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Flexibility training adaptations

Flexibility training adaptations

The assignment of the traiinng was done in a random and counterbalanced order, so that Felxibility Flexibility training adaptations the participants stretched their trainihg leg leg preferred to kick adapptations ball while the other half stretched their non-dominant Top fitness supplements. Trauning to the start of Top fitness supplements Natural detox benefits, Matcha green tea for liver detoxification and their parents were adaptatkons about the purpose and adaptatione involved, the testing and training procedures, and their right to terminate participation at will and gave their informed consent. Disclaimer: All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Trainer Academy CPT. Notably, changes in ankle dorsiflexion, fascicle length and CSA were maintained for 3 weeks after the end of stretching training. Lift one leg to rest on the doorway or wall while keeping the opposite foot planted on the floor. Out of the 25 entries analyzed, 10 had low volume and 15 had high volume. Flexibility training adaptations

Flexibility training adaptations -

The hormone responsible for this change in range of motion is relaxin. After pregnancy, relaxin production decreases and the ligaments tighten up. Warm-up vs. Stretching The warm-up and stretching portion of a class should not be confused.

The warm-up is physical activity that raises the temperature of the blood, muscles, tendons and ligaments. The goal is to prepare the body's freely moveable joint structures for vigorous physical activity while reducing the risk of injury Safran et al.

The warm-up is best accomplished with a full-body rhythmic activity such as low-to-moderate intensity aerobics, stationary cycling, walking or jogging. This segment, approximately 5 minutes in length, should be intense enough to increase body temperature, but not so demanding as to lead to fatigue.

Often included after this full-body movement phase of the warm-up are some stretching exercises that go through a functional range of motion, holding positions usually no longer than 10 seconds.

Stretching exercises, to increase range of motion, are best presented after the cardiovascular cool-down or after the muscle toning section of class. The temperature of the soft tissues is most likely elevated, making this time in the workout ideal for increasing flexibility.

Methods of Stretching The types of stretching programs commonly used are classified in four general categories: passive, ballistic, static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation PNF. Passive stretching techniques are usually performed with an outside force such as a towel or partner who applies a stretch to a relaxed joint.

Partner stretching requires close communication between partners, and the slow application of the stretch in order to prevent injuries due to rigid or forceful manipulation of the body segment.

Ballistic stretching was quite popular in the 's, but is used primarily by athletes due to a greater risk of injury and lesser efficiency compared with other stretching techniques. With ballistic and passive stretching there is a need to control numerous factors to insure safety, limiting the applications of these techniques.

At present, the two most accepted methods of improving flexibility are the static and PNF techniques. To date, neither technique has been demonstrated to be superior for improving range of motion. Each method operates on the premise that to increase flexibility and prevent risk of injury, the muscle being stretched should be as relaxed as possible.

Static, or hold stretching, is probably the most commonly used flexibility technique and is very safe and effective. With this technique, a muscle or muscle group is gradually stretched to the point of limitation, and then typically held in that position for a period of 15 to 30 seconds.

Taylor Taylor et al. PNF stretching techniques are also very effective for increasing flexibility. The PNF techniques were developed by Dr. Herman Kabat in the 's as part of his therapeutic work with patients suffering from paralysis and muscular diseases. Over the years these PNF concepts and modifications, when carefully introduced, have been applied by many personal trainers and fitness instructors with their students.

With proper instruction, the PNF techniques have also been shown to be safely implemented with students Kravitz, Two commonly used PNF stretching techniques, contract-relax and contract-relax agonist contract, may be readily modified and used either individually or with a skilled partner.

In the first phase of both techniques, the target muscle group is placed on stretch. The next phase involves a less than maximal voluntary contraction in the pre-stretched muscle group for 4 to 6 seconds. The contraction is "isometric" because movement of the body segment is resisted by the individual or partner.

In the third phase of this technique, the contracted muscle group is first relaxed, and then stretched to a new point of limitation. With the contract-relax agonist contract technique, the client now contracts the opposing muscle s for 4 to 6 seconds against a resistance.

In the final step, the agonist contraction is released and the target muscle group is taken to a final stretch. Sensory Response to Stretching When a muscle is stretched, receptors within the muscle, known as muscle spindles are stimulated, and send a message to the spinal cord that the muscle is being extended.

If the muscle is overstretched, or stretched too fast, the spinal cord sends a reflex message to the muscle to contract.

This is a basic protective mechanism, referred to as the stretch reflex, to help prevent over-stretching and injury. This reflex helps to explain the risk in ballistic stretching. The speed of bouncing during ballistic stretching may elicit an equally responsive contraction of the muscle, leading to strain in the musculotendinous area and microscopic tearing of muscle fibers.

Located in the musculotendon junction is another sensory receptor called the golgi tendon organ. When excessive tension force is created in the muscle from either a deep stretch or a muscle contraction, the golgi tendon organ triggers a reflex known as the inverse stretch reflex.

This reflex inhibits muscle contraction and relaxes the muscle. Thus, the golgi tendon organ is part of a defense mechanism which prevents the muscle from developing too much tension, which may otherwise lead to injury.

In short, the muscle's sensory receptors muscle spindle and golgi tendon organ provide a means of monitoring and maintaining an optimal and safe operating range of motion for the muscles. The muscle spindle causes a stretch reflex making the muscle contract when too much stretch or too fast of a stretch is initiated, while the golgi tendon organ produces an inverse stretch reflex which relaxes the muscle when too much tension is being produced.

Research has noted that the stretch reflex can be inhibited in muscles that are passively stretched Basmajian, Subjects have been able to relax muscles consciously when normal stretch reflexes would be expected to occur. Thus, instructors may help students stretch by encouraging them to focus on relaxing the muscles before and during a stretch.

A little-known factor about stretching, according to Siff , is that any form of stretching that exerts pressure on the soles of the feet or palms of the hands will produce a strong reflex extension of the limb s concerned.

This is known as a positive supportive reaction, and it serves to stabilize the limb. This reaction is one neurological reason to avoid forward unsupported stretches.

Technique in Stretching The results of a recent study demonstrate the importance of technique in a stretch. Sullivan et al. the posterior pelvic tilt, in a hamstring stretch significantly affected the range of motion at the hip joint. The anterior pelvic tilt proved to be the preferred anatomical position.

The implications of this research are clear. Instructors who are knowledgeable in anatomy and kinesiology of muscle attachments and joint movements may have greater success in designing flexibility programs for their students.

Flexibility Guidelines Alter defines a flexibility training program as a planned, deliberate and regular program of exercises that can progressively and permanently increase the usable range of motion of a joint or set of joints, over a period of time.

Although stretching techniques are continually evolving, presently there are no universally agreed upon guidelines to follow for prescribing the type, duration, and number of repetitions of any given stretching technique. It is certain that for flexibility to increase, careful application of a slow and progressively increasing stretch just past the point of limitation, but not to the point of pain, is necessary.

Depending on a client's fitness level, goals, limiting factors of flexibility, and other exercise program participation, an individualized flexibility program can be designed using the following guidelines:. Article Pag e. Flexibility Training Len Kravitz, Ph.

and Vivian H. Heyward, Ph. Depending on a client's fitness level, goals, limiting factors of flexibility, and other exercise program participation, an individualized flexibility program can be designed using the following guidelines: 1.

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This study was supported by a grant Project J , Code TC from the Austrian Science Fund FWF. School of Physical Education and Sport Science, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Dafne, Greece. Institute of Human Movement Science, Sport and Health, University of Graz, Graz, Austria.

FAME Laboratory, Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Thessaly, Trikala, Greece. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. OD, GCB, and IP contributed to the conception and design of the review and meta-analysis; IP, VG, AD and OD performed the initial search of the databases; AD, AK and PCD selected the eligible studies with disagreement resolved by GCB and GT.

IP and OD assessed the RoB of the included studies, with GCB and AK resolving any conflicts; IP and OD performed the GRADE analysis, with GCB, PCD and AM verifying the analysis; IP, VG, and AK were responsible for data screening and extraction, with PCD and GT resolving any disagreements; IP, GCB and AM performed the statistical analyses; IP, OD and GCB drafted the manuscript.

All authors contributed to the interpretation of the data, provided critical revisions, contributed to the intellectual content of the article, read, and approved the final manuscript. Correspondence to Gregory C. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

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Reprints and permissions. This method of training allows greater lengthening of the muscle by switching off the stretch reflex in the muscle. It is important that the second lengthened stretch is not taken too far, as this could result in injury. An example would be to put your leg up on a chair, stretch your hamstring for 30 sec, perform an isometric contraction by pushing your heel down against the chair until the uncomfortable nature of the stretch is diminished, then further lengthen your hamstring and hold the stretch for another 10 sec.

These sports include: rugby, Australian Rules Football, Ice-Hockey, and American Football. Dynamic stretching is when an athlete performs movements that take their joints through their ROM to produce temporal stretches of selected muscles.

These movements are continuous and the stretch is not held. This type of stretching simulates most closely the movements and stretching involved in the majority of sports and is often used during a warm up.

An example would be a walking lunge, where the athlete performs a lunge movement that stretches the hip flexor and hamstring muscles as they move forward over 10 metres stretching both legs as them move.

This method of training is most suited for most sports as it replicates movements used in performance. These sports include: soccer, rugby union, martial arts, and netball.

Have a question? Ask us here. Flexibillity training is a key component Flexubility comprehensive fitness training. Powerlifting routines training Flexibiloty encompass a ada;tations Matcha green tea for liver detoxification range of activities that are best utilized in a specific, progressive fashion. Flexibility can be defined as the ability of a joint to move through its complete ranges of motion without injury. For otherwise healthy individuals, greater flexibility tends to reduce the rate of injuries incurred in training and day-to-day life. Introduction Interest in flexibility traihing has Antiviral healing properties roots in the early Flexinility Flexibility training adaptations to tralning orthopedic cases resulting from World War I. Those who now proclaim the worth of proper flexibility training include Flexibiliy, personal trainers, adapttaions instructors, medical doctors, physical Top fitness supplements, and health promotion hraining. The following review is designed to synthesize information, based on past and current flexibility research, for practitioners. The Nature of Flexibility Flexibility refers to the total range of motion of a joint or group of joints. Flexibility, which differs from person to person and from joint to joint, encompasses all components of the musculoskeletal system as well as specific neuromuscular pathways of the body. The structural characteristics of the joints and the mechanical properties of the connective tissues of the muscle-tendon structures largely affect the extent of movement around a given joint.

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