining plasma volume, body core temperature, muscle perfusion and muscle metabolism, amongst other mechanisms 26 , In contrast, there appears to be no clear physiological mechanism by which modest improvements in hydration status might improve sport skill or cognitive function Instead, improved hydration may attenuate the distracting symptoms of hypohydration, such as negative mood state 33 , thirst 33 , GI complaints 34 , and increased RPE Trend analysis also showed that as the concentration of sodium increased, perceived thirst significantly decreased in a linear manner.

Thus, taken together with previous research, the improved groundstroke performance induced by sodium consumption may have resulted from a combined attenuation of symptomologic distracters such as thirst, GI distress, and RPE instead of a direct physiological effect of hydration and warrants further investigation.

Despite the observed improvement in groundstroke performance, there was no evidence for an effect of sodium ingestion on serve performance. The reason for this is unclear but may be due to the fact that tennis serving is pre-planned and does not require the player to react to a stimulus, whereas the groundstroke task involved reacting to tennis balls being thrown in quick succession 2-s by a LTA coach.

The groundstroke task therefore encompassed greater cognitive components including visual scanning, reaction time, and decision making , which may have improved through sodium ingestion.

Fluid lost during the control trial in this study 0. This is likely due to the indoor environment, the ambient temperature Discrepancies between UOsm and fluid losses have been reported previously Although evaluating fluid losses via changes in body mass aligns with previous research and is a suitable field-based technique 3 , 5 , 18 , 20 , 32 , 43 , there are sources of error associated with this method, including respiratory water loss and loss due to substrate exchange Water produced during substrate oxidation, release of water previously bound with glycogen, and accumulation of water in the bladder also cause a dissociation between body mass changes and hydration status 22 , Thus, given the potential for error and the small fluid losses observed in this study, monitoring changes in body mass might not have been sensitive enough to detect subtle differences in hydration status between conditions.

There was no evidence of an effect of sodium ingestion on agility performance. Whilst limited data exist, previous research with soccer players suggests that hydration status does not influence m sprint performance 30 , Thus, consuming sodium to mitigate the effects of hypohydration would not be expected to improve performance in the Pro-Agility test.

It is important to note that the Pro-Agility test does not require players to react to a stimulus, which limits the cognitive requirements of the task. Hoffman et al.

Hydration status might differently affect performance in pre-planned vs. reactive agility tasks. Alternatively, greater fluid loss than observed in this study 0. Further research should aim to determine whether sodium ingestion improves reactive agility, which more closely replicates tennis match-play.

A limitation of this study was that research team members were not blind to the type of beverage that participants received, although the researchers strictly adhered to a pre-determined protocol.

Although dietary sodium intake was measured, along with consumption of ml of the sodium solution min prior to testing, this may not have allowed enough time to affect pre-trial UOsm readings, affecting baseline hydration scores.

Furthermore, whilst participants were blind to the sodium concentration of the beverages and the flavor was masked, we cannot guarantee that participants were not aware of the relative sodium content of the beverages, although participants anecdotally reported that they could not identify any differences between the drinks.

There was also evidence of dose-response effects, showing that ingesting greater sodium concentrations resulted in greater improvements in hydration and groundstroke performance. The observed enhancement in tennis skill may have resulted from an attenuation of symptomologic distracters associated with hypohydration, such as thirst, GI discomfort, and RPE.

Practitioners and sports nutritionists should include sodium ingestion in their nutritional arsenal as a simple and effective strategy to improve tennis-specific skill. The raw data supporting the conclusions of this article will be made available by the authors, without undue reservation. The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by Sports, Health and Exercise Science Ethics Committee at the University of Hull.

EM, JB, ST, PM, and RV were responsible for the conceptualization and formulation of the overarching research question, as well as the development and design of study methodology.

EM and JB were principally responsible for data collection. SO was responsible for data curation, statistical analyses, and writing the original draft of the manuscript. PM and RV were responsible for the overall oversight and leadership of the study. All authors reviewed, edited, and approved the final version of the manuscript.

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. The authors appreciate the time and effort provided from all participants, in addition to researchers and assistants who helped with data collection.

Fernandez J, Mendez-Villanueva A, Pluim BM. Intensity of tennis match play. Br J Sports Med. doi: PubMed Abstract CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Christmass MA, Richmond SE, Cable NT, Arthur PG, Hartmann PE.

Exercise intensity and metabolic response in singles tennis. J Sports Sci. Nuccio RP, Barnes KA, Carter JM, Baker LB. Fluid balance in team sport athletes and the effect of hypohydration on cognitive, technical, and physical performance.

Sports Med Auckl NZ. When you sweat, you lose from , mg of sodium per pound of sweat. No other electrolyte is lost in that amount. Potassium rarely exceeds 70 mg per pound of sweat, and calcium and magnesium losses are way less than that.

I know this firsthand because I test electrolyte levels at my office. Most athletes need a minimum of 3, mg of sodium a day.

Many need more pending on how much they sweat per hour. This amount can easily be met through daily consumption, but I have found many who focus on eating clean do not intake enough.

I highly recommend logging on an app to see what your average intake is. Remember: This is an educational article and not to be replaced for medical advice. Seek out individual help in these situations. Others who lose over pounds of sweat an hour should aim for mg of sodium citrate per hour.

Again, this is a recommendation and NOT an absolute. I have had athletes who need 1, mg of sodium an hour based on the results we received from testing. If you cannot get enough sodium through your daily food consumption or if you sweat profusely during activity, then an athlete might consider supplementing with electrolyte products focusing on sodium as its primary source.

NUUN, Precision Hydration, Salt Stick, The Right Stuff and LMNT are options. For others, if you need carbohydrates during activity, then a sports drink might be a better option to get both simultaneously. The goal is to weigh before and after activity, and weigh the same.

The weight lost at this time is only water. Next, if you are hydrating properly and still cramping, do not add more water. Water dilutes sodium levels in the body.

So, now you need to add proper sodium amounts during the day and during activity. To scientifically measure hydration status, get hydration strips. Measure your specific gravity levels between dinner and bedtime.

They should be between 1. To know how much sodium you are losing per pound of sweat, you will need to seek an expert to help. Sodium is an essential mineral and electrolyte, especially for active people and athletes. Remember: If you swim only, you do sweat in the water.

Does a High Sodium Diet Inhibit Endurance Performance and Health? | Hammer Nutrition Equilibrate food intake ane the ml beverage min Muscular endurance for tennis players to the tennis training session, Sodium intake and athletic performance emptied their bladders and provided a midstream urine atgletic directly into 30 Sidium clear, plastic, sterile container. Previous Article Next Article. After finishing the tennis drills, participants completed a Pro-Agility test see outcome measures below. In the past, I learned the hard way that taking insufficient sodium in and around exercise left me performing poorly and feeling terrible. A post shared by Stan "Rhino" Efferding — CSCS stanefferding.
Should Athletes Avoid Salt? Does hypohydration really impair endurance performance? This data questions the general dietary recommendations that sodium should be reduced below 2,mg in healthy people. Isokinetic and isometric muscle function of the knee extensors and flexors during simulated soccer activity: effect of exercise and dehydration. Twelve British nationally-ranked tennis players age: In addition, four of the five included studies were conducted outdoors 14 , meaning that the findings could have been confounded by factors such as ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction. Ethical approval for the study was granted by the Sports, Health and Exercise Science Ethics Committee at the University of Hull. Twerenbold R, Knechtle B, Kakebeeke T, Eser P, Muller G, von Arx P, et al.

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High Salt Diets \u0026 Athletic Performance w/ Dr. James Dinicolantonio

Sodium intake and athletic performance -

Change in hydration status from pre- to post-session was determined with UOsm. After consuming the ml beverage min prior to the tennis training session, participants emptied their bladders and provided a midstream urine sample directly into 30 ml clear, plastic, sterile container.

A second sample was collected post-session. Urine samples were assessed for UOsm within min of collection using a portable osmometer Osmocheck, Vitech Scientific, West Sussex, UK that has previously been validated Immediately before participants began the tennis training sessions, four absorbent sweat pads 8 × 6 cm; Adhesive Dressing, Boots, Nottingham, UK were applied to four sites of the body: 1 on the posterior midline of the right forearm, equidistant between the antecubital fossa and wrist joint, 2 the midline of the widest circumference of the right calf, 3 on the anterior midline of the right thigh, equidistant between the patella and greater trochanter, and 4 5-centimeters lateral from the third lumbar spine vertebra L3.

These sites were chosen to align with previous research 5 and because they are highly correlated to whole-body sweat sodium loss 18 and provide minimum disruption of tennis performance 5.

Prior to application, each patch site was shaved with a handheld razor, cleaned using an alcohol wipe, washed with deionised water and dried with a clean, electrolyte free swab gauze Boots.

Immediately post-session, the sweat pads were removed using a pair of sterile forceps a new pair for each patch and individually placed inside the barrel of a ml plastic syringe King Scientific, Liversedge, UK.

Deionised water 5-ml was added to the patch to ensure a sufficient volume of solution was obtained for analysis. The syringe plunger was then depressed to compress the pad and obtain a minimum 5-ml sample of sweat. This method is a valid field technique of estimating sodium concentration Patches were not assessed for background sodium.

Whole-body sweat sodium concentration was determined through a validated area weighted mean of four skin regions 18 as adapted by previous tennis sweat sodium research 5 , Fluid loss was estimated from the pre-post change in body mass after correcting for the 1, ml of fluid consumed throughout the 1-h training session.

Body mass was measured to the nearest 0. Participants wore only underwear and removed all jewelry. In line with previous research 5 , 18 , 20 , 21 , loss of mass was not corrected for respiratory water loss or loss due to substrate exchange because this would be impractical for practitioners to include when assessing fluid requirements Total sweat sodium loss g was calculated by multiplying the volume of fluid loss L by the molecular mass of sodium Rating of perceived exertion RPE , gastrointestinal GI discomfort, and perceived thirst data were collected during each min break during the 1-h training session and after the session had finished total of 4 times.

A point Borg scale arbitrary units [AU] was used to collect RPE data Participants were formally familiarized with the scales during the two prior familiarization sessions.

The four scores in each outcome were averaged prior to analysis to reduce the number of statistical comparisons made.

The number of forehand strokes, backhand strokes, and serves to land in the pre-specified target areas during the tennis training session were recorded. Forehand and backhand stroke scores were combined to provide an overall tennis groundstroke score maximum of A point was given if any part of the ball touched the line encompassing the target area.

The drills were recorded by a 50 Hz video camera Panasonic Lumix DC-TZ , with the videos being viewed post-session to determine the number of successful attempts. Agility performance was assessed with the Pro-Agility test. A distance of 9. Participants began in a neutral 3-point position with feet placed equally either side of the midline.

Time began with initial movement and ended when the participant crossed the midline a second time, covering a total distance of Two researchers recorded time with a stopwatch, with the average time recorded to the nearest to the nearest 0. Three trials were performed, separated by 3-min of rest, with the fastest time used for analysis.

Participants completed the test in the same order during each session. Data were analyzed in R R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. Descriptive statistics are reported as mean ± SD or median interquartile range.

Paired t -tests with a Bonferroni correction were used to compare pre-trial UOsm and body mass between conditions.

Differences in study outcomes between conditions were assessed with a multilevel linear model. For pre-post changes in UOsm and body mass, the pre-session value was also entered into the model as a covariate.

If there was a significant main effect of condition i. Subsequently, we conducted a linear trend analysis using the stats::contr. poly function in R to investigate whether there was a linear dose response effect.

Descriptive statistics are presented in Table 1. For outcomes with a significant main effect of condition, follow-up comparisons and linear trend analyses are presented in Table 2. Table 1. Descriptive statistics of outcomes in each experimental condition mean ± SD or median [IQR].

However, there was a significant main effect of condition for the pre-post change in UOsm Table 1. There was a significant main effect of condition on whole-body-sweat concentration Table 1.

Groundstroke, serve, and agility performance are presented in Table 1 and Figure 1. Figure 1. Groundstroke A , serve B , and agility C performance during each experimental condition. The dashed horizontal line represents the mean score across all conditions.

There was a significant main effect of condition on all perceptual responses. This is the first study to evaluate the effectiveness of consuming different sodium concentrations on markers of hydration and tennis skill performance in nationally-ranked tennis players.

There was also evidence of dose-response effects, demonstrating that ingesting greater concentrations of sodium promoted proportionately greater improvements in hydration status and groundstroke performance.

These results provide novel evidence for sodium consumption as an effective nutritional strategy for enhancing tennis skill.

It is well-established that hypohydration reduces aerobic capacity and cognitive function 24 — Given that tennis skills are dependent on a combination of physical and cognitive factors, hypohydration may also account for impaired technical skill 3.

Indeed, whilst research in tennis is scarce, studies with basketball 27 , 28 and soccer players 29 have reported impaired execution of sport-specific skills, although this is not always the case 30 , A novel finding of our study was that there was a dose-dependant increase in the effects of sodium on tennis performance in a randomized placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

Pre-trial UOsm was insignificant between trials, but values increased numerically higher. As the pre-trial urine sample was collected min after the initial ml bolus had been consumed, the placebo drink may have increased urine output and produced a more dilute urine concentration, potentially affecting the difference between pre-post exercise UOsm.

Therefore, measurement of urine volume should be considered in future studies. Nevertheless, this difference in UOsm at baseline did not reach statistical significance, and we controlled for differences in baseline values and regression to the mean effects by including the baseline scores as a covariate in the statistical model.

Trend analyses provided evidence for dose-response effects of sodium ingestion on hydration and groundstroke performance. This result provides further support for our findings and the use of sodium as an ergogenic aid in tennis, and warrants further research evaluating the optimal dose of sodium to enhance sport performance.

Sodium consumption may improve hydration status by increasing plasma sodium concentration, which helps retain ingested fluid via osmotic processes. Improved hydration status has a direct effect on physical performance by maintaining plasma volume, body core temperature, muscle perfusion and muscle metabolism, amongst other mechanisms 26 , In contrast, there appears to be no clear physiological mechanism by which modest improvements in hydration status might improve sport skill or cognitive function Instead, improved hydration may attenuate the distracting symptoms of hypohydration, such as negative mood state 33 , thirst 33 , GI complaints 34 , and increased RPE Trend analysis also showed that as the concentration of sodium increased, perceived thirst significantly decreased in a linear manner.

Thus, taken together with previous research, the improved groundstroke performance induced by sodium consumption may have resulted from a combined attenuation of symptomologic distracters such as thirst, GI distress, and RPE instead of a direct physiological effect of hydration and warrants further investigation.

Despite the observed improvement in groundstroke performance, there was no evidence for an effect of sodium ingestion on serve performance. The reason for this is unclear but may be due to the fact that tennis serving is pre-planned and does not require the player to react to a stimulus, whereas the groundstroke task involved reacting to tennis balls being thrown in quick succession 2-s by a LTA coach.

The groundstroke task therefore encompassed greater cognitive components including visual scanning, reaction time, and decision making , which may have improved through sodium ingestion. Fluid lost during the control trial in this study 0. This is likely due to the indoor environment, the ambient temperature Discrepancies between UOsm and fluid losses have been reported previously Although evaluating fluid losses via changes in body mass aligns with previous research and is a suitable field-based technique 3 , 5 , 18 , 20 , 32 , 43 , there are sources of error associated with this method, including respiratory water loss and loss due to substrate exchange Water produced during substrate oxidation, release of water previously bound with glycogen, and accumulation of water in the bladder also cause a dissociation between body mass changes and hydration status 22 , Thus, given the potential for error and the small fluid losses observed in this study, monitoring changes in body mass might not have been sensitive enough to detect subtle differences in hydration status between conditions.

There was no evidence of an effect of sodium ingestion on agility performance. Whilst limited data exist, previous research with soccer players suggests that hydration status does not influence m sprint performance 30 , Thus, consuming sodium to mitigate the effects of hypohydration would not be expected to improve performance in the Pro-Agility test.

It is important to note that the Pro-Agility test does not require players to react to a stimulus, which limits the cognitive requirements of the task. Hoffman et al. Hydration status might differently affect performance in pre-planned vs. reactive agility tasks.

Alternatively, greater fluid loss than observed in this study 0. Further research should aim to determine whether sodium ingestion improves reactive agility, which more closely replicates tennis match-play.

A limitation of this study was that research team members were not blind to the type of beverage that participants received, although the researchers strictly adhered to a pre-determined protocol. Although dietary sodium intake was measured, along with consumption of ml of the sodium solution min prior to testing, this may not have allowed enough time to affect pre-trial UOsm readings, affecting baseline hydration scores.

Furthermore, whilst participants were blind to the sodium concentration of the beverages and the flavor was masked, we cannot guarantee that participants were not aware of the relative sodium content of the beverages, although participants anecdotally reported that they could not identify any differences between the drinks.

There was also evidence of dose-response effects, showing that ingesting greater sodium concentrations resulted in greater improvements in hydration and groundstroke performance. The observed enhancement in tennis skill may have resulted from an attenuation of symptomologic distracters associated with hypohydration, such as thirst, GI discomfort, and RPE.

Practitioners and sports nutritionists should include sodium ingestion in their nutritional arsenal as a simple and effective strategy to improve tennis-specific skill.

The raw data supporting the conclusions of this article will be made available by the authors, without undue reservation. The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by Sports, Health and Exercise Science Ethics Committee at the University of Hull.

EM, JB, ST, PM, and RV were responsible for the conceptualization and formulation of the overarching research question, as well as the development and design of study methodology.

EM and JB were principally responsible for data collection. SO was responsible for data curation, statistical analyses, and writing the original draft of the manuscript. PM and RV were responsible for the overall oversight and leadership of the study. All authors reviewed, edited, and approved the final version of the manuscript.

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. The authors appreciate the time and effort provided from all participants, in addition to researchers and assistants who helped with data collection.

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Psychophysical scaling with applications in physical work and the perception of exertion. Scand J Work Environ Health. To illustrate, the following are sources of sodium in the diet. WHAT HIGH-SODIUM FOODS SHOULD BE LIMITED? It is Prostaglandin E2 overproduction from eating too much salted animal meat that induces the kidneys to retain excessive quantities of sodium.

Other dietary manipulations to lower sodium are respectfully listed on the PAMF website. The harmful effect of more chronic sodium over-dose above the bodys daily need is a real and present danger to compromise optimal health.

Tight chemical messengers and hormones help the body to spare serum sodium loss. It only takes a few hundred milligrams every minutes in the hottest environment to sustain aerobic pace. This assumes that fluid intake does not exceed fluid ounces per hour or that calorie consumption exceeds calories per hour.

References 1. Shepherd, R. The Physician And Sports Medicine. May, Verde, T. J Appl Phys. In Arch Intern Med ; Hiller WD et al. Am J Sports Med. Please note, comments need to be approved before they are published.

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By William Misner Ph. Consumed above 30 fluid ounces per hour. Consumed above calories per hour. Did not train in the same heat or humidity as the event. Consumed between fluid ounces per hour. Consumed calories per hour. Trained weeks in the same heat or humidity as the event. Related Articles:.

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Athoetic and more people pfrformance getting active and training for endurance races, like half marathons, marathons, and Balancing water retention. However, intaje might be Sodium intake and athletic performance a key nutrient because ahletic health athldtic that can make-or-break you on race day: sodium. The Institute of Perfromance IOM recommends Equilibrate food intake Pegformance Intake AI for the general population is mg of sodium per day, so you want to aim for around that amount each day, especially if you have other diseases, like high blood pressure. The Upper Limit UL is set at mg per day, meaning the guideline is not to exceed that amount. But these recommendations can be harmful for athletes, especially those who train outside and live in hot or humid climates. Before we dive into how much sodium athletes need, we need to understand why humans need it. Sodium athketic up Athoetic 2. Sodium normally comprises 0. Sodium Sodium intake and athletic performance necessary for athletlc of blood and body fluids, transmission of nerve impulses, heart activity, and certain metabolic functions. Sodium is required for life, but over-consumption can increase the risk of health problems, including high blood pressure, in those individuals who are genetically predisposed to hypertension. Sodium is one of the primary electrolytes in the body. Sodium intake and athletic performance

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