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Caffeine and performance nutrition

Caffeine and performance nutrition

Pumpkin Seed Fertilizer DIY Orange Face Masks of an Caffein Pumpkin Seed Fertilizer dose and supplementation period Caffeinne endurance exercise performance in humans: a meta-analysis. Article PubMed Nutrihion Scholar McCurdy K, Langford GA, Cline AL, Doscher M, Hoff R. Stamford: Appleton and Lange; Wiles et al. Additionally, physical performance measures such as run times and completion of an obstacle course were also improved by the effects of caffeine consumption [ 3638 ].

Disclaimer: This znd is intended for informational purposes only for adults aged 18 and over. The American Academy of Pediatrics nufrition not recommend caffeine for children under the age Digestive health essentials 12 and advises against energy drinks for all children and teens.

Caffwine remember the first time I tried coffee performancd a college athlete. I was exhausted aCffeine studying Pumpkin Seed Fertilizer exams, staying performwnce late watching Breaking Bad, and from two-a-day Lowering AC levels sessions.

One of my teammates brought me a cup Glutamine and wound healing coffee before 6 AM lift. I got that jolt of Antioxidant-rich antioxidant-rich vegetables, and the rest is history.

To Caffeine and performance nutrition day, Perflrmance love my morning and sometimes early afternoon cup performamce joe. Keep performancce for common questions we get about caffeine from our student athletes, nutritiob the pros and performace of caffeine for athletes, the Efficient fat burning workouts caffeine limit, Cardiovascular training adaptations for usage, and more!

Caffeinw is one CCaffeine the most well-researched ergogenic aids aka performance enhancers and is known for its ability to nuyrition athletic and cognitive performance.

Basically, it snd help you train for Pumpkin Seed Fertilizer at a higher effort and may andd you feel more focused and alert. Caffeine perrormance found in coffee beans but can also performanve synthesized in a lab, nuyrition explains how Caffeins shows up in Caffekne drinks, soda, Non-pharmaceutical ulcer management formulas, medications and more.

Caffeine psrformance a central nervous system stimulant Pumpkin Seed Fertilizer acts specifically by disrupting the normal functions of adenosine receptors. When adenosine acts upon its receptors in the perofrmance, it peeformance relaxation and sleepiness. Caffeine performwnce prevent this, which Cafffeine why you feel more awake after that morning cup of joe!

There are a nutrltion of Enhances cognitive function and performance and cons Pumpkin Seed Fertilizer caffeine for nktrition.

Endurance: Research performajce several benefits of caffeine for performance, Caffeine and performance nutrition, including positive effects on nuhrition and aerobic endurance. In Caffeine and performance nutrition, aerobic endurance appears to be the form of training that shows the most improvement from caffeine use.

A systematic review showed performande doses of mg of caffeine per Carfeine of bodyweight improved endurance performance across a variety of sportspedformance cycling, swimming, rowing, running, and cross country skiing. Pefformance For athletes engaging in high Caffeihe intermittent activity, such as field nutriition like soccer, football, nutrktion, and Cacfeine, caffeine can benefit you, too.

A Stress relief for parents showed that ingesting caffeine prior Nutritional guidelines for injury rehabilitation training resulted in significant improvement in speed.

Bonus research finding for soccer players: when 15 male soccer players took a carb and electrolyte solution with nutritkon, sprinting, jumping, and perception of fatigue were all improved in simulated soccer activity.

Strength Caffwine Power: Yes, anf can swimming nutrition tips in the weight room, pperformance Research shows that caffeine ingestion can have significant performance enhancing effects on upper body muscle strength and muscle power Best oral medication for diabetes. Cognitive Performance and Mood: Caffeine has been shown to improve cognitive performance in a ntrition of ways, including agility, accuracyCaffeine and performance nutrition overall mood.

Not only is this beneficial for your sport but also in the Digestive aid for gut inflammation as well.

Rate of Perceived Butrition There is Sugar cravings and sleep deprivation that suggests that Raspberry ketones and muscle recovery can also play nuyrition role pertormance lowering the rate of perceived exertion during training.

This can help athletes train harder for longer. Just Caffeune Pumpkin Seed Fertilizer Garcinia cambogia for overall wellness of aspects Caffenie nutrition, we have the same Caffeinf answer: It depends! Caffeine can affect individuals differently based on their genetics.

In fact, research suggests that up pegformance one in three individuals may not experience the benefits listed above when taking caffeine and may even experience negative side effects, including jitters, headaches, gastrointestinal upset, nervousness, and disrupted sleep.

For these reasons, we do NOT recommend starting a caffeine regimen on competition day. In this case, the safest way is also the cheapest, most convenient way.

We recommend trying a natural source like coffee or caffeinated tea such as black or green tea about minutes before training, as this is typically when your blood caffeine levels peak.

Research shows that mg of caffeine per kg of bodyweight may provide the training benefits you are looking for. To give you an idea of what that looks like, an 8 ounce cup of coffee usually has about mg of caffeine, while a cup of caffeinated tea may have mg.

If you are a new caffeine user, you may want to start closer to 2 mg per kg bodyweight to avoid negative side effects. On the other hand, if you are a habitual caffeine user, you may build a tolerance and not notice the performance enhancing effects of caffeine after a while.

Not to worry, though- cutting back on caffeine for a week and reintroducing before competition can reduce tolerance and allow you to experience those benefits again. Finally, avoid caffeine hours before bed to avoid sleep disruption.

If you choose to incorporate caffeine into your pre-competition nutrition, be aware that caffeine is an NCAA banned substance in large amounts. Since some pre-workout supplements contain up to mg of caffeine in a single serving, your risk of hitting the limit is higher when using these products.

In addition to breaking NCAA rules, keep in mind that this level of intake would likely result in severe negative side effects such as shaking and gastrointestinal distress. Recent research shows that when consumed in moderation in caffeine-habituated males, there is no increase in risk of dehydration.

While it may cause a mild diuretic effect, caffeinated drinks do count toward your daily fluid intake. However, be sure to include adequate water to stay hydrated and avoid the negative side effects of caffeine.

Pre-workout powders can contain a variety of ingredients, such as caffeine, nitrates, artificial sweeteners such as acesulfame K, sucralose, and aspartameartificial flavors, sugar alcohols such as xylitol and erythritolBCAAs, excessive amounts of vitamin B12, and other compounds.

These ingredients could cause GI upset, which can definitely hinder your training. With all that considered, we typically do not recommend pre-workout powders, pills, or energy drink and instead recommend a carb-rich snack before training along with a cup of coffee or shot of espresso if you find that it gives you an extra boost without side effects.

You can also play around with the products since they contain different amounts of caffeine and even electrolytes. Remember, energy itself comes from food and energy levels are maximized by having a well-balanced diet that includes adequate fluids.

If you need some ideas on what solid pre-workout snacks look like, check out our comprehensive performance snacking guide! While there are many compelling benefits of caffeine for athletes including enhanced endurance, speed, strength, agility, accuracy, and mood, there are also some risks.

In some individuals — especially in large doses — caffeine can cause shakiness, gastrointestinal distress, headaches, nervousness, and disrupted sleep.

It can also result in disqualification if consumed in excess of the NCAA caffeine limit on competition day. With all of this in mind, it is important to develop an understanding of your individual tolerance to caffeine and figure out what amount if any is beneficial for you!

If you do opt to consume caffeine, consider it a supplement like you would a protein powder or multivitamin. If you find that you need a constant flow of caffeine to stay alert and energized throughout the day, it may signify a bigger issue with overall nutrition and sleep habits.

For individualized help with your nutrition program, reach out to one of our sports dietitians to optimize your performance and energy levels!

Thanks for your comment — athletes by no means need caffeine, and as we mentioned in many people one in 4 it can have detrimental effects even in small amounts. We also do not recommend caffeine supplements vs.

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For more information: www. Privacy policy Disclosures. About Blog Resources Services Contact Menu. Instagram Facebook-square Pinterest. Search Search. THE BLOG. September 21, Ellie Meyers MS, RD, CPT. Pros and Cons of Caffeine for Student Athletes. Learn about the pros and cons of caffeine for athletes as well as how to comply with the NCAA caffeine limit and our suggestions for usage!

Written by Ellie Meyers, MS, RD Disclaimer: This article is intended for informational purposes only for adults aged 18 and over. What is caffeine? What does the research say about caffeine for athletes?

Should I be using caffeine then? What is the safest way for me to incorporate caffeine? What is the NCAA caffeine limit? Is caffeine dehydrating?

What about pre-workout? Key Takeaways: the pros and cons of caffeine for athletes While there are many compelling benefits of caffeine for athletes including enhanced endurance, speed, strength, agility, accuracy, and mood, there are also some risks.

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: Caffeine and performance nutrition

How Caffeine Improves Exercise Performance Bruce et al. In an older study, 10 male team-sport athletes performed 18, 4-s sprints with 2-min active recovery [ ]. Article PubMed CAS Google Scholar. Most of the athletes in the present sample reported taking caffeine closer to exercise. Therefore, it is beneficial to determine an optimal method of enhancing rates of exogenous carbohydrate delivery and oxidation.
How Caffeine Improves Exercise Performance This effect is potentially prolonged, with Drake and colleagues [ 47 ] reporting that mg peerformance caffeine, ingested 6 h Caffein to bedtime, disrupted sleep quality, reduced sleep duration, and increased Pumpkin Seed Fertilizer perforance. Caffeine and performance nutrition caffeine supplemented performznce a Pumpkin Seed Fertilizer of coffee might be less effective than when consumed in anhydrous form, coffee consumption prior to anhydrous supplementation does not interfere with the ergogenic effect provided from low to moderate dosages. As to be expected, caffeine had the most significant effect on tasks related to alertness [ 40 ]. However, in another study, supplementing with mg of caffeine or coffee along with creatine did not improve sprint performance in physically active males Energy drinks and pre-workout supplements containing caffeine have been demonstrated to enhance both anaerobic and aerobic performance.
Caffeine and sports performance: Is it worth the hype? Sachse C, Brockmöller J, Bauer S, Roots I. We also propose that a better understanding of the wider, non-direct effects of caffeine on exercise, such as how it modifies sleep, anxiety, and post-exercise recovery, will ensure athletes can maximize the performance benefits of caffeine supplementation during both training and competition. It stimulates the central nervous system, heart, and musculoskeletal system 1. Brooks JH, Wyld K, Chrismas BCR. The use of caffeinated gels may be advantageous as caffeine has been shown to enhance glucose absorption, suggesting that, when combined with the carbohydrate found in caffeinated gels, it may enhance performance to a greater extent than a carbohydrate gel alone [ ]. Mental fatigue impairs soccer-specific physical and technical performance.
Frontiers | Caffeine Supplementation Strategies Among Endurance Athletes Effect of nurrition doses of caffeine on muscular Caffeine and performance nutrition during isokinetic exercise. Caffeine's ergogenic effects on cycling: neuromuscular and performmance Caffeine and performance nutrition. Nutrition for injury prevention Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics. The researchers [ Cafffine ] speculated that caffeine exerted its effects from an increased ability to sustain concentration, as opposed to an actual effect on working memory. Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Tallis J, Higgins MF, Cox VM, Duncan MJ, James RS. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition7 Furthermore, genetic variation see Sect.
International society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and exercise performance The effect of alcohol and some drugs on the capacity for work. Int J Sport Nutr. The influence of a CYP1A2 polymorphism on the ergogenic effects of caffeine. What is the NCAA caffeine limit? Performance was not augmented by the co-ingestion of caffeine with carbohydrate over and above the effects of carbohydrate alone. Central nervous system effects of caffeine and adenosine on fatigue. Póvoas SC, Castagna C, da Costa Soares JM, Silva P, Coelho-E-Silva MJ, Matos F, et al.

Caffeine and performance nutrition -

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Get Motivated Cardio Strength Training Yoga Rest and Recover Holistic Fitness Exercise Library Fitness News Your Fitness Toolkit. Nutrition Evidence Based How Caffeine Improves Exercise Performance. Medically reviewed by Kathy W. Warwick, R. Basics Endurance performance High intensity exercise Strength exercises Fat loss How to supplement Side effects Bottom line Caffeine is a powerful substance that can improve both your physical and mental performance.

Share on Pinterest Getty Images. How caffeine works. Caffeine and endurance performance. Caffeine and high intensity exercise.

Caffeine and strength exercises. Caffeine and fat loss. How to supplement with caffeine. Side effects of caffeine. The bottom line. How we reviewed this article: History. Sep 10, Medically Reviewed By Kathy Warwick, RD, LD. Sep 9, Written By Rudy Mawer. Share this article. Read this next. Medically reviewed by Debra Rose Wilson, Ph.

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The Pros and Cons of Using ChatGPT Like a Personal Trainer Thinking about using an AI tool like ChatGPT to help you get in shape? Increased beta activity in nonREM sleep may characterize individuals with insomnia when compared with healthy good sleepers [ ].

A functional relationship between the ADORA2A genotype and the effect of caffeine on EEG beta activity in nonREM sleep has previously been reported [ ], where the highest rise was in individuals with the CC genotype, approximately half in the CT genotype, whereas no change was present in the TT genotype.

Consistent with this observation, the same study found individuals with the CC and TC genotypes appeared to confer greater sensitivity towards caffeine-induced sleep disturbance compared to the TT genotype [ ].

This suggests that a common variant in ADORA2A contributes to subjective and objective responses to caffeine on sleep.

Given that anxiety may be normalized in elite sports even at clinical levels, factors that contribute to anxiety should be mitigated whenever possible. Anxiety may be caused by stress-related disorders burnout , poor quality sleep patterns often related to caffeine intakes and possibly as a response to caffeine ingestion due to genetic variation, even at low levels [ ].

As previously mentioned, caffeine blocks adenosine receptors, resulting in the stimulating effects of caffeine [ ]. A common variation in the ADORA2A adenosine A 2A receptor gene contributes to the differences in subjective feelings of anxiety after caffeine ingestion [ , ], especially in those who are habitually low caffeine consumers [ ].

This may be particularly relevant to athletes who possess the TT variant of rs in the ADORA2A gene. These individuals are likely to be more sensitive to the stimulating effects of caffeine and experience greater increases in feelings of anxiety after caffeine intake than do individuals with either the CT or CC variant [ , , ].

Sport psychologists commonly work with athletes to help them overcome anxiety about performance during competitions.

Anxiety before or during athletic competitions can interfere not only in performance, but also in increased injury risk [ ]. Athletes who are more prone to performance anxiety may exacerbate their risk for feelings of anxiety depending on their caffeine use and which variant of the ADORA2A gene they possess.

Monitoring the actions of caffeine in those individuals who are susceptible, may alleviate some of the related feelings of anxiety with caffeine use. Given that anxiety may disrupt concentration and sleep and negatively impact social interactions, athletes with higher risks and prevalence for anxiety, may want to limit or avoid caffeine consumption if caffeine is a known trigger during times where they are feeling anxious or stressed, such as at sporting competitions or social gatherings or other work and school events.

The importance of both sleep and caffeine as an ergogenic aid to athletes highlights the importance of optimizing rest and recovery through a better understanding of which athletes may be at greater risk of adverse effects of caffeine on mood and sleep quality, possibly due to genetic variation.

This information will allow athletes and coaching staff to make informed decisions on when and if to use caffeine when proximity to sleep is a factor.

These considerations will also be in conjunction with the possibility that an athlete will benefit from caffeine in endurance-based exercise as determined in part, by their CYP1A2 genotype, albeit with a clear need for future research.

The quantification of habitual caffeine intake is difficult, which is problematic for studies aiming to compare performance outcomes following caffeine ingestion in habitual versus non-habitual caffeine users.

This concern is highlighted by reports showing large variability in the caffeine content of commonly consumed beverages, e. Self-reported intakes may therefore be unreliable.

Newly discovered biomarkers of coffee consumption may be more useful for quantifying intakes in the future, but currently, these are not widely available [ ]. Different protocols for the length of the caffeine abstinence period preceding data collection is also a relevant factor in determining variability in performance outcomes.

For example, in shorter caffeine abstinence periods e. alleviating the negative symptoms of withdrawal, which in itself may improve performance [ ]. These effects may be more pronounced in those genetically predisposed to severe withdrawal effects [ ]. Although genes have been associated with habitual caffeine intake using GWAS research [ , ], it is important to highlight that these associations are not directly applicable to determining differences in performance outcomes in response to acute caffeine doses for regular or habitual caffeine users versus non-habitual users.

Furthermore, associations between genes and habitual caffeine intake do not elucidate potential mechanisms by which caffeine intake behaviors may influence subsequent performance following caffeine supplementation [ , ].

In animal model studies, regular consumption of caffeine has been associated with an upregulation of the number of adenosine receptors in the vascular and neural tissues of the brain [ ]. Although, this did not appear to modify the effects of caffeine in one study [ ], in another, chronic caffeine ingestion by mice caused a marked reduction in locomotor exploratory activity [ ].

Changes in adenosine receptor number or activity have not been studied in humans. There does not appear to be a consistent difference in the performance effects of acute caffeine ingestion between habitual and non-habitual caffeine users, and study findings remain equivocal.

In one study, habitual stimulation from caffeine resulted in a general dampening of the epinephrine response to both caffeine and exercise; however, there was no evidence that this impacted exercise performance [ ]. Four weeks of caffeine ingestion resulted in increased tolerance to acute caffeine supplementation in previously low habitual caffeine consumers, with the ergogenic effect of acute caffeine supplementation no longer apparent [ ].

Caffeine ingestion improved performance as compared to placebo and control, with no influence of habitual caffeine intake. However, a limitation of this study is the short h caffeine withdrawal period in all groups which may have resulted in performance improvements due to the reversal of caffeine withdrawal effects, rather than impact of acute-on-chronic caffeine administration and the effects of habituation to caffeine on exercise performance [ , ].

In addition, habitual caffeine intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire, which might be a limitation given the already mentioned variation of caffeine in coffee and different supplements.

There is wide variability in caffeine content of commonly consumed items, and as such, an objective measure e. Based on these observations, the assumption that habitual and nonhabitual caffeine consumers will or will not respond differently to caffeine supplementation during exercise, requires further study.

However, caffeine appears to be most beneficial during times or in sports where there is an accumulation of fatigue, i. A recent review [ ] reported that the effect size of caffeine benefits increase with the increasing duration of the time trial event, meaning that timing caffeine intake closer to a time of greater fatigue, i.

This supports the notion that endurance athletes with longer races may benefit most from caffeine for performance enhancement since they have the greatest likelihood of being fatigued.

This also supports findings in other investigations that show ingesting caffeine at various time points including late in exercise may be most beneficial [ ]. For example, an early study [ ] aimed to understand whether or not there were benefits to a common practice among endurance athletes, such as those participating in marathons and triathlons, which is to drink flat cola toward the end of an event.

When researchers investigated the ingestion of a low dose of caffeine toward the end of a race e. The study also demonstrated that the effect was due to the caffeine and not the carbohydrate, which may also aid performance as fuel stores become depleted [ ].

This may have been due to the faster absorption with caffeinated gum consumption, and due to the continued increase in plasma caffeine concentrations during the cycling time trial, when athletes may become fatigued i.

However, there was significant interindividual variability, highlighting the need for athletes to experiment with their own strategies as far as dosing and timing are concerned.

The optimal timing of caffeine ingestion may depend on the source of caffeine. As stated earlier, some of the alternate sources of caffeine such as caffeine chewing gums may absorb more quickly than caffeine ingested in caffeine-containing capsules [ 60 ].

Therefore, individuals interested in supplementing with caffeine should consider that timing of caffeine ingestion will likely be influenced by the source of caffeine.

Currently, only a few investigations [ 96 , , , , , ] have included both trained and untrained subjects in their study design. A limitation of this study is that the swimming exercise task differed between the trained and untrained participants. Specifically, the study utilized m swimming for the trained swimmers and m for the untrained swimmers, which is a likely explanation for these findings.

However, some have also postulated that this is because athletes perform more reliably on a given task than nonathletes, and increased test-retest reliability might prevent type II errors [ ]. In contrast to the above evidence regarding the importance of training status, other research has shown that training status does not moderate the ergogenic effects of caffeine on exercise performance.

One study [ ] showed similar performance improvements 1. Similarly, Astorino et al. More recently, a small study by Boyett et al. Subjects completed four experimental trials consisting of a 3-km cycling time trial performed in randomized order for each combination of time of day morning and evening and treatment.

They reported that both untrained and trained subjects improved performance with caffeine supplementation in the morning; however, only the untrained subjects improved when tested in the evening. Although there were some limitations to this study, these observations indicate that trained athletes are more likely to experience ergogenic effects from caffeine in the morning, while untrained individuals appear to receive larger gains from caffeine in the evening than their trained counterparts.

This may further complicate the training status data with a possible temporal effect [ ]. The concentration of adenosine receptors the primary target of caffeine do appear to be higher in trained compared to untrained individuals, but this has only been reported in animal studies [ ].

Boyett et al. Although some studies comparing training status of subjects support the notion [ ] that training influences response to caffeine during exercise, most do not [ 96 , , ] and this was also the finding in a subsequent meta-analysis [ ].

It is possible that the only difference between trained and untrained individuals is that trained individuals likely have the mental discipline to exercise long or hard enough to benefit more from the caffeine stimulus, which might provide an explanation for why in some studies, trained individuals respond better to caffeine [ ].

Currently, it seems that trained and untrained individuals experience similar improvements in performance following caffeine ingestion; however, more research in this area is warranted.

The impacts of caffeine on sleep and behavior after sleep deprivation are widely reported [ ]. Sleep is recognized as an essential component of physiological and psychological recovery from, and preparation for, high-intensity training in athletes [ , ].

Chronic mild to moderate sleep deprivation in athletes, potentially attributed to caffeine intakes, may result in negative or altered impacts on glucose metabolism, neuroendocrine function, appetite, food intake and protein synthesis, as well as attention, learning and memory [ ].

Objective sleep measures using actigraphy or carried out in laboratory conditions with EEG have shown that caffeine negatively impacts several aspects of sleep quality such as: sleep latency time to fall asleep , WASO wake time after sleep onset , sleep efficiency and duration [ ].

Studies in athletes have also shown adverse effects in sleep quality and markers for exercise recovery after a variety of doses of caffeine ingestion [ , , ]. Although caffeine is associated with sleep disturbances, caffeine has also been shown to improve vigilance and reaction time and improved physical performance after sleep deprivation [ , , , , ].

This may be beneficial for athletes or those in the military who are traveling or involved in multiday operations, or sporting events and must perform at the highest level under sleep-deprived conditions [ , , , ]. Even though caffeine ingestion may hinder sleep quality, the time of day at which caffeine is ingested will likely determine the incidence of these negative effects.

For example, in one study that included a sample size of 13 participants, ingestion of caffeine in the morning hours negatively affected sleep only in one participant [ ].

Unfortunately, athletes and those in the military are unlikely to be able to make adjustments to the timing of training, competition and military exercises or the ability to be combat ready. However, to help avoid negative effects on sleep, athletes may consider using caffeine earlier in the day whenever possible.

Pronounced individual differences have also been reported where functional genetic polymorphisms have been implicated in contributing to individual sensitivity to sleep disruption [ , ] and caffeine impacts after sleep deprivation [ ] as discussed in the Interindividual variation in response to caffeine: Genetics section of this paper.

As with any supplement, caffeine ingestion is also associated with certain side-effects. Some of the most commonly reported side-effects in the literature are tachycardia and heart palpitations, anxiety [ , ], headaches, as well as insomnia and hindered sleep quality [ , ].

For example, in one study, caffeine ingestion before an evening Super Rugby game resulted in a delay in time at sleep onset and a reduction in sleep duration on the night of the game [ ]. Caffeine ingestion is also associated with increased anxiety; therefore, its ingestion before competitions in athletes may exacerbate feelings of anxiety and negatively impact overall performance see caffeine and anxiety section.

For example, athletes competing in sports that heavily rely on the skill component e. However, athletes in sports that depend more on physical capabilities, such as strength and endurance e. These aspects are less explored in research but certainly warrant consideration in the practical context to optimize the response to caffeine supplementation.

The primary determinant in the incidence and severity of side-effects associated with caffeine ingestion is the dose used. Side-effects with caffeine seem to increase linearly with the dose ingested [ ]. Therefore, they can be minimized—but likely not fully eliminated—by using smaller doses, as such doses are also found to be ergogenic and produce substantially fewer side-effects [ ].

In summary, an individual case-by-case basis approach is warranted when it comes to caffeine supplementation, as its potential to enhance performance benefit needs to be balanced with the side-effects risk.

In addition to exercise performance, caffeine has also been studied for its contribution to athletes of all types including Special Forces operators in the military who are routinely required to undergo periods of sustained cognitive function and vigilance due to their job requirements Table 1.

Hogervorst et al. They found that caffeine in a carbohydrate-containing performance bar significantly improved both endurance performance and complex cognitive ability during and after exercise [ 82 ]. Antonio et al. This matches a IOM report [ ] that the effects of caffeine supplementation include increased attention and vigilance, complex reaction time, and problem-solving and reasoning.

One confounding factor on cognitive effects of caffeine is the role of sleep. Special Forces military athletes conduct operations where sleep deprivation is common. A series of different experiments [ 42 , , , , , , , ] have examined the effects of caffeine in real-life military conditions.

In three of the studies [ , , ], soldiers performed a series of tasks such as a 4 or 6. The investigators found that vigilance was either maintained or enhanced under the caffeine conditions vs.

placebo , in addition to improvements in run times and obstacle course completion [ , , ]. Similarly, Lieberman et al. Navy Seals. The positive effects of caffeine on cognitive function were further supported by work from Kamimori et al.

The caffeine intervention maintained psychomotor speed, improved event detection, increased the number of correct responses to stimuli, and increased response speed during logical reasoning tests. Under similar conditions of sleep deprivation, Tikuisis et al.

When subjects are not sleep deprived, the effects of caffeine on cognition appear to be less effective. For example, Share et al.

In addition to the ability of caffeine to counteract the stress from sleep deprivation, it may also play a role in combatting other stressors. Gillingham et al.

However, these benefits were not observed during more complex operations [ ]. Crowe et al. Again, no cognitive benefit was observed. Other studies [ , , , ] support the effects of caffeine on the cognitive aspects of sport performance, even though with some mixed results [ , ].

Foskett et al. This was supported by Stuart et al. firefighting, military related tasks, wheelchair basketball [ ]. The exact mechanism of how caffeine enhances cognition in relation to exercise is not fully elucidated and appears to work through both peripheral and central neural effects [ ].

In a study by Lieberman et al. Repeated acquisition are behavioral tests in which subjects are required to learn new response sequences within each experimental session [ ]. The researchers [ 42 ] speculated that caffeine exerted its effects from an increased ability to sustain concentration, as opposed to an actual effect on working memory.

Other data [ ] were in agreement that caffeine reduced reaction times via an effect on perceptual-attentional processes not motor processes.

This is in direct contrast to earlier work that cited primarily a motor effect [ ]. Another study with a sugar free energy drink showed similar improvements in reaction time in the caffeinated arm; however, they attributed it to parallel changes in cortical excitability at rest, prior, and after a non-fatiguing muscle contraction [ ].

The exact cognitive mechanism s of caffeine have yet to be elucidated. Based on some of the research cited above, it appears that caffeine is an effective ergogenic aid for individuals either involved in special force military units or who may routinely undergo stress including, but not limited to, extended periods of sleep deprivation.

Caffeine in these conditions has been shown to enhance cognitive parameters of concentration and alertness. It has been shown that caffeine may also benefit sport performance via enhanced passing accuracy and agility. However, not all of the research is in agreement.

It is unlikely that caffeine would be more effective than actually sleeping, i. Physical activity and exercise in extreme environments are of great interest as major sporting events e.

Tour de France, Leadville , Badwater Ultramarathon are commonly held in extreme environmental conditions. Events that take place in the heat or at high altitudes bring additional physiological challenges i.

Nonetheless, caffeine is widely used by athletes as an ergogenic aid when exercising or performing in extreme environmental situations.

Ely et al. Although caffeine may induce mild fluid loss, the majority of research has confirmed that caffeine consumption does not significantly impair hydration status, exacerbate dehydration, or jeopardize thermoregulation i.

Several trials have observed no benefit of acute caffeine ingestion on cycling and running performance in the heat Table 2 [ , , ]. It is well established that caffeine improves performance and perceived exertion during exercise at sea level [ , , , ].

Despite positive outcomes at sea level, minimal data exist on the ergogenic effects or side effects of caffeine in conditions of hypoxia, likely due to accessibility of this environment or the prohibitive costs of artificial methods. To date, only four investigations Table 3 have examined the effects of caffeine on exercise performance under hypoxic conditions [ , , , ].

Overall, results to date appear to support the beneficial effects of caffeine supplementation that may partly reduce the negative effects of hypoxia on the perception of effort and endurance performance [ , , , ].

Sources other than commonly consumed coffee and caffeine tablets have garnered interest, including caffeinated chewing gum, mouth rinses, aerosols, inspired powders, energy bars, energy gels and chews, among others. While the pharmacokinetics [ 18 , , , , ] and effects of caffeine on performance when consumed in a traditional manner, such as coffee [ 47 , 49 , 55 , , , , ] or as a caffeine capsule with fluid [ 55 , , , ] are well understood, curiosity in alternate forms of delivery as outlined in pharmacokinetics section have emerged due to interest in the speed of delivery [ 81 ].

A recent review by Wickham and Spriet [ 5 ] provides an overview of the literature pertaining to caffeine use in exercise, in alternate forms. Therefore, here we only briefly summarize the current research. Several investigations have suggested that delivering caffeine in chewing gum form may speed the rate of caffeine delivery to the blood via absorption through the extremely vascular buccal cavity [ 58 , ].

Kamimori and colleagues [ 58 ] compared the rate of absorption and relative caffeine bioavailability from caffeinated chewing gum and caffeine in capsule form. The results suggest that the rate of drug absorption from the gum formulation was significantly faster.

These findings suggest that there may be an earlier onset of pharmacological effects from caffeine delivered through the gum formulation.

Further, while no data exist to date, it has been suggested that increasing absorption via the buccal cavity may be preferential over oral delivery if consumed closer to or during exercise, as splanchnic blood flow is often reduced [ ], potentially slowing the rate of caffeine absorption.

To date, five studies [ 59 , 60 , 61 , 62 , 63 ] have examined the potential ergogenic impact of caffeinated chewing gum on aerobic performance, commonly administered in multiple sticks Table 4. To note, all studies have been conducted using cycling interventions, with the majority conducted in well-trained cyclists.

However, more research is needed, especially in physically active and recreationally training individuals. Four studies [ 64 , 66 , 68 , ] have examined the effect of caffeinated chewing gum on more anaerobic type activities Table 4.

Specifically, Paton et al. The reduced fatigue in the caffeine trials equated to a 5. Caffeinated gum consumption also positively influenced performance in two out of three soccer-specific Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test and CMJ tests used in the assessment of performance in soccer players [ 66 ].

These results suggest that caffeine chewing gums may provide ergogenic effects across a wide range of exercise tasks. To date, only Bellar et al. Future studies may consider comparing the effects of caffeine in chewing gums to caffeine ingested in capsules. Specifically, the mouth contains bitter taste sensory receptors that are sensitive to caffeine [ ].

It has been proposed that activation of these bitter taste receptors may activate neural pathways associated with information processing and reward within the brain [ , , ].

Physiologically, caffeinated mouth rinsing may also reduce gastrointestinal distress potential that may be caused when ingesting caffeine sources [ , ]. Few investigations on aerobic [ 69 , 74 , 75 , 76 , ] and anaerobic [ 72 , 73 , 78 ] changes in performance, as well as cognitive function [ 70 , 71 ] and performance [ 77 ], following CMR have been conducted to date Table 5.

One study [ ] demonstrated ergogenic benefits of CMR on aerobic performance, reporting significant increases in distance covered during a min arm crank time trial performance.

With regard to anaerobic trials, other researchers [ 72 ] have also observed improved performance, where recreationally active males significantly improved their mean power output during repeated 6-s sprints after rinsing with a 1.

While CMR has demonstrated positive outcomes for cyclists, another study [ 78 ] in recreationally resistance-trained males did not report any significant differences in the total weight lifted by following a 1.

CMR appears to be ergogenic in cycling to include both longer, lower-intensity and shorter high-intensity protocols.

The findings on the topic are equivocal likely because caffeine provided in this source does not increase caffeine plasma concentration and increases in plasma concentration are likely needed to experience an ergogenic effect of caffeine [ 69 ]. Details of these studies, as well as additional studies may be found in Table 5.

The use of caffeinated nasal sprays and inspired powders are also of interest. Three mechanisms of action have been hypothesized for caffeinated nasal sprays. Firstly, the nasal mucosa is permeable, making the nasal cavity a potential route for local and systemic substance delivery; particularly for caffeine, a small molecular compound [ 11 , 12 , 30 , 31 ].

Secondly, and similar to CMR, bitter taste receptors are located in the nasal cavity. The use of a nasal spray may allow for the upregulation of brain activity associated with reward and information processing [ ]. Thirdly, but often questioned due to its unknown time-course of action, caffeine could potentially be transported directly from the nasal cavity to the CNS, specifically the cerebrospinal fluid and brain by intracellular axonal transport through two specific neural pathways, the olfactory and trigeminal [ , ].

No significant improvements were reported in either anaerobic and aerobic performance outcome measures despite the increased activity of cingulate, insular, and sensory-motor cortices [ 79 ].

Laizure et al. Both were found to have similar bioavailability and comparable plasma concentrations with no differences in heart rate or blood pressure Table 6.

While caffeinated gels are frequently consumed by runners, cyclists and triathletes, plasma caffeine concentration studies have yet to be conducted and only three experimental trials have been reported. Cooper et al.

In the study by Cooper et al. In contrast, Scott et al. utilized a shorter time period from consumption to the start of the exercise i. However, these ideas are based on results from independent studies and therefore, future studies may consider exploring the optimal timing of caffeine gel ingestion in the same group of participants.

More details on these studies may be found in Table 7. Similar to caffeinated gels, no studies measured plasma caffeine concentration following caffeinated bar consumption; however, absorption and delivery likely mimic that of coffee or caffeine anhydrous capsule consumption.

While caffeinated bars are commonly found in the market, research on caffeinated bars is scarce. To date, only one study [ 82 ] Table 7 has examined the effects of a caffeine bar on exercise performance.

Furthermore, cyclists significantly performed better on complex information processing tests following the time trial to exhaustion after caffeine bar consumption when compared to the carbohydrate only trial.

As there is not much data to draw from, future work on this source of caffeine is needed. A review by Trexler and Smith-Ryan comprehensively details research on caffeine and creatine co-ingestion [ 32 ]. With evidence to support the ergogenic benefits of both creatine and caffeine supplementation on human performance—via independent mechanisms—interest in concurrent ingestion is of great relevance for many athletes and exercising individuals [ 32 ].

While creatine and caffeine exist as independent supplements, a myriad of multi-ingredient supplements e. It has been reported that the often-positive ergogenic effect of acute caffeine ingestion prior to exercise is unaffected by creatine when a prior creatine loading protocol had been completed by participants [ , ].

However, there is some ambiguity with regard to the co-ingestion of caffeine during a creatine-loading phase e.

While favorable data exist on muscular performance outcomes and adaptations in individuals utilizing multi-ingredient supplements e. Until future investigations are available, it may be prudent to consume caffeine and creatine separately, or avoid high caffeine intakes when utilizing creatine for muscular benefits [ ].

This is likely due to the heterogeneity of experimental protocols that have been implemented and examined. Nonetheless, a systematic review and meta-analysis of 21 investigations [ ] concluded the co-ingestion of carbohydrate and caffeine significantly improved endurance performance when compared to carbohydrate alone.

However, it should be noted that the magnitude of the performance benefit that caffeine provides is less when added to carbohydrate i. carbohydrate than when isolated caffeine ingestion is compared to placebo [ ].

Since the publication [ ], results remain inconclusive, as investigations related to sport-type performance measures [ 83 , , , , , , ], as well as endurance performance [ 84 , , ] continue to be published.

Overall, to date it appears caffeine alone, or in conjunction with carbohydrate is a superior choice for improving performance, when compared to carbohydrate supplementation alone.

Few studies to date have investigated the effect of post-exercise caffeine consumption on glucose metabolism [ , ]. While the delivery of exogenous carbohydrate can increase muscle glycogen alone, Pedersen et al.

In addition, it has been demonstrated that co-ingestion of caffeine with carbohydrate after exercise improved subsequent high-intensity interval-running capacity compared with ingestion of carbohydrate alone. This effect may be due to a high rate of post-exercise muscle glycogen resynthesis [ ].

Practically, caffeine ingestion in close proximity to sleep, coupled with the necessity to speed glycogen resynthesis, should be taken into consideration, as caffeine before bed may cause sleep disturbances. The genus of coffee is Coffea , with the two most common species Coffea arabica arabica coffee and Coffea canephora robusta coffee used for global coffee production.

While coffee is commonly ingested by exercising individuals as part of their habitual diet, coffee is also commonly consumed pre-exercise to improve energy levels, mood, and exercise performance [ 11 , 40 ].

Indeed, a recent review on coffee and endurance performance, reported that that coffee providing between 3 and 8. Specifically, Higgins et al.

Since the release of the Higgins et al. review, three additional studies have been published, examining the effects of coffee on exercise performance.

Specifically, Niemen et al. Fifty-km cycling time performance and power did not differ between trials. Regarding resistance exercise performance, only two studies [ 55 , 56 ] have been conducted to date. One study [ 56 ] reported that coffee and caffeine anhydrous did not improve strength outcomes more than placebo supplementation.

On the other hand, Richardson et al. The results between studies differ likely because it is challenging to standardize the dose of caffeine in coffee as differences in coffee type and brewing method may alter caffeine content [ ]. Even though coffee may enhance performance, due to the difficulty of standardizing caffeine content most sport dietitians and nutritionists use anhydrous caffeine with their athletes due to the difficulty of standardizing caffeine content.

Consumption of energy drinks has become more common in the last decade, and several studies have examined the effectiveness of energy drinks as ergogenic aids Table 8. Souza and colleagues [ ] completed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies that examined energy drink intake and physical performance.

Studies including endurance exercise, muscular strength and endurance, sprinting and jumping, as well as sport-type activities were reviewed. It has been suggested that the additional taurine to caffeine containing energy drinks or pre-workout supplements, as well as the addition of other ergogenic supplements such as beta-alanine, B-vitamins, and citrulline, may potentiate the effectiveness of caffeine containing beverages on athletic performance endeavors [ ].

However, other suggest that the ergogenic benefits of caffeine containing energy drinks is likely attributed to the caffeine content of the beverage [ ]. For a thorough review of energy drinks, consider Campbell et al.

Table 8 provides a review of research related to energy drinks and pre-workout supplements. Caffeine in its many forms is a ubiquitous substance frequently used in military, athletic and fitness populations which acutely enhance many aspects of exercise performance in most, but not all studies.

Supplementation with caffeine has been shown to acutely enhance many aspects of exercise, including prolonged aerobic-type activities and brief duration, high-intensity exercise.

The optimal timing of caffeine ingestion likely depends on the source of caffeine. Studies that present individual participant data commonly report substantial variation in caffeine ingestion responses. Inter-individual differences may be associated with habitual caffeine intake, genetic variations, and supplementation protocols in a given study.

Caffeine may be ergogenic for cognitive function, including attention and vigilance. Caffeine at the recommended doses does not appear significantly influence hydration, and the use of caffeine in conjunction with exercise in the heat and at altitude is also well supported.

Alternative sources of caffeine, such as caffeinated chewing gum, mouth rinses, and energy gels, have also been shown to improve performance. Energy drinks and pre-workouts containing caffeine have been demonstrated to enhance both anaerobic and aerobic performance.

Individuals should also be aware of the side-effects associated with caffeine ingestion, such as sleep disturbance and anxiety, which are often linearly dose-dependent. Bailey RL, Saldanha LG, Dwyer JT. Estimating caffeine intake from energy drinks and dietary supplements in the United States.

Nutr Rev. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Fulgoni VL 3rd, Keast DR, Lieberman HR. Trends in intake and sources of caffeine in the diets of US adults: Am J Clin Nutr. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar.

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Wickham KA, Spriet LL. Administration of caffeine in alternate forms. Sports Med. Doepker C, Lieberman HR, Smith AP, Peck JD, El-Sohemy A, Welsh BT. Caffeine: friend or foe? Annu Rev Food Sci Technol.

Wikoff D, Welsh BT, Henderson R, Brorby GP, Britt J, Myers E, et al. Systematic review of the potential adverse effects of caffeine consumption in healthy adults, pregnant women, adolescents, and children. Food Chem Toxicol. Jiang W, Wu Y, Jiang X.

Coffee and caffeine intake and breast cancer risk: an updated dose-response meta-analysis of 37 published studies. Gynecol Oncol. Jiang X, Zhang D, Jiang W. Coffee and caffeine intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of prospective studies.

Eur J Nutr. Caldeira D, Martins C, Alves LB, Pereira H, Ferreira JJ, Costa J. Caffeine does not increase the risk of atrial fibrillation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

Article PubMed Google Scholar. Higgins S, Straight CR, Lewis RD. The effects of preexercise caffeinated coffee ingestion on endurance performance: an evidence-based review. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab.

Doherty M, Smith PM. Effects of caffeine ingestion on rating of perceived exertion during and after exercise: a meta-analysis. Scand J Med Sci Sports. Ganio MS, Klau JF, Casa DJ, Armstrong LE, Maresh CM.

Effect of caffeine on sport-specific endurance performance: a systematic review. J Strength Cond Res. Asmussen E, Boje O. The effect of alcohol and some drugs on the capacity for work. Acta Physiol Scand. Ljungqvist A. Brief history of anti-doping.

Med Sport Sci. Rivers WH, Webber HN. The action of caffeine on the capacity for muscular work. J Physiol. Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Haldi J, Wynn W. Action of drugs on efficiency of swimmers.

Restor Q. CAS Google Scholar. Costill DL, Dalsky GP, Fink WJ. Effects of caffeine ingestion on metabolism and exercise performance. Med Sci Sports. CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Ivy JL, Costill DL, Fink WJ, Lower RW.

Influence of caffeine and carbohydrate feedings on endurance performance. Perkins R, Williams MH. Effect of caffeine upon maximal muscular endurance of females. Durrant KL. Known and hidden sources of caffeine in drug, food, and natural products.

J Am Pharm Assoc Wash. Article Google Scholar. Mitchell DC, Knight CA, Hockenberry J, Teplansky R, Hartman TJ. Beverage caffeine intakes in the U. Ramarethinam S, Rajalakshmi N.

Caffeine in tea plants [Camellia sinensis L O. Kuntze]: in situ lowering by Bacillus licheniformis Weigmann Chester. Indian J Exp Biol. Ashihara H, Suzuki T. Distribution and biosynthesis of caffeine in plants.

Front Biosci. Misako K, Kouichi M. Caffeine synthase and related methyltransferases in plants. Mazzafera P. Catabolism of caffeine in plants and microorganisms. Al-Shaar L, Vercammen K, Lu C, Richardson S, Tamez M, Mattei J. Health effects and public health concerns of energy drink consumption in the United States: a mini-review.

Front Public Health. Utter J, Denny S, Teevale T, Sheridan J. Energy drink consumption among New Zealand adolescents: associations with mental health, health risk behaviours and body size. J Paediatr Child Health. Marmorstein NR. Interactions between energy drink consumption and sleep problems: associations with alcohol use among young adolescents.

J Caffeine Res. De Sanctis V, Soliman N, Soliman AT, Elsedfy H, Di Maio S, El Kholy M, et al. New York City Marathon. What are your performance questions? Have ideas for the Playbook? Sign up for our newsletter and receive Playbook updates. Sign up for newsletter. Some scientific journals publish editorial-like articles in addition to traditional research articles.

While opinion pieces will often cite other research articles to back up their claims, they may not be held to the same rigorous standards as a formal review article or meta-analysis.

We chose to cite the article anyway because it provides useful evidence, and the opinions align with the other, more rigorously reviewed literature which we have cited.

By Kristy Hamilton, Louise Burke, Marily Oppezzo December 5, Louise Burke, PhD Dr. Timing Matters: Matching Caffeine with Fatigue A common misconception among athletes is that large doses of caffeine before exercise will transform them into powerhouses.

More is not better Larger doses of caffeine increase the risk of side-effects such as sleep quality and quantity. What Time Does Your Sport Start? Favorite activity to stay fit? Favorite marathon? Sign up for our newsletter and receive Playbook updates Sign up for newsletter.

Citations Fulgoni, V. Trends in intake and sources of caffeine in the diets of US adults: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 5 , International society of sports nutrition position stand: nutritional considerations for single-stage ultra-marathon training and racing.

Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 16 1 , The effect of acute caffeine ingestion on endurance performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 48 8 , International society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and exercise performance.

Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 18, 1. Caffeine ingestion enhances Wingate performance: a meta-analysis. European Journal of Sport Science, 18 2 , What should we do about habitual caffeine use in athletes? Sports Med, 49, —

Athletes are particularly enthusiastic Pumpkin Seed Fertilizer perfoormance caffeine as evidence Caffeine and performance nutrition that it can enhance Essential vitamin sources, anaerobic, strength and skill-based performance. Clearly, a performanxe majority of endurance athletes Caffeine and performance nutrition caffeine as Cafffeine of their fueling anv for training and nutritkon, but should all athletes be using it? In the s, the introduction of two mandatory minute coffee breaks in US factories was linked to marked increases in worker output. It has the ability to block the binding of the neurotransmitter adenosine, which naturally builds up over the course of the day and causes tiredness. As far as psychoactive drugs go, caffeine is considered safe for consumption and is regarded as less addictive than other commonly used drugs like tobacco.

Caffeine and performance nutrition -

A greater proportion of men Caffeine use was also more prevalent among professional Of those reporting specific timing of caffeine supplementation, Recreational athletes reported consuming smaller amounts of caffeine before training 1.

Overall, participants reported minor to moderate perceived effectiveness of caffeine supplementation 2. It appears that recreational athletes use lower caffeine amounts than what has been established as ergogenic in laboratory protocols; further, they consume caffeine closer to exercise compared with typical research protocols.

Thus, better education of recreational athletes and additional research into alternative supplementation strategies are warranted. Endurance sports, including running, cycling, and triathlon, have been popular among recreational athletes in the USA. Prior to the COVID pandemic the number of race registrations in running and triathlon alone was estimated between 22 and 30 million annually Run Signup, Additionally, USA Cycling USAC members amassed over , racer days in Vandivort, The benefits of caffeine supplementation for endurance performance have been well-established Southward et al.

Even larger improvements have been demonstrated in time to exhaustion TTE tasks; e. An umbrella review of published meta-analyses by Grgic et al.

Additionally, de Morree et al. This reduction in RPE seems to be an important mechanism in the improved exercise performance afforded by caffeine supplementation Doherty and Smith, While the ergogenic effects of caffeine are widely accepted and its use is widespread, it appears that there remains some confusion among elite and recreational athletes regarding optimal supplementation protocols.

While that study provides a glimpse into caffeine supplementation habits among triathletes during a single race, to our knowledge no studies have investigated typical caffeine supplementation protocols across training and races among endurance athletes of various performance levels in a variety of sports.

It is unclear if endurance athletes replicate supplementation protocols that have been shown to be successful in laboratory research. Therefore, the purpose of this study was an exploratory examination of caffeine supplementation strategies among endurance athletes. We investigated caffeine supplementation prevalence, supplement type, timing, and amount, and the perceived effects of caffeine during training and racing using an online survey.

Further, we collected data on where endurance athletes were receiving information regarding caffeine supplementation. Due to the descriptive and exploratory nature of this study, we did not pose any formal hypotheses.

We used an electronic survey Qualtrics, Provo, UT to investigate caffeine consumption, supplementation strategies, and perceived effects of caffeine among endurance athletes from June to March We recruited participants using social media, email, and word of mouth.

The TCU Institutional Review Board IRB approved the study Protocol All participants signed an electronic informed consent. Participants were recruited using digital flyers distributed via email and social media groups. A total of endurance athletes signed the informed consent, of whom completed the survey.

Individuals were included in the study if they were at least 18 years old and self-identified as endurance athletes.

Endurance athletes were defined as those individuals who train and compete in activities that involve prolonged rhythmic exercise which are mainly powered by oxidative phosphorylation Booth et al.

Participants self-reported whether they were professional, collegiate or former collegiate athletes. Those who did not self-identify as either professional or current collegiate athletes, were categorized as recreational athletes.

Six participants were excluded based on failure to report biological sex. Thus, we included athletes in the final analysis. We developed the questionnaire based on a published survey regarding pre-workout supplement use and personal communication with the first author of that study Jagim et al.

We worded demographic questions in accordance with the United States Census survey questions. We solicited feedback regarding the content validity and usability of the survey from experts in the field and from local endurance athletes during a pilot period.

The questionnaire was administered electronically on Qualtrics and consisted of 12 demographic questions, 25 questions regarding sports background, and 64 questions regarding caffeine consumption and supplementation, e.

Question types included multiple choice, multiple selection, open-ended, and Likert-type questions. Participants were able to skip items at their own discretion. Questions regarding habitual caffeine consumption were limited to caffeinated beverages.

In an initial question, participants were asked whether they consume these types of beverages; based on their answer, they were presented with follow-up questions regarding the types and amounts consumed. Questions regarding caffeine supplementation were nested under an initial query on whether participants use any supplements containing caffeine.

Caffeine supplementation amounts were provided by participants in an open-ended question. This question was only displayed to participants who indicated that they used a specific amount of caffeine in a supplement.

Where participants reported caffeine amounts as ranges, e. We used the United States Department of Agriculture USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Haytowitz et al. Where caffeine amounts were reported by supplement, we referenced product websites to find caffeine content.

We recoded timing of caffeine intake prior to races and training session from min interval options to min interval options due to the small number of responses for some answer choices.

Statistical analyses were performed in jamovi version 2. We calculated descriptive statistics for age, height, weight, and BMI as means ± SD. Further we, calculated percentages for race, athlete status, training volume, education, household income, and primary sport as a percent of the total number of participants as well as by sex.

Percentages are reported in relation to the number of participants responding to a particular question. We performed Pearson Chi-Square χ 2 tests to elucidate potential differences in caffeine supplementation strategies based on sex, primary sport, education, household income, athlete status professional, collegiate, recreational , coaching, and recent race success.

Alpha level for all tests was set to 0. Additionally, we included one individual, who participated in aquabike swim and run combination in the group of triathletes.

We compared participant characteristics between runners, cyclists, and triathletes using a one-way analysis of variance ANOVA with Tukey-corrected post hoc test. We confirmed normality of the residuals for these analyses using visual inspection of Q-Q plots.

We compared perceived caffeine effectiveness based on whether it was used before a race, a training session, or based on participants feelings using a Friedman's repeated measures ANOVA with Durbin-Conover pairwise comparisons.

Additionally, we compared perceived caffeine effectiveness between groups primary sport, athlete status using a Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA. We employed these non-parametric analyses due to the ordinal nature of the data and the difference in group sizes in the analysis based on athlete status.

The participant characteristics are presented in Table 1. Our sample was mostly Caucasian Almost half of our sample held a graduate degree The participants had a mean age of Majority of the participants were recreational athletes The participants trained on average 5.

Twenty-two participants Sixty-one participants Among these participants, Eight participants When asked where they got the recommendation to use caffeine supplements, Fifteen participants While nine participants Similarly, we found no differences when comparing caffeine supplementation rates based on education, income, or race.

Caffeine supplementation prevalence is presented in Figure 1. Figure 1. Reported caffeine supplementation use by sex, athlete status, and primary sport.

A Significantly greater than Female; B Significantly lower than Professional and Recreational. Finally, Among those reporting specific timing of caffeine intake before training, Results regarding caffeine intake timing before races were similar: 22 participants Figure 2 shows caffeine supplementation timing prior to races and training sessions.

Out of those taking caffeine during races, Among those reporting caffeine supplementation for training and racing, Five participants One participant specified that they based the amount on National Collegiate Athletic Association NCAA regulations, and another determined it based on a genetic test.

The final participant reported taking in mg per hour of training session or race. On average, athletes used There was no difference in caffeine supplementation amounts when comparing men and women, nor when comparing cyclists, triathletes, and runners.

Collegiate and professional athletes appeared to report higher caffeine intakes before training COL: 2. We did not perform statistical analyses on these data due to small and uneven group sizes. Caffeine supplementation amounts before races and training sessions are shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3. There was a significant effect of supplementation situation training vs. race vs. Among those supplementing with caffeine, 12 participants Ten of them The present study aimed to investigate caffeine supplementation strategies employed by endurance athletes from a wide range of sports.

While the ergogenic effect of caffeine for endurance performance is well established Southward et al. Our main finding was that endurance athletes, especially recreational athletes, ingest lower amounts of caffeine before training and racing than those typically used in the laboratory setting.

Collegiate and professional athletes used amounts at the lower end of the established range. Similarly, most participants in our sample ingested caffeine closer to exercise than the 60 min used in scientific research. In a recent review, Grgic have suggested a minimal effective dose of 1.

A minimal effective dose for endurance performance benefits has not been established, and studies on low-dose caffeine supplementation have shown mixed effects. Kovacs and Stegen demonstrated that 2.

In a study of even lower doses, Jenkins et al. Wiles et al. The study did not report caffeine amounts in relative units and did not provide participants' body mass.

However, the participants are described as male middle distance runners, so an estimated body mass of ~65 kg seems appropriate, meaning they ingested ~2. Supplementation in that study improved 1, m running time, increased speed during an end spurt, and increased VO 2 during a constant-speed high-intensity 1, m run compared with decaffeinated coffee.

Desbrow et al. Based on these results, it appears that while the amount ingested by endurance athletes in the present sample could be enough to confer performance benefits, higher doses might be more beneficial.

As discussed above, none of our participants reported using dosing strategies relative to body mass. This could indicate that caffeine supplementation based on absolute amounts contained in commercially available multi-ingredient products could provide enough of a stimulus to be ergogenic, but that greater amounts of caffeine tailored to an individual's body weight could prove more beneficial.

In our sample, participants reported greater caffeine effectiveness during races when compared with training; they also reported higher caffeine intake during races compared with training, suggesting that these greater amounts might be perceived more beneficial than the lower amounts used in training.

Thus, more education of recreational athletes and their coaches is needed to optimize and individualize these strategies. Most research investigating the ergogenic effects of caffeine has administered caffeine 60 min prior to exercise, since caffeine concentration in the blood peaks around this time Graham and Spriet, , especially in a fasted state Skinner et al.

In the fasted state, serum caffeine concentration begins to decrease after 60 min and continues to decrease through min Skinner et al. In the fed state, caffeine peaks later, at ~ min following ingestion, but exhibits a lower peak compared with the fasted state.

Most of the athletes in the present sample reported taking caffeine closer to exercise. This might in fact be the better strategy, especially in longer training sessions or races, where the effects of caffeine would be most important later in the race.

Participants' perception of effectiveness reflected this notion, as they rated the effects of caffeine higher the longer the duration of training or races was.

While no studies have shown that the performance is optimized at peak caffeine concentrations, recent work by Harty et al. Yet, this might differ for endurance performance, due to the prolonged nature of endurance tasks.

Several studies have investigated the effect of caffeine administration during exercise in an attempt to elucidate the effect of increasing caffeine concentration in the blood later in the performance bout Kovacs and Stegen, ; Cox et al.

Cox et al. In a follow-up study presented in the same manuscript, Cox et al. This second study showed similar performance improvements compared to Study 1. Participants received 1. TT performance improved in both caffeine conditions when compared with a placebo condition; this improvement was greater with the higher dose of caffeine.

In these situations, participants reported taking 1. While these doses are lower than those reported to achieve the biggest performance improvements in laboratory studies, they are consistent with the lower doses also reported to confer some benefits. In the research setting, caffeine has been administered every 20 min or close to the end of a submaximal exercise bout prior to a TT.

However, based on our study, it appears that endurance athletes take caffeine less frequently To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate caffeine supplementation prevalence among a range of endurance athletes.

Only This stark difference could in part be explained by the fact that the Ironman World Championship represents the pinnacle of the sport of triathlon; therefore, athletes might be more inclined to use any performance enhancing strategies available to them. Additionally, race times in the study by Desbrow and Leveritt ranged from ~8 to 16 h.

The long duration of this event might have led participants to consume caffeine to delay fatigue. In the present study, we asked for general supplementation patterns during all training and racing. Interestingly, we also found higher caffeine use prevalence in those finishing in the Top-3 of their division in the previous year.

To qualify for the Ironman World Championship, athletes must finish in a qualifying slot in a full-distance triathlon; while the number of qualifying slots differs from race to race based on the number of competitors racing in each age group, qualifying often requires athletes to finish in the Top 3 in their age group.

Thus the sample in Desbrow and Leveritt might have had an overrepresentation of those who supplement with caffeine.

It stands to reason that those who pursue success at the highest level in their division are more likely to supplement with caffeine compared with those who do not. In a survey study similar to ours, Chester and Wojek reported that caffeine intake with the goal of performance improvement was greater among cyclists We found no difference in caffeine supplementation prevalence when comparing cyclists, runners, and triathletes.

However, the overall prevalence of caffeine supplementation was closer to the one reported here. In the present study, caffeine supplementation was more prevalent in men compared with women. Aguilar-Navarro et al. It is possible that in our sample the greater prevalence for supplement use in men extended to caffeine as well.

While limited research investigating the ergogenic effects of caffeine in women exists, it appears that these effects might be smaller and less consistent than in men Mielgo-Ayuso et al. Thus, women might be less likely to use caffeine for performance improvement because they are unable to find research showing its efficacy for them.

Additionally, the study by Aguilar-Navarro et al. Collegiate athletes in our study were significantly less likely to report the use of caffeine supplements compared with professional and recreational athletes. Thus, it stands to reason that collegiate athletes might be hesitant to report caffeine supplementation in a survey, even if they take caffeine in amounts that are allowed according to NCAA guidelines Fralick and Braun-Trocchio, Interestingly, in a study by Froiland et al.

Thus, the prevalence reported in the present study might be an underrepresentation of actual caffeine supplement use among collegiate athletes. The types of caffeinated beverages preferred was also similar between our study and that of Frary et al.

Caffeinated soft drink consumption was slightly higher in the study by Frary et al. This could be because our sample was highly educated and highly active; thus, our participants may have been particularly health conscious and aware of the negative health impacts of soft drink consumption in general.

Several studies have investigated the effect of habitual caffeine consumption on the ergogenic effect of caffeine supplementation Dodd et al. While some studies have reported greater benefits of caffeine supplementation when not habitually consuming caffeine Bell and McLellan, ; Beaumont et al.

Other studies have shown no effect of habitual consumption on the potency of caffeine supplementation for performance enhancement Dodd et al. Thus, while our study shows that endurance athletes exhibit a habitual caffeine consumption prevalence similar to the general public, this should not be a concern regarding the efficacy of acute caffeine supplementation before training and races.

In fact, some of our subjects indicated that they incorporate their daily coffee or tea consumption into their nutritional strategies before and during training. Our participants reported using energy gels as their source of caffeine during training and races.

These caffeinated energy gels typically contain carbohydrate, electrolytes, and caffeine. To our knowledge, no studies have investigated the pharmacokinetics of caffeine co-ingested with carbohydrate in energy gels. Skinner et al. Thus, co-ingestion of carbohydrate and caffeine could potentially reduce caffeine's ergogenic effect, especially since many energy gels contain relatively low amounts 20—75 mg of caffeine.

Yet, carbohydrate ingestion on its own is an established strategy to improve endurance performance Jeukendrup, and the effects of co-ingestion with caffeine appear to be unclear.

Yeo et al. In a follow-up study in the same laboratory, Hulston and Jeukendrup were unable to replicate this difference in exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, but did demonstrate that performance in a subsequent TT was augmented with co-ingestion of 5.

However, Barzegar et al. Performance was not augmented by the co-ingestion of caffeine with carbohydrate over and above the effects of carbohydrate alone.

It is important to note that the latter study aimed to investigate the effects of caffeine-carbohydrate co-ingestion on muscle glycogen resynthesis, and thus caffeine and carbohydrate ingestion ceased hs prior to the performance bout.

Additionally, the five m bouts employed in the study by Barzegar et al. Thus, it appears that caffeine-carbohydrate co-ingestion is more effective when performed acutely before or during endurance exercise, similar to what our participants reported. Few studies have investigated the effect of caffeinated energy gel consumption on exercise performance.

Cooper et al. Similarly, Scott et al. In a study of resistance trained men, Venier et al. While these studies show that energy gels can be ergogenic, no studies have compared the use of energy gels to similar doses of caffeine ingested in isolation.

Another caffeine source that has recently gained popularity are caffeinated chewing gums. Some of our participants reported using these gums as their mode of delivery for caffeine. A study by Kamimori et al. However, it appears that no studies have compared the effect caffeinated chewing gum with pure caffeine capsules or powder on endurance performance.

Lane et al. Both caffeinated supplements also showed similar performance improvements compared to placebo and beetroot juice alone.

Ryan et al. A discussion will follow examining the effects of caffeine and high-intensity exercise in trained and non-trained individuals, which may partially explain a difference in the literature as it pertains to short-term high-intensity exercise.

An extensive body of research has provided compelling evidence to support the theory that caffeine's primary ergogenic mode of action is on the CNS.

However, caffeine may also be ergogenic in nature by enhancing lipolysis and decreasing reliance on glycogen utilization. In , Ivy et al. Trained cyclists were subjected to two hours of isokinetic cycling and received three treatments on separate occasions: caffeine, glucose polymer, and placebo.

Caffeine was consumed in an absolute dose of mg, mg one hour prior to cycling and the remainder in divided doses beginning 15 min prior to onset of exercise.

Results indicated a significant advantage in work produced following caffeine consumption. Specifically, work produced was 7. Midway into two hours of cycling, fat oxidation was significantly increased above that of the control and glucose trials. Fat oxidation was maintained during the last hour of exercise and it was suggested this substrate utilization was in part responsible for the increased work production.

Results of the Ivy et al. However, Ivy et al. Specifically, when subjects consumed caffeine, they began the exercise bout at a higher intensity, but perceived this effort to be no different than when they ingested the placebo and glucose conditions.

Furthermore, Ivy et al. In a study performed by Jackman et al. In total, subjects performed approximately min of high intensity work 2-min bouts of cycling interspersed with 6 min of rest and a final ride to voluntary exhaustion.

Results indicated an increase in plasma epinephrine for the caffeine treatment, which is consistent with other caffeine supplementation studies [ 8 , 29 , 46 , 51 , 52 ].

Even though epinephrine promotes glycogenolysis, the data from this study demonstrated an increase in both muscle lactate and plasma epinephrine without a subsequent affect on net muscle glycogenolysis following the first two bouts of controlled maximal cycling.

Epinephrine can up-regulate lipolysis in adipocytes as well as glycogenolysis in muscle and liver; therefore, a direct relationship between increases in the hormone and enhanced substrate catabolism is somewhat ambiguous. Greer et al.

Whereas adenosine can act to inhibit lipolysis in vivo [ 54 ], theophylline consumption at 4. Indeed, it is possible that both theophylline and caffeine act to regulate substrate metabolism via mechanisms other than those that are catecholamine-induced [ 53 ].

Hulston and Jeukendrup [ 55 ] published data that indicated caffeine at 5. Therefore, the results of some research studies lend substantiation to the premise that caffeine may act to increase performance by altering substrate utilization [ 16 , 18 ], while results of additional investigations serve to suggest other mechanisms of action [ 50 , 56 , 57 ].

Carbohydrate consumption during exercise can decrease the body's dependence on endogenous carbohydrate stores and lead to enhanced endurance performance [ 58 , 59 ]. Therefore, it is beneficial to determine an optimal method of enhancing rates of exogenous carbohydrate delivery and oxidation.

Exogenous carbohydrate delivery is determined by various factors including, but not limited to, the rate of gastric emptying and intestinal absorption [ 58 ]. However, it has been suggested that during exercise intestinal absorption seems to have the greatest influence on the rate of exogenous carbohydrate oxidation [ 58 , 60 ].

In Sasaki et al. In addition, Jacobson et al. However, Yeo et al. It was suggested by these authors [ 63 ] and others [ 64 ] that this was the result of enhanced intestinal glucose absorption. Finally, Hulston et al. However, it was also reported that caffeine consumption had no affect on exogenous carbohydrate oxidation [ 55 ].

In addition, Kovacs et al. In contrast, Desbrow and colleagues [ 65 ] found a low dose of caffeine 1. Strategies that may enhance exogenous carbohydrate absorption and oxidation during exercise are clearly defined in the literature [ 58 — 60 ].

The combined effect of caffeine and exogenous carbohydrate intake during endurance exercise is less understood. Therefore, future research should continue to investigate this potential ergogenic effect, as well as any corresponding physiological mechanisms.

Recently, the combination of caffeine and carbohydrate has been examined as a potential means to enhance recovery by increasing the rate of glycogen synthesis post exercise. In , Battram et al. It was postulated that the fractions respond differently to the recovery phase of exercise and thus glycogen resynthesis.

Following exercise and throughout the 5-hr recovery period subjects consumed in total g of exogenous carbohydrate. Muscle biopsies and blood samples revealed caffeine ingestion did not obstruct proglycogen or macroglycogen resynthesis following exhaustive, glycogen depleting exercise [ 66 ].

It is imperative to recognize that each person may respond differently to supplements and compounds containing caffeine. An individual at rest, and even sedentary in nature, is likely to have a different response compared to a trained, conditioned athlete, or physically active person.

According to the data presented by Battram et al. In a more recent study, Pedersen et al. The data presented in these studies [ 66 , 67 ] indicate that caffeine is not detrimental to glycogen repletion, and in combination with exogenous carbohydrate may actually act to enhance synthesis in the recovery phase of exercise.

From a practical standpoint, however, it should be considered that most athletes or recreationally trained individuals would choose to supplement with caffeine prior to competition for the purpose of enhancing performance.

Moreover, clearance of caffeine in the bloodstream occurs between 3 and 6 hours, and may extend beyond that time point depending on the individual. Therefore, caffeine consumption pre- and post-exercise would have to be precisely timed so as not to interrupt sleep patterns of the athlete, which in itself could negatively affect overall recovery.

Various methods of caffeine supplementation have been explored and results have provided considerable insight into appropriate form and dosage of the compound. One of the most acknowledged studies, published by Graham et al.

Caffeine in capsule form significantly increased work capacity allowing them to run an additional km [ 26 ], as compared to the four other treatments. It was also proposed by Graham and colleagues [ 26 ] that perhaps other indistinguishable compounds within coffee rendered caffeine less effective than when consumed in anhydrous form.

This suggestion was supported by de Paulis et al. In turn, these derivatives may have the potential for altering the affects of caffeine as an adenosine antagonist, possibly reducing the drug's ability to diminish the inhibitory action of adenosine [ 68 ].

As such, McLellan and Bell [ 27 ] examined whether a morning cup of coffee just prior to anhydrous caffeine supplementation would have any negative impact on the compound's ergogenic effect.

Subjects were physically active and considered to be moderate-to-high daily consumers of caffeine. Subjects consumed one cup of coffee with a caffeine dosage that was approximately 1.

The results indicated caffeine supplementation significantly increased exercise time to exhaustion regardless of whether caffeine in anhydrous form was consumed after a cup of regular or decaffeinated coffee [ 27 ].

While caffeine supplemented from a cup of coffee might be less effective than when consumed in anhydrous form, coffee consumption prior to anhydrous supplementation does not interfere with the ergogenic effect provided from low to moderate dosages. Wiles et al. This form and dose was used to mimic the real life habits of an athlete prior to competition.

Subjects performed a m treadmill time trial. Ten subjects with a VO 2max of In addition, six subjects also completed a third protocol to investigate the effect of caffeinated coffee on sustained high-intensity exercise. Results indicated a 4. For the "final burst" simulation, all 10 subjects achieved significantly faster run speeds following ingestion of caffeinated coffee.

Finally, during the sustained high-intensity effort, eight of ten subjects had increased VO 2 values [ 69 ]. In a more recent publication, Demura et al. Subjects consumed either caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee 60 min prior to exercise. The only significant finding was a decreased RPE for the caffeinated coffee as compared to the decaffeinated treatment [ 70 ].

Coffee contains multiple biologically active compounds; however, it is unknown if these compounds are of benefit to human performance [ 71 ]. However, it is apparent that consuming an anhydrous form of caffeine, as compared to coffee, prior to athletic competition would be more advantageous for enhancing sport performance.

Nevertheless, the form of supplementation is not the only factor to consider as appropriate dosage is also a necessary variable. Pasman and colleagues [ 28 ] examined the effect of varying quantities of caffeine on endurance performance. Results were conclusive in that all three caffeine treatments significantly increased endurance performance as compared to placebo.

Moreover, there was no statistical difference between caffeine trials. Navy SEAL training study published by Lieberman et al [ 40 ]. Results from that paper indicated no statistical advantage for consuming an absolute dose of mg, as opposed to mg.

However, the mg dose did result in significant improvements in performance, as compared to mg, and mg was at no point statistically different or more advantageous for performance than placebo [ 40 ].

In response to why a low and moderate dose of caffeine significantly enhanced performance, as compared to a high dose, Graham and Spriet [ 8 ] suggested that, "On the basis of subjective reports of some subjects it would appear that at that high dose the caffeine may have stimulated the central nervous system to the point at which the usually positive ergogenic responses were overridden".

This is a very pertinent issue in that with all sports nutrition great individuality exists between athletes, such as level of training, habituation to caffeine, and mode of exercise. Therefore, these variables should be considered when incorporating caffeine supplementation into an athlete's training program.

Results were comparable in a separate Spriet et al. publication [ 18 ]. Once again, following caffeine supplementation times to exhaustion were significantly increased. Results indicated subjects were able to cycle for 96 min during the caffeine trial, as compared to 75 min for placebo [ 18 ].

Recently McNaughton et al. This investigation is unique to the research because, while continuous, the protocol also included a number of hill simulations to best represent the maximal work undertaken by a cyclist during daily training. The caffeine condition resulted in the cyclists riding significantly further during the hour-long time trial, as compared to placebo and control.

The use of caffeine in anhydrous form, as compared to a cup of caffeinated coffee, seems to be of greater benefit for the purpose of enhancing endurance performance. It is evident that caffeine supplementation provides an ergogenic response for sustained aerobic efforts in moderate-to-highly trained endurance athletes.

The research is more varied, however, when pertaining to bursts of high-intensity maximal efforts. Collomp et al. Compared to a placebo, caffeine did not result in any significant increase in performance for peak power or total work performed [ 46 ].

As previously stated, Crowe et al. Finally, Lorino et al. Results were conclusive in that non-trained males did not significantly perform better for either the pro-agility run or s Wingate test [ 73 ]. In contrast, a study published by Woolf et al. It is exceedingly apparent that caffeine is not effective for non-trained individuals participating in high-intensity exercise.

This may be due to the high variability in performance that is typical for untrained subjects. Results, however, are strikingly different for highly-trained athletes consuming moderate doses of caffeine. Swimmers participated in two maximal m freestyle swims; significant increases in swim velocity were only recorded for the trained swimmers.

Results indicated a significant improvement in swim times for those subjects who consumed caffeine, as compared to placebo. Moreover, time was measured at m splits, which resulted in significantly faster times for each of the three splits for the caffeine condition [ 74 ].

As suggested by Collomp et al. Participants in a study published by Woolf et al. A recent study published by Glaister et al. Subjects were defined as physically active trained men and performed 12 × 30 m sprints at 35 s intervals.

Results indicated a significant improvement in sprint time for the first three sprints, with a consequential increase in fatigue for the caffeine condition [ 31 ]. The authors suggested that the increase in fatigue was due to the enhanced ergogenic response of the caffeine in the beginning stages of the protocol and, therefore, was not meant to be interpreted as a potential negative response to the supplement [ 31 ].

Bruce et al. Results of the study revealed an increase in performance for both time trial completion and average power output for caffeine, as compared to placebo mg glucose. Time trial completion improved by 1. Anderson and colleagues [ 75 ] tested these same doses of caffeine in competitively trained oarswomen, who also performed a 2,m row.

Team sport performance, such as soccer or field hockey, involves a period of prolonged duration with intermittent bouts of high-intensity playing time.

As such, Stuart et al. Subjects participated in circuits that were designed to simulate the actions of a rugby player, which included sprinting and ball passing, and each activity took an average seconds to complete. In total, the circuits were designed to represent the time it takes to complete two halves of a game, with a 10 min rest period.

An improvement in ball passing accuracy is applicable to a real-life setting as it is necessary to pass the ball both rapidly and accurately under high-pressure conditions [ 33 ]. This study [ 33 ] was the first to show an improvement in a team sport skill-related task as it relates to caffeine supplementation.

Results of this study [ 33 ] also indicated that for the caffeine condition subjects were able to maintain sprint times at the end of the circuit, relative to the beginning of the protocol. Schneiker et al. Ten male recreationally competitive team sport athletes took part in an intermittent-sprint test lasting approximately 80 minutes in duration.

Specifically, total sprint work was 8. The training and conditioning of these athletes may result in specific physiologic adaptations which, in combination with caffeine supplementation, may lead to performance enhancement, or the variability in performance of untrained subjects may mask the effect of the caffeine.

In the area of caffeine supplementation, strength research is still emerging and results of published studies are varied. The protocol consisted of a leg press, chest press, and Wingate.

The leg and chest press consisted of repetitions to failure i. Results indicated a significant increase in performance for the chest press and peak power on the Wingate, but no statistically significant advantage was reported for the leg press, average power, minimum power, or percent decrement [ 30 ].

Beck et al. Resistance trained males consumed caffeine mg, equivalent to 2. Participants were also tested for peak and mean power by performing two Wingate tests separated by four minutes of rest pedaling against zero resistance. A low dose of 2. Significant changes in performance enhancement were not found for lower body strength in either the 1RM or muscular endurance [ 35 ].

Results of the Beck et al. Findings from Astorino and colleagues [ 76 ] revealed no significant increase for those subjects supplemented with caffeine for either bench or leg press 1RM. Astorino et al. The Beck et al.

design included a 2. Indeed it is possible that the degree of intensity between the two protocols could in some way be a resulting factor in the outcome of the two studies.

Participants in this investigation [ 77 ] were considered non-habituated to caffeine and consumed much less than 50 mg per day. Research on the effects of caffeine in strength-power sports or activities, while varied in results and design, suggest that supplementation may help trained strength and power athletes.

Of particular interest, is the lack of significant finding for lower body strength as compared to upper body performance. Research investigations that have examined the role of caffeine supplementation in endurance, high-intensity, or strength-trained women is scant, especially in comparison to publications that have investigated these dynamics in men.

Motl et al. Moreover, there was no statistically significant difference between the 5 and 10 mg dose [ 78 ]. The lack of a dose-dependent effect is in line with previously published investigations [ 8 , 28 , 32 , 40 ]. In two different publications, Ahrens and colleagues [ 79 , 80 ] examined the effects of caffeine supplementation on aerobic exercise in women.

In one study [ 79 ] recreationally active women not habituated to caffeine participated in moderately-paced 3.

From a research standpoint the increase in VO 2 0. Finally, no significant results were reported for caffeine and aerobic dance bench stepping [ 80 ].

Goldstein and colleagues [ 81 ] examined the effects of caffeine on strength and muscular endurance in resistance-trained females. Similar to results reported by Beck et al. The research pertaining exclusively to women is somewhat limited and exceptionally varied.

Publications range from examining caffeine and competitive oarswomen [ 75 ] to others that have investigated recreationally active individuals performing moderate-intensity aerobic exercise [ 79 , 80 ]. Taken together, these results indicate that a moderate dose of caffeine may be effective for increasing performance in both trained and moderately active females.

Additional research is needed at all levels of sport to determine if caffeine is indeed effective for enhancing performance in women, either in a competitive or recreationally active setting. It is standard procedure for a research protocol to account for the daily caffeine intake of all subjects included within a particular study.

The purpose of accounting for this type of dietary information is to determine if caffeine consumption a. has an effect on performance and b. if this outcome is different between a person who does or does not consume caffeine on a regular basis.

Results demonstrated an enhancement in performance for both groups; however, the treatment effect lasted approximately three hours longer for those persons identified as nonusers [ 41 ]. Dodd et al. The only reported differences, such as ventilation and heart rate, were at rest for those persons not habituated to caffeine [ 82 ].

Van Soeren et al. Finally, it was suggested by Wiles et al. What may be important to consider is how caffeine affects users and nonusers individually. Thirteen of 22 subjects in that investigation described feelings of greater energy, elevated heart rate, restlessness, and tremor.

It should also be noted that these feelings were enhanced in participants who consumed little caffeine on a daily basis [ 76 ]. It would seem the important factor to consider is the individual habits of the athlete and how caffeine supplementation would affect their personal ability to perform.

It has been widely suggested that caffeine consumption induces an acute state of dehydration. However, consuming caffeine at rest and during exercise presents two entirely different scenarios. Specifically, studies examining the effects of caffeine-induced diuresis at rest can and should not be applied to athletic performance.

In a review publication on caffeine and fluid balance, it was suggested by Maughan and Griffin [ 85 ] that "hydration status of the individual at the time of caffeine ingestion may also affect the response, but this has not been controlled in many of the published studies".

Despite the unfounded, but accepted, notion that caffeine ingestion may negatively alter fluid balance during exercise, Falk and colleagues [ 86 ] found no differences in total water loss or sweat rate following consumption of a 7.

The authors did caution that exercise was carried out in a thermoneutral environment and additional research is warranted to determine effects in a more stressful environmental condition [ 86 ]. Wemple et al. In total, 8. Results indicated a significant increase in urine volume for caffeine at rest, but there was no significant difference in fluid balance for caffeine during exercise [ 87 ].

These results are noteworthy, because according to a review published by Armstrong [ 88 ], several research studies published between and reported outcome measures, such as loss of water and electrolytes, based on urine samples taken at rest and within hours of supplementation [ 88 ].

Kovacs and colleagues [ 56 ] published similar results in a study that examined time trial performance and caffeine consumption in various dosages added to a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution CES.

In total, subjects consumed each carbohydrate-electrolyte drink with the addition of mg, mg, and mg of caffeine. In regard to performance, subjects achieved significantly faster times following ingestion of both the CES mg and CES mg dosages, as compared to placebo and CES without addition of caffeine [ 56 ].

Finally, Kovacs et al. It should also be mentioned the authors reported wide-ranging post-exercise urinary caffeine concentrations within subjects, which could possibly be explained by inter-individual variation in caffeine liver metabolism [ 56 ].

Grandjean et al. An interesting study published by Fiala and colleagues [ 90 ] investigated rehydration with the use of caffeinated and caffeine-free Coca-Cola ®.

In a double-blind crossover manner, and in a field setting with moderate heat conditions, subjects participated in three, twice daily, 2-hr practices. Athletes consumed water during exercise, and on separate occasions, either of the Coca-Cola © treatments post-exercise.

As a result, no statistical differences were found for measures such as heart rate, rectal temperatures, change in plasma volume, or sweat rate [ 90 ]. It should be noted, however, the authors also reported a negative change in urine color for the mornings of Day 1 and 3, which was a possible indication of an altered hydration status; although, it was not evident at any other time point during the experiment.

Therefore, Fiala et al. Roti et al. The study included 59 young, active males. The EHT consisted of walking on a treadmill at 1. Millard-Stafford and colleagues [ 92 ] published results from a study that examined the effects of exercise in warm and humid conditions when consuming a caffeinated sports drink.

In conclusion, no significant differences in blood volume were present for any of the three treatments; therefore, caffeine did not adversely affect hydration and thus performance of long duration in highly trained endurance athletes [ 92 ].

In addition, heat dissipation was not negatively affected [ 93 ]. Therefore, while there may be an argument for caffeine-induced dieresis at rest, the literature does not indicate any significant negative effect of caffeine on sweat loss and thus fluid balance during exercise that would adversely affect performance.

Consequently, the International Olympic Committee mandates an allowable limit of 12 μg of caffeine per ml of urine [ 6 , 15 ]. Caffeine consumption and urinary concentration is dependent on factors such as gender and body weight [ 94 ].

Therefore, consuming cups of brewed coffee that contain approximately mg per cup would result in the maximum allowable urinary concentration [ 15 , 94 ]. In addition, the World Anti-Doping Agency does not deem caffeine to be a banned substance [ 96 ], but has instead included it as part of the monitoring program [ 97 ] which serves to establish patterns of misuse in athletic competition.

The scientific literature associated with caffeine supplementation is extensive. It is evident that caffeine is indeed ergogenic to sport performance but is specific to condition of the athlete as well as intensity, duration, and mode of exercise.

Therefore, after reviewing the available literature, the following conclusions can be drawn:. The majority of research has utilized a protocol where caffeine is ingested 60 min prior to performance to ensure optimal absorption; however, it has also been shown that caffeine can enhance performance when consumed min prior to exercise.

During periods of sleep deprivation, caffeine can act to enhance alertness and vigilance, which has been shown to be an effective aid for special operations military personnel, as well as athletes during times of exhaustive exercise that requires sustained focus.

Caffeine is an effective ergogenic aid for sustained maximal endurance activity, and has also been shown to be very effective for enhancing time trial performance. Recently, it has been demonstrated that caffeine can enhance, not inhibit, glycogen resynthesis during the recovery phase of exercise.

Caffeine is beneficial for high-intensity exercise of prolonged duration including team sports such as soccer, field hockey, rowing, etc. The literature is inconsistent when applied to strength and power activities or sports. It is not clear whether the discrepancies in results are due to differences in training protocols, training or fitness level of the subjects, etc.

Nonetheless, more studies are needed to establish the effects of caffeine vis a vis strength-power sports. Research pertaining exclusively to women is limited; however, recent studies have shown a benefit for conditioned strength-power female athletes and a moderate increase in performance for recreationally active women.

The scientific literature does not support caffeine-induced dieresis during exercise. In fact, several studies have failed to show any change in sweat rate, total water loss, or negative change in fluid balance that would adversely affect performance, even under conditions of heat stress.

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Journal hutrition the International Society Cafreine Sports Nutritiom volume 18Amd number: 1 Cite Pumpkin Seed Fertilizer untrition. Metrics details. Following critical evaluation of the available performancf to date, Breakfast skipping and healthy eating habits International Society performznce Caffeine and performance nutrition Nutrition ISSN position regarding caffeine intake is as follows:. Supplementation with caffeine has been shown to acutely enhance various aspects of exercise performance in many but not all studies. Small to moderate benefits of caffeine use include, but are not limited to: muscular endurance, movement velocity and muscular strength, sprinting, jumping, and throwing performance, as well as a wide range of aerobic and anaerobic sport-specific actions. Aerobic endurance appears to be the form of exercise with the most consistent moderate-to-large benefits from caffeine use, although the magnitude of its effects differs between individuals. Very high doses of caffeine e.

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Caffeine and Sports Performance Caffeine is a widely utilized performance-enhancing supplement used by perofrmance and Peerformance alike. As such, it is Caffeine and performance nutrition that caffeine is nytrition ergogenic aid—but can we further performnace Caffeine and performance nutrition context Caffeine pills for pre-workout energy this ergogenic Caffine in order to better inform practice? We propose that future research should aim to better understand the nuances of caffeine use within sport and exercise. Here, we propose a number of areas for exploration within future caffeine research. These include an understanding of the effects of training status, habitual caffeine use, time of day, age, and sex on caffeine ergogenicity, as well as further insight into the modifying effects of genotype. Caffeine and performance nutrition

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