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Circadian rhythm performance

Circadian rhythm performance

Kushida CA, Chang A, Gadkary C, Guilleminault C, Rgythm O, Dement Pefformance. Consent for publication Not applicable. Body temperature: Body temperature is at its lowest at am to facilitate REM sleep and at its highest at 7pm.

Circadian rhythm performance -

Not everyone is equally sensitive to caffeine, so this might take a bit of experimenting on your part to find what caffeine routine works best for you. A healthy functioning circadian rhythm can keep these hormones in check to promote overall health and well-being.

In terms of your health and fitness goals, having proper hormone balance is vital to your overall performance, recovery, and results. Bottom line: While your circadian rhythm does ensure that you get adequate rest, it also regulates physiological function during the day so that you can think, move, and function well.

The more closely you can align your schedule with your body clock, the better off you will be! Kim, T. The Impact of Sleep and Circadian Disturbance on Hormones and Metabolism. International Journal of Endocrinology, , 1—9. Circadian rhythms.

National Institutes of Health. Kinsey Mahaffey, MPH, is a Houston-based fitness educator, personal trainer and health coach who developed her commitment to lifelong fitness while playing Division I volleyball. You can follow her on LinkedIn here. org Fitness CPT Nutrition CES Sports Performance Workout Plans Wellness.

Which Processes does the Circadian Rhythm Affect? What Happens If Your Circadian Rhythm is Out of Whack? What Hormones Are Affected by Circadian Rhythms? References: Kim, T. The Author. Kinsey Mahaffey Kinsey Mahaffey, MPH, is a Houston-based fitness educator, personal trainer and health coach who developed her commitment to lifelong fitness while playing Division I volleyball.

Related Posts. wellness 10 Effective Ways to Detox from Social Media. wellness The Kinetic Chain and How to Apply It.

wellness Considering Medication for Obesity? Here's What You Need to Know. Sign up to receive content, exclusive offers, and much more from NASM! Popular Recent. Protein and Weight Loss: How Much Protein Do You Need to Eat Per Day?

By Brad Dieter. Resting Metabolic Rate: How to Calculate and Improve Yours By Fabio Comana. Fast-Twitch Vs. These findings have been supported when evaluating diurnal variation in aerobic performance between ECTs and LCTs [ 21 ].

Furthermore, while ECTs showed a 7. This study opened new insights into how individual differences, such as circadian phenotype, can impact on athletic performance and suggests that LCTs are more sensitive to diurnal fluctuations in performance.

It is well known that athletic performance is defined by the characteristics of a complex network of mental and physical elements. Whilst there is evidence for the effect of chronotype on aerobic performance, investigations on the effect of time of day on a range of performance elements for different chronotypes is still lacking.

This presents an interesting and timely opportunity to study multiple measures of performance simultaneously to allow a more holistic view of the impact of chronotype on performance. We hypothesise that chronotype, as well as time since entrained awakening, will be indicative of the time of day at which peak performance occurs.

The study was approved by the University of Birmingham Research Ethics Committee and was performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Assessment for chronotype was performed in healthy individuals using corrected mid-sleep on free days MSF sc from the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire MCTQ [ 11 ].

Participants were selected based on no prior diagnoses of sleep, neurological or psychiatric disorders, were not taking any medications that affect sleep and did not have any physical impairment that would prevent them completing a simple handgrip task.

A total of 56 healthy individuals 33 female, Participants gave written informed consent before involvement, all details provided were given on a voluntary basis and participants were free to withdraw at any time.

A subset of 38 participants 16 ECTs and 22 LCTs provided saliva samples for melatonin and cortisol rhythm analysis and underwent actigraphy throughout the study to validate chronotype groups Table 1.

Participants followed their normal preferred routines and were not confined to particular schedules for a 2-week baseline period, following which they attended the laboratory for testing sessions at h, h and h the following morning.

Based on previously published performance results between ECTs and LCTs [ 21 ] assuming a between-group standard deviation of 6. Actiwatches, which have been validated against some PSG parameters such as total sleep time, sleep efficiency and wake after sleep onset [ 25 ], were developed to monitor 24 h activity of individuals in their home environment and provide a cheaper and easier alternative to methods like PSG [ 26 ].

epochs of 2 s up to 1 min, to distinguish between activity and lack of, which is assumed to be, sleep. Actiwatches are used extensively in sleep and circadian research as well as having more clinical uses in respiratory medicine, mental health and other fields [ 27 ].

Data were acquired in 1-min epochs, confirmed with daily sleep diaries and analysed using Sleep Analysis 7 Software version 7. Participants provided saliva samples during one morning and one evening during the week of the testing sessions. Radioimmunoassays of melatonin and cortisol in human saliva were performed Stockgrand Ltd.

Assays were run with quality controls before and after samples. Individual dim light melatonin onset DLMO values were calculated using the mean of the baseline concentration values plus two standard deviations of the mean. This concentration was used to calculate the timing of melatonin onset through a linear response function.

Due to insufficient or contaminated samples, DLMO values were unable to be calculated for two ECTs and four LCTs. Cortisol peak was calculated as the time of the highest cortisol concentration recorded.

The PVT has been widely used in multiple fields of research as well as clinically [ 29 , 30 ]. It is a simple reaction time paradigm which uses visual stimuli at random intervals and is the most widely used cognitive performance test in sleep and circadian research [ 31 ]. It requires the subject to look at a blank screen and respond whenever a stimulus is presented.

Numerous studies have linked both long 10 min and short versions 2 min of the PVT to sleep deficits, e. sleep deprivation [ 32 , 33 ] as well as circadian disruption [ 34 , 35 ]. The MAT contains measures of speed, accuracy, memory and decidedness, which combined gives a measure of cognitive executive function.

Reliability indices are 0. The version used in this study was a shortened version designed to be sensitive to short-term time of day changes and easily repeatable. In the EF task, participants were presented with a screen containing a number of different coloured shapes and asked to complete a task based on a rule e.

click on all the blue diamonds. Following this, a subsequent more complex rule was given e. click on all the red circles unless there is a black square. There were a total of five different rules with five trials for each that needed to be completed for a total of 25 trials of increasing complexity requiring a higher level of cognitive processing due to the need to retain information required for the task.

Reaction time values from the PVT and time to completion in the EF task were taken as an index of cognitive performance. All participants completed the cognitive tests three times during the baseline period in their home environment and compliance was monitored remotely. Maximum voluntary contraction MVC was measured using the 6 second isometric grip strength test using an electronic hand dynamometer EH, CAMRY [ 36 ].

Participants were standing with their elbow fully extended and used their dominant hand in a pronated position to apply as much grip pressure as possible on the handgrip dynamometer for 6 seconds. The maximum value was recorded in kilograms.

This process was repeated three times with 2 minute intervals in between. To ensure consistent motivational feedback to participants, a strict protocol was adhered to with a script being read out each time to encourage the participant to try their best.

Self-reported daytime sleepiness was measured using the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale KSS. The KSS gives an indication of current sleepiness and is one of the most widely used scales for measuring self-reported sleepiness.

It consists of a simple 9-point Likert scale, from 1: very alert to 9: fighting sleep, in which the participant is asked to indicate their feelings of sleepiness during the 5 min prior to completing the rating. It takes less than a minute to complete.

The KSS has been validated against objective measures of sleepiness alpha and theta EEG activity [ 37 ] as well as the Karolinska Drowsiness tests, alpha attenuation tests and performance variables such as the PVT [ 38 ].

Statistical comparisons of behavioural data between the ECT and LCT groups were performed using GraphPad Prism version 7. Non-parametric tests were implemented where data did not follow a normal distribution. To control for multiple comparisons, all p values were corrected for false discovery rate using the Benjamini-Hochberg methods [ 39 ].

After exploring different nonlinear curve fits, diurnal variations in performance and sleepiness variables were plotted using second-degree regression curves. Time since awakening values were calculated as number of hours from habitual wake-up time for each participant. Exact p values are given to two significant figures, apart from when significance is identified as less than 0.

Table 1 shows the demographic, sleep and circadian characteristics of participants included in each group ECTs and LCTs. There were no significant differences in age, height, weight or sleep duration. Diurnal variation in daytime sleepiness KSS and sleepiness as a function of time since awakening.

Clock time variation a in KSS between ECTs white circles and LCTs grey circles. Entrained wake-up time, i. biological time 0, is shown with the dotted line. Curves are second-order polynomial non-linear regressions.

The result shown in the upper left of a plots represents the interaction between the time of day and chronotype derived from the overall two-way ANOVA. Post hoc test results are shown with lines and asterisk between the time of day and chronotype groups. Diurnal changes in performance were 3.

At , ECTs performed 8. Diurnal variation in psychomotor vigilance PVT and PVT as a function of time since awakening. Clock time variation a in PVT performance between ECTs white circles and LCTs grey circles.

Data are expressed as the percentage of individual personal best performance. Diurnal changes in performance were 7.

At , ECTs performed 5. Diurnal variation in executive function EF and EF as a function of time since awakening. There was a significant diurnal variation in MVC performance for both ECTs 3.

At , ECTs performed 7. Diurnal variation in maximum voluntary contraction MVC and MVC as a function of time since awakening. When analysing the data as a function of time since awakening i.

number of hours since entrained wake-up time , different peak performance times were revealed between the groups. Within the constraints of the model, whole group PVT performance occurred 7. However, the peak ECTs was at biological time 0 at the time of entrained wake-up time and The same was seen for EF performance, with whole group peak occurring 4.

Peak MVC performance was 8. Within each chronotype group, peak performance was 6. Competitive athletes are placed under substantial pressure to perform at their best due to considerable advancement in sports science support, technology and rewards for medal positions from competitions [ 40 ].

It is therefore crucial that any potential enhancement in performance which may provide a competitive edge is thoroughly explored. Multiple studies have uncovered a link between chronotype and physical performance enhancement [ 20 , 21 , 41 , 42 ], supporting the idea that time of day and individual differences in circadian timing may impact diurnal variation across other measures of performance [ 43 ].

However, to our knowledge, this is the first study to use multiple indices of cognitive and physical performance in regard to chronotype and time of day. Using a multifactorial approach to explore the different factors and variables which may affect enhancement in performance, our results showed significant differences between ECTs and LCTs in sleepiness, as well as across multiple cognitive performance measures, e.

reaction time PVT and executive function EF. Furthermore, we show that a simple physical performance measure maximal voluntary contraction of isometric grip strength , exhibits a significant diurnal variation between the two groups.

This is consistent with the results on a more complex measure of physical performance, namely, cardiovascular endurance [ 21 ].

Importantly, our results uncovered that ECTs performed significantly better than LCTs across all performance measures in the morning h. This finding has since solidified the importance of chronotype identification within athletes.

Commonly known outcomes of this circadian misalignment, such as jet lag or night shift work, are known to negatively impact on health and performance [ 46 ]. This is particularly important in professions such as pilots, medical professionals, military personnel, commercial drivers and other occupations whereby a reduction in alertness and decision-making capabilities may be consequentially life-threatening [ 47 ].

This desynchronization is also prevalent within an athletic environment, whereby an athlete may be required to travel across time zones to compete. Optimised cognitive abilities are essential to the basic functioning and have also been recognised as an important component of successful athletic performance [ 49 , 50 ].

PVT reflects the attentional state of an individual [ 51 ], and research has shown that a better PVT score is associated with improved response time and accuracy in interceptive sports, such as tennis and squash, as well as improved response accuracy in strategic sports such as field hockey and soccer [ 52 ].

Executive function incorporates cognitive factors including working memory, problem-solving and decision-making, taking place in the prefrontal cortex [ 53 ].

A significant correlation has been found between the level of sporting ability and success rate in completing executive function tasks [ 54 ]. Further research has also shown that self-paced athletes, such as swimmers and runners, perform better at inhibition tasks.

In contrast, externally paced sportspeople, such as rugby and soccer players, score higher on problem-solving tasks [ 55 ]. As a result of these findings, it is clear that the multiple aspects of cognition are imperative to an athlete in order to achieve maximum and well-rounded performance.

One of the key findings from this study highlights that cognitive performance is significantly impaired in LCTs when they are required to perform both simple and complex tasks during the morning.

We have shown that LCTs are compromised at h in both the PVT and EF tasks, with performance being significantly worse than ECTs by 8. Coupled with the significantly higher ratings of sleepiness at h, this is consistent with research that partial sleep deprivation can result in an increased response time and higher number of lapses when undertaking the PVT [ 33 , 56 ].

Interestingly, there were significant diurnal variations in PVT performance for LCTs but not for ECTs. However, when looking at a more complex measure of cognitive performance during the EF task, this relationship was reversed.

Although a non-significant but gradual improvement was seen across the three testing sessions in LCTs, it was only ECTs that showed significant diurnal variations Fig. A potential reason for this could be attributed to the complexity and nature of the task.

Two recent meta-analyses have shown that sleep deprivation has greater negative impact on the performance in simple cognitive tasks, such as the PVT, compared to more complex cognitive tasks [ 57 , 58 ].

Both papers attribute this to the higher degree of boredom and lower arousal that is associated with simple tasks and suggested that these factors may be amplified due to a lack of sleep.

More complex tasks, however, require and generate greater engagement and stimulation, therefore potentially accounting for the detrimental effects of sleep loss on performance. Our results show that LCTs have a damped amplitude in diurnal variation for the EF task, suggesting a potential compensatory reaction during a more complex task.

This finding aligns with the research that suggests simple tasks are more adversely affected by sleep deprivation [ 57 ]. The fact that the amplitude of diurnal variations seems to be impacted by the nature of tasks, i.

simple vs complex, as well as between chronotypes, presents an interesting area for future research. It is well established that elements of physical performance, particularly those involving muscular strength, tend to peak in the early evening [ 18 ]; however, much research has failed to consider the impact of chronotype.

Our study showed that ECTs performed their best MVC at h, whereas the peak for LCTs was at h Fig. Time since entrained wake-up has been proposed as a predictor of peak performance in aerobic endurance tasks, with the peak for LCTs occurring significantly later compared to ECTs [ 21 ].

This finding is consistent with the measures of performance shown in our study in healthy volunteers. The main observations relating to chronotype and performance since the time of awakening are 1 peak performance in ECTs always occurs closer to the habitual wake-up time compared to LCTs.

This suggests that LCTs have a much narrower window of opportunity to perform at their best during the course of a typical day, which could have significant implications for athletes with a late chronotype who are required to train and compete earlier than their biological peak.

Our findings support much of the current literature by suggesting clear differences in performance profiles between ECTs and LCTs. These results complement those previously recorded with more complex measures of physical performance [ 20 , 21 , 42 ] by showing similar trends of significantly better performance from ECTs in the morning, as well as very different peak times as a function of time since entrained awakening.

This information could also provide new insight to sectors that require individuals to achieve optimal performance such as military personnel, first responders firefighters, police and paramedics and professional athletes. These differences are so minute that any potential advantage to be gained should be researched in depth.

This would be of particular relevance to LCTs who have been shown to exhibit greater variation in diurnal performance profiles. However, rigid schedules often present a challenge for athletes having to perform at non-optimal times.

Therefore, this information could be used to develop personalised interventions targeting at sleep and circadian biology aimed to shift the timing of peak performance to accommodate inflexible competition times.

It is fair to speculate from our results that such a strategy may result in greater improvements in overall performance, although in-depth research is required to develop these approaches.

This data can therefore be translated into real-world settings and hold implications for monitoring performance. The disadvantages of this design are that it cannot separate the number of influences affecting the outcomes or separate the effects of the circadian system from the sleep homeostat.

To explore truly circadian effects, strict laboratory-based protocols, e. constant routine or forced desynchrony, over 24 h or more would be required. However, it could be argued that the combined approach is more applicable to the real world as behaviour and performance are ultimately impacted by both factors, and the more controlled protocols could result in poorer external validity due to the unrealistic settings.

Here, we investigated a relatively simple measure of physical performance using isometric grip strength, and thus, we restrict the ability to determine how more complex measures would be affected [ 31 ]. The performance itself is multifaceted and cannot be defined by one mechanism alone.

Internally, physical performance can be measured by physiological markers such as hormones levels e. cortisol, melatonin, and testosterone , CBT, heart rate, respiratory rate and maximum oxygen uptake.

External physical performance can be described and monitored through strength, power, aerobic capacity, anaerobic capacity and specialist skills tailored to certain sports such as accuracy. Therefore, we believe that the sample studied here is a representative cohort for the athletic implications that we suggest in the manuscript.

The choice of not seeking to recruit specifically elite athletes was made on accounting for practical difficulties in doing so, but more importantly in order to allow the best possible compliance and accurate, reliable data collection. The reality of the daily schedule of elite athletes would present many constraints that would limit the ability to carry out this study design accurately.

The study design also required participants to provide saliva samples and attend the laboratory for multiple testing sessions, something that would be difficult for elite athletes to comply with.

Carrying out real-world research in healthy volunteers is necessary in order to inform populations such as elite athletes; but also, because this study design investigates elements that contribute to athletic performance and not athletic performance per se, the findings of the study are relevant for a wider range of physically active individuals.

Therefore, it must be acknowledged that the measures tested and the sample population used in this study could restrict the ecological validity. However, our results show a strong similarity to previously published work on aerobic capacity in athletes [ 21 ], and previous studies have shown measures of muscle strength do correlate with sprint and jump performance [ 59 ].

In summary, our study has highlighted the influence that chronotype has on the diurnal variation of cognitive and physical performance measures. We show that LCTs are significantly impaired during the morning hours in all measures of performance compared to ECTs.

Moreover, we show that the time since entrained awakening can be used as a predictor of peak performance. These findings add considerably to the current body of literature by providing a more holistic approach to quantifying performance.

These findings should elicit extensive interest in elite performance settings e. sports, military and emergency services, as well as in the scientific and wider community, as accounting for chronotype has been shown to have a substantial impact across all the measures used.

Atkinson G, Reilly T. Circadian variation in sports performance. Sports Med. Article CAS Google Scholar. Lack L, Bailey M, Lovato N, Wright H. Chronotype differences in circadian rhythms of temperature, melatonin, and sleepiness as measured in a modified constant routine protocol.

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Chronobiol Int. Hayes LD, Bickerstaff GF, Baker JS. Interactions of cortisol, testosterone, and resistance training: influence of circadian rhythms. Sack RL, Brandes RW, Kendall AR, Lewy AJ.

Entrainment of free-running circadian rhythms by melatonin in blind people. New Engl J Med. Dunlap JC. Molecular bases for circadian clocks. Dijk DJ, Duffy JF, Silva EJ, Shanahan TL, Boivin DB, Czeisler CA.

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Dinges DF, Powell JW.

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Circadian rhythms are biological rhythms Lower cholesterol naturally align to the hour day and peak at different peeformance of the day and pergormance related to different biological processes.

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Circadian misalignment occurs when your internal circadian rhythm is no longer aligned with the biological night. If you notice that your sleep pattern is regularly disrupted, it might be worth looking into to find the root cause of the issue.

Circadian misalignment can lead to cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, cancer, or psychiatric and mood disorders. If you happen to work a night shift, there are steps that you can take to keep your circadian rhythm as healthy as possible! Especially early in the day, to help align your circadian rhythm with the biological day.

If you are a shift worker, you might try using a sun lamp. Not everyone is equally sensitive to caffeine, so this might take a bit of experimenting on your part to find what caffeine routine works best for you. A healthy functioning circadian rhythm can keep these hormones in check to promote overall health and well-being.

In terms of your health and fitness goals, having proper hormone balance is vital to your overall performance, recovery, and results. Bottom line: While your circadian rhythm does ensure that you get adequate rest, it also regulates physiological function during the day so that you can think, move, and function well.

The more closely you can align your schedule with your body clock, the better off you will be! Kim, T. The Impact of Sleep and Circadian Disturbance on Hormones and Metabolism. International Journal of Endocrinology,1—9. Circadian rhythms.

National Institutes of Health. Kinsey Mahaffey, MPH, is a Houston-based fitness educator, personal trainer and health coach who developed her commitment to lifelong fitness while playing Division I volleyball.

You can follow her on LinkedIn here. org Fitness CPT Nutrition CES Sports Performance Workout Plans Wellness. Which Processes does the Circadian Rhythm Affect? What Happens If Your Circadian Rhythm is Out of Whack?

What Hormones Are Affected by Circadian Rhythms? References: Kim, T. The Author. Kinsey Mahaffey Kinsey Mahaffey, MPH, is a Houston-based fitness educator, personal trainer and health coach who developed her commitment to lifelong fitness while playing Division I volleyball.

Related Posts. wellness 10 Effective Ways to Detox from Social Media. wellness The Kinetic Chain and How to Apply It. wellness Considering Medication for Obesity?

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Here's What You Need to Know By Nicole Golden. The Blue Zone Diet: What to Eat to Live Longer By Nicole Golden. Get NASM Edge App! NASM Podcast Network NASM Promotions.

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: Circadian rhythm performance

Circadian rhythms and athletic performance

One of the main theories to explain all this relates to body temperature. Circadian rhythms affect body temperature in fairly predictable ways, with most people seeing gradually increasing core temperature over the course of the day and peaking in the late afternoon before then slowly falling to a low between 3 AM and 5 AM.

Across the board, researchers have surmised that athletic performance tends to improve as you move through the day along with an increase in core temperature. A couple of things have been shown to influence this observation.

The first is climate. In warm environments, there is less of an effect on performance as the day progresses. Presumably, this is because core temperature does not drop as much overnight in such climates.

The second is that by exercising regularly in the mornings, morning performance may be improved relative to evening performance. Knowing your chronotype can be helpful in determining when it is best to train. However, if you happen to be a person with an evening preference, then how are you to perform well in the early morning hours for a big event?

Fortunately, there is hope. It turns out that you can influence your circadian rhythm and athletic performance based on when you wake up. At INC we understand the role that your circadian rhythm plays and we understand the link between training and nutrition in helping to achieve your optimal fitness goals.

INC Creatine Monohydrate is designed for those want to maximise strength and power and for those seeking increased muscle mass and optimal performance. Micronised for rapid absorption, it comes in an easy-to-mix powder form that can be added to cold water, juice or other drinks.

What is circadian rhythm? The science of working out When working out and trying to build strength, your objective is to maximise your physical and mental performance through identifying everything that will provide gains, no matter how marginal.

Share This Article Facebook LinkedIn Pinterest. Related Posts. Why rest and recovery is so important in sports performance. They approach a single fan of the other team and start insulting him. Very quickly the encounter becomes violent: the hooligans start pushing and beating him.

You decide to call the police. You will now be presented with the faces of the hooligans. Pay attention — you may be asked to identify them later. These instructions were accompanied by a context-cue: a photograph of a dark street with police cars and a policeman.

Figure 1 depicts an example. After that, we informed participants that they would be presented with the faces of the hooligans and instructed them to pay attention as they may be asked to identify them later.

Participants saw 16 faces, presented against the background that accompanied the imagery instructions, one at a time for 1 s followed by a 0. Imagine heading out to the supermarket on a rainy day. You drop off your beloved umbrella that you received as a gift from your grandmother at the entrance.

However, you notice another umbrella that is very similar to yours. Someone must have mistaken their umbrella with yours and taken it by accident. Pay attention — one of them might have your umbrella!

These instructions were accompanied by an image of a supermarket aisle. We told participants that they would now see the people they encountered in the supermarket and again instructed them to pay attention to the faces as one of them might have their umbrella.

The faces were presented against the background of the supermarket aisle. Following another 5-min filler task object search and a questionnaire about their sleep, food and caffeine consumption habits, participants received the recognition and the source monitoring tasks.

In the recognition task, we reminded participants of the pictures they encoded earlier and asked them to indicate whether they had seen each of the faces in either context. Participants indicated if they had or had not seen each face earlier in the experiment. In the source monitoring task, we told participants that, unlike in the previous task, they should only select the faces previously seen in the crime-related context i.

Participants had unlimited time for their decisions. Participants received 5-euro gift vouchers or participation credit for their participation.

We debriefed participants upon the completion of the data collection. One participant was an outlier because they produced zero hits and false alarms on the recognition task and zero false alarms on the source memory task, whereas the proportion of correct responses on the source memory task was high.

We ran all analyses twice, once including the data from this participant and once excluding it. The pattern of results was analogous. We further report the analyses and descriptives including all data but exclude this participant from Signal Detection Theory calculations.

Table 1 presents mean proportion of yes responses to faces from each context across the experimental conditions. We ran a three-way mixed ANOVA to test whether optimality affected recognition performance hypothesis 1 and source monitoring performance hypothesis 2.

Table 2 presents the results. All the other effects were non-significant. These findings lend no support to hypotheses 1 and 2.

Explorative Signal Detection Theory analyses showed that sensitivity i. Similiarly, there was no significant difference between the referring response bias i. We tested whether face recognition and source monitoring performance varies as a function of time of day. The current experiment extends earlier work by investigating the synchrony effect specifically in face recognition.

We hypothesised that face recognition performance would be superior at circadian peaks as opposed to circadian troughs hypothesis 1.

We also expected to find a synchrony effect for source monitoring performance hypothesis 2. Surprisingly, our results show no evidence of such synchrony effect in either test.

Participants performed very similarly across optimal and non-optimal testing sessions. These observations contrast with findings reported in previous studies that used non-facial stimuli to examine synchrony effects in episodic memory performance.

Faces are processed holistically e. For instance, when presented with two faces simultaneously, encoding of one of the faces requires us to suppress processing of features of the other face, whereas this is not the case when we are simultaneously presented with two objects e.

Considering that circadian variations in cognitive performance are generally construed in terms of availability of attentional capacities Valdez, and abilities of efficient allocation of cognitive resources e. From a neuroscientific perspective, face recognition relies on specialized areas of the brain different from areas involved in other types of recognition memory Schwartz, Areas of our brain responsible for memory functioning show oscillations that are autonomous from those generated in the suprachiasmatic nuclei, also known as the central pacemaker of our body.

Even though these peripheral oscillators contribute to daily cycles in memory functioning Snider et al. The divergent pattern of daily fluctuations in face recognition compared to recognition of other types of stimuli could be linked to the fact that peripheral oscillations in the brain areas responsible for face processing function in a different manner.

The combination of brain imaging techniques with the forced desynchrony protocol may offer promising discoveries about these dissociations. Apart from general face recognition performance, we were also interested in potential negative effects of non-optimal testing on source memory. Source memory judgements can be important when eyewitnesses are presented with a suspect who is innocent but nonetheless familiar to them from another non-criminal context.

A failure to do so may result in the misidentification of an innocent person e. At a descriptive level, participants selected faces from the irrelevant context less often at optimal time of day than at non-optimal time of day.

However, this difference was not statistically significant. Because general face recognition performance was also unaffected by testing optimality, we cannot assess whether these data suggest that source monitoring in general is unaffected by circadian variations in arousal.

An experiment that tests source monitoring for non-facial stimuli may provide more comprehensive insight into whether our ability to discriminate encoding contexts can vary as a function of time of day. One limitation of this study concerns overall low performance in the memory tests.

Hit rates were low, though performance in target-absent trials was better, resulting in overall low sensitivity in both optimality conditions with small negative bias.

It seems that participants found the task overall difficult, which may have masked possible effects of time-of-day optimality. Future studies might address this issue by increasing exposure duration, which should result in stronger encoding and better overall performance.

Additionally, collecting confidence ratings and decision time data for recognition and source monitoring decisions in future studies would provide a more sensitive test of potential circadian variations in performance. Future research might include additional tests of cognitive performance along with long-term memory tests, allowing a comparison of time-of-day optimality effects across different cognitive domains.

Another limitation concerns the fact that faces from the crime-related context produced better performance than faces from the neutral context. Crime-related faces were presented first, possibly causing this difference in performance across the two contexts.

Alternatively, participants may have perceived crime-related faces as more important. Even though the differences in memory strength for faces from the two contexts do not compromise our results, counterbalancing the order of contexts in future studies would allow to avoid differences in performance rates resulting from order effects.

Finally, encoding and retrieval in all our experiments took place in the same experimental session. As this experiment is the very first investigation of the synchrony effect in this context, it was most efficient to find out whether the circadian effects can be observed in face recognition performance in the first place.

However, this design does not allow us to assess the effects of non-optimal testing on encoding and retrieval differentially. Future studies may address this issue by separating the two memory stages into different testing sessions and manipulating testing optimality for each of them separately, that is, by employing a testing optimality optimal versus non-optimal x memory stage encoding versus retrieval design.

To conclude, this work provides a first investigation into the possible circadian effects on face recognition performance. The current findings cautiously suggest that face recognition performance may not follow the standard synchrony effect patterns observed in memory for non-facial stimuli.

It remains unclear whether this immunity to daily fluctuations in performance is a result of cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying face processing, which outlines important directions for future research.

and L. designed the experiments. conducted the experiments. analysed the results. wrote the main manuscript text. reviewed the manuscript. We would like to thank Karpenko Mariia, Wedadi Babak, Harrison Jennifer, Reichel Lea, Knöpfel Dido, Völker Maja, Tix Ruth, Vieten Janine, Lück Severina, and Rau Aila for their help in piloting the materials and collecting data.

This research is supported by a fellowship awarded from the Erasmus Mundus Joint Doctorate Program The House of Legal Psychology with Framework Partnership Agreement under Specific Grant Agreement to Sergii Yaremenko.

Sets 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B contained 8 faces each. Each distractor set contained 16 faces. Recipient s will receive an email with a link to 'Circadian Rhythm and Memory Performance: No Time-Of-Day Effect on Face Recognition' and will not need an account to access the content.

Subject: Circadian Rhythm and Memory Performance: No Time-Of-Day Effect on Face Recognition. Sign In or Create an Account. Search Dropdown Menu. header search search input Search input auto suggest. filter your search All Content Collabra: Psychology.

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Skip Nav Destination Close navigation menu Article navigation. Previous Article Next Article. Competing Interests. Author Contributions. Data Accessibility Statement. Article Navigation. Research Article April 16 Circadian Rhythm and Memory Performance: No Time-Of-Day Effect on Face Recognition Collections: Section: Cognitive Psychology.

Sergii Yaremenko , Sergii Yaremenko. This Site. Google Scholar. Melanie Sauerland , Melanie Sauerland. Lorraine Hope Lorraine Hope. yaremenko maastrichtuniversity. Collabra: Psychology 7 1 : Article history Received:. Get Permissions. Cite Icon Cite. toolbar search Search Dropdown Menu.

toolbar search search input Search input auto suggest. View large Download slide. Figure 1. Example of encoding stimuli presented in crime-related context top row and neutral context bottom row. Following a 5-min filler task object search , we introduced the neutral context:. Table 1. Time of testing Context Optimal Non-optimal Recognition task Crime-related.

View Large. Figure 2. Table 2. Factor SS F 1, 89 p η p 2 optimality 0. The authors report no competing interests. Supplementary Table 1. Counterbalancing plan for face stimuli presented during encoding, face recognition and source memory task.

Adan, A. Circadian Typology: A Comprehensive Review. Chronobiology International , 29 9 , — Anderson, M. Individual differences in the effect of time of day on long-term memory access.

The American Journal of Psychology , 2 , — Andrade, M. Correlations between morningness-eveningness character, sleep habits and temperature rhythm in adolescents. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 25 , —

Circadian Rhythms Explained from a Wellness & Fitness Perspective

conducted the experiments. analysed the results. wrote the main manuscript text. reviewed the manuscript. We would like to thank Karpenko Mariia, Wedadi Babak, Harrison Jennifer, Reichel Lea, Knöpfel Dido, Völker Maja, Tix Ruth, Vieten Janine, Lück Severina, and Rau Aila for their help in piloting the materials and collecting data.

This research is supported by a fellowship awarded from the Erasmus Mundus Joint Doctorate Program The House of Legal Psychology with Framework Partnership Agreement under Specific Grant Agreement to Sergii Yaremenko. Sets 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B contained 8 faces each.

Each distractor set contained 16 faces. Recipient s will receive an email with a link to 'Circadian Rhythm and Memory Performance: No Time-Of-Day Effect on Face Recognition' and will not need an account to access the content.

Subject: Circadian Rhythm and Memory Performance: No Time-Of-Day Effect on Face Recognition. Sign In or Create an Account.

Search Dropdown Menu. header search search input Search input auto suggest. filter your search All Content Collabra: Psychology. User Tools Dropdown. Sign In.

Toggle Menu Menu Content Recent Content Special Collections All Content Alerts Submit Authors Submission Guidelines Publication Fees Journal Policies About Journal Editorial Team Contact Us.

Skip Nav Destination Close navigation menu Article navigation. Previous Article Next Article. Competing Interests. Author Contributions. Data Accessibility Statement. Article Navigation. Research Article April 16 Circadian Rhythm and Memory Performance: No Time-Of-Day Effect on Face Recognition Collections: Section: Cognitive Psychology.

Sergii Yaremenko , Sergii Yaremenko. This Site. Google Scholar. Melanie Sauerland , Melanie Sauerland. Lorraine Hope Lorraine Hope. yaremenko maastrichtuniversity. Collabra: Psychology 7 1 : Article history Received:. Get Permissions. Cite Icon Cite.

toolbar search Search Dropdown Menu. toolbar search search input Search input auto suggest. View large Download slide.

Figure 1. Example of encoding stimuli presented in crime-related context top row and neutral context bottom row. Following a 5-min filler task object search , we introduced the neutral context:.

Table 1. Time of testing Context Optimal Non-optimal Recognition task Crime-related. View Large. Figure 2. Table 2. Factor SS F 1, 89 p η p 2 optimality 0. The authors report no competing interests.

Supplementary Table 1. Counterbalancing plan for face stimuli presented during encoding, face recognition and source memory task. Adan, A. Circadian Typology: A Comprehensive Review. Chronobiology International , 29 9 , — Anderson, M. Individual differences in the effect of time of day on long-term memory access.

The American Journal of Psychology , 2 , — Andrade, M. Correlations between morningness-eveningness character, sleep habits and temperature rhythm in adolescents. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 25 , — Baehr, E. Individual differences in the phase and amplitude of the human circadian temperature rhythm: With an emphasis on morningness-eveningness.

Journal of Sleep Research , 9 2 , — Bailey, S. Circadian rhythmicity of cortisol and body temperature: Morningness-eveningness effects. Chronobiology International , 18 2 , — Benjamin, A. Parallel effects of aging and time pressure on memory for source: Evidence from the spacing effect.

Bindemann, M. A bottleneck in face identification: Repetition priming from flanker images. Experimental Psychology , 54 3 , — Boutet, I. Multistability of overlapped face stimuli is dependent upon orientation. Perception , 30 6 , — Brackmann, N. Developmental trends in lineup performance: Adolescents are more prone to innocent bystander misidentifications than children and adults.

Bruce, V. Face perception. Psychology Press. Burton, A. Why has research in face recognition progressed so slowly? The importance of variability. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology , 66 8 , — Deffenbacher, K. Mugshot exposure effects: Retroactive interference, mugshot commitment, source confusion, and unconscious transference.

Law and Human Behavior , 30 3 , — Duffy, J. Association of intrinsic circadian period with morningness—eveningness, usual wake time, and circadian phase. Behavioral Neuroscience , 4 , — Faul, F. Behavior Research Methods , 41 4 , — Behavior Research Methods , 39 2 , — Fitzgerald, R. Eyewitness identification across the life span: A meta-analysis of age differences.

Psychological Bulletin , 6 , — Goldstein, D. Time of day, intellectual performance, and behavioral problems in Morning versus Evening type adolescents: Is there a synchrony effect? Personality and Individual Differences , 42 3 , — Green, D. Signal detection theory and psychophysics. Halberg, F.

Transdisciplinary unifying implications of circadian findings in the s. Journal of Circadian Rhythms , 1 , 2. Hasher, L. Automatic and effortful processes in memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General , 3 , — Automatic processing of fundamental information: The case of frequency of occurrence.

American Psychologist , 39 12 , — Haxby, J. Distributed and overlapping representations of faces and objects in ventral temporal cortex. Science , , — Hirst, W. Characterizing attentional resources.

Journal of Experimental Psychology: General , 1 , 68— Horne, J. A self-assessment questionnaire to determine morningness-eveningness in human circadian rhythms.

International Journal of Chronobiology , 4 , 97— Intons-Peterson, M. Age, testing at preferred or nonpreferred times testing optimality , and false memory.

Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition , 25 1 , 23— Johnson, M. Source monitoring. Psychological Bulletin , 1 , 3— Kanwisher, N. The fusiform face area: A module in human extrastriate cortex specialized for face perception.

The Journal of Neuroscience , 17 11 , — Levandovski, R. Chronotype: A review of the advances, limits and applicability of the main instruments used in the literature to assess human phenotype.

Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy , 35 1 , 3— Lindsay, D. Autobiographical memory, eyewitness reports, and public policy. Lundqvist, D. The Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces - KDEF [CD ROM]. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychology section, Karolinska Institutet.

Macmillan, N. Detection theory. An irregular routine can negatively affect metabolic effectiveness and body temperature changes throughout the day. Over time, this may lead to weight gain, stress, and brain fog. Multiple factors can cause desynchrony in the circadian rhythm, like daylight savings or far away travel destinations.

For athletes, the main culprit is often jetlag. The higher the level of competition, the more likely and more frequently athletes will cross multiple time zones to compete. The signals early or delayed from the new environment confuse the circadian clock, causing sleeping problems and hormone fluctuation.

LET'S MOVE Tips and Insights from Performance Experts. Not everyone is equally sensitive to caffeine, so this might take a bit of experimenting on your part to find what caffeine routine works best for you. A healthy functioning circadian rhythm can keep these hormones in check to promote overall health and well-being.

In terms of your health and fitness goals, having proper hormone balance is vital to your overall performance, recovery, and results. Bottom line: While your circadian rhythm does ensure that you get adequate rest, it also regulates physiological function during the day so that you can think, move, and function well.

The more closely you can align your schedule with your body clock, the better off you will be! Kim, T. The Impact of Sleep and Circadian Disturbance on Hormones and Metabolism. International Journal of Endocrinology, , 1—9. Circadian rhythms. National Institutes of Health.

Kinsey Mahaffey, MPH, is a Houston-based fitness educator, personal trainer and health coach who developed her commitment to lifelong fitness while playing Division I volleyball. You can follow her on LinkedIn here.

org Fitness CPT Nutrition CES Sports Performance Workout Plans Wellness. Which Processes does the Circadian Rhythm Affect? What Happens If Your Circadian Rhythm is Out of Whack? What Hormones Are Affected by Circadian Rhythms?

References: Kim, T. The Author. Kinsey Mahaffey Kinsey Mahaffey, MPH, is a Houston-based fitness educator, personal trainer and health coach who developed her commitment to lifelong fitness while playing Division I volleyball.

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Which Processes does the Circadian Rhythm Affect?

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The circadian system affects physiological, psychological, and molecular mechanisms in the body, resulting in varying physical performance over the day. The timing and relative size of these effects are important for optimizing sport performance.

In this study, Olympic swim times from to were used to determine time-of-day and circadian effects under maximal motivational conditions. Normalized swim times were analyzed with a linear mixed model and a sine fitted model.

Swim performance was better during finals as compared to semi-finals and heats. Performance was strongly affected by time-of-day, showing fastest swim times in the late afternoon around h, indicating 0. This study reveals clear effects of time-of-day on physical performance in Olympic athletes.

Circadian rhythms, regulated by the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus SCN , influence many aspects associated with physiological performance, such as muscle strength 1 , and muscle flexibility 2 , in addition to perceptual and cognitive aspects of performance 3.

Strong correlations between physical performance and circadian variation in core body temperature CBT have been assessed, with optimal physical performance coinciding with the peak in CBT in the early evening 4 , 5 , 6 , 7.

Passive heating of muscles improves physical performance, indicating that either thermoregulation 8 , muscle temperature 9 , 10 or both influence physical performance, although other factors such as insulin, cortisol, total and free testosterone, oxygen uptake, glucose, growth hormone, norepinephrine 11 , and melatonin release 8 also play a role Depending on the type of exercise e.

short-term or long-term, aerobic or anaerobic, individual sport or team sport , the involvement of psychological aspects e. motivation, concentration , external conditions e. cold vs. hot environments , and time-of-day effects on physical performance vary 8 , 13 , Studies investigating these effects on elite athletes during high-level competitions are scarce.

The Olympic venues are leading international sporting events, with thousands of athletes from around the world. The country selected to host the Olympics, sometimes adjusts race times to accommodate prime-broadcasting times in other continents.

As a result, athletes are often required to perform at different, and sometimes unusual, times of day. This variation can be used to analyze time-of-day effects on physical performance in professional, extremely motivated male and female athletes. The goal of this study was to determine if Olympic athletes are affected by circadian fluctuations in physical performance, by analyzing Olympic swim data from the Games of Athens , Beijing , London and Rio de Janeiro Swimming requires minimal aiding materials such as bikes, shoes that could induce variation within and between athletes, and water temperature is mandated to vary within 25 to 28 degrees Celsius by the Fédération internationale de natation , which forces water temperatures to be within the same range between Olympic venues.

Swimming is therefore less likely to be influenced by confounding environmental effects such as environmental temperature, humidity, wind etc. muscle performance. Our results can lead to strategies to significantly improve individual swimming performance.

Data analysis on within subject normalized data revealed that race type significantly affected swim performance Fig. Heats were 0. The percentage difference in swim times between heats and finals in Beijing 0.

A major difference between those Games is that the finals in Beijing were held at about the time of the heats in London and Athens, while the heats in Beijing were held at about the time of the finals in London and Athens.

This scheduling difference is an interesting opportunity to disentangle motivation faster swim times in the finals from possible time-of-day effects.

In fact, if time-of-day did not play a role, one would expect the same percentage difference in swim times between heats and finals in Beijing as in Athens and London.

To test for time-of-day effects we fitted a sine model. Normalized swim scores of Olympic venues in Athens A , E , Beijing B , F , London C , G and Rio de Janeiro D , H.

Top row A — D indicates male finish times, while bottom row E — H depicts finish times of female athletes. The sine fitted model Fig. There was no significant difference depending on sex, therefore the same sine wave was plotted for both males and females see Supplemental Digital Content, Fig.

S1 for the data plotted separately for males and females. Olympic swim performance depends on time-of-day.

Residual variation of individually normalized data of heats, semi-finals and finals corrected for intercept, type of race, Olympic venue, and individual differences, as quantified by a linear mixed model , was fitted by a h period sine function and plotted against local time at the Olympic venue location h.

A Data collected during heats green , semi-finals orange and finals red. B Black dots indicate average finish times in 3-h bins B. The amplitude range of the fitted sine wave representing the effects of time-of-day is 0. The current analysis reveals that Olympic athletes always perform better in finals compared to semi-finals and heats probably due to motivational differences and that physical performance assessed in Olympic athletes was significantly affected by time-of-day.

Best performance was determined in the late afternoon. Physical performance is therefore not determined by training only, but also by the endogenous circadian system.

Some studies indicate that physical performance at a specific time-of-day can improve after repeatedly training at that time-of-day, suggesting that the trough observed in morning performance can be partially counteracted This time-of-day effect may depend on CBT levels.

On one hand, cold water immersion in the afternoon decreases CBT levels to morning levels, as well as it decreases evening- to morning performance levels.

On the other hand, passive increase i. variation in environmental temperature in CBT rescues impaired morning performance 8 , 12 , 18 , similar to hot water immersion 12 and active warm-up 19 , 20 , that also improve time-of-day related decrements in performance, by increasing CBT or muscle temperature levels.

Internal clock time also influences physical performance, causing early chronotypes to perform best around mid-day, intermediate chronotypes around mid-afternoon, and late chronotypes in the evening It is therefore possible that morning races benefit early types, while evening races benefit later types.

Swim training times are often scheduled in the early morning, therefore a selection bias towards earlier chronotypes can exist, as has been determined in other sports Later chronotypes are also associated with more diurnal variation in performance, which might cause an additional selection pressure towards earlier chronotypes, particularly in Olympic athletes The optimal performance peak in finish times analyzed here occurs relatively early compared to the peak in CBT timing 1 , 22 , 23 , which may indicate an over-representation of early chronotypes with earlier CBT peak times among Olympic swimmers.

Various circadian rhythms in the body may contribute to time-of-day variation in physical performance. Limb movement speed and muscle strength depend on time-of-day 1 , as well as muscle flexibility and grip strength 2.

Improved performance coincides with lower levels of insulin, cortisol, total and free testosterone, and higher oxygen uptake, aerobic mechanical power output, metabolic rate and concentrations of glucose and growth hormone Moreover, factors such as sleep duration, -quality and sleep inertia influence performance 24 , Here we could not collect data on sleep in athletes prior and during the Olympics and we can therefore not disentangle between circadian and homeostatic effects.

The optimum in physical performance might therefore depend on a complex combination of mental performance, time awake, circadian rhythm in muscle cells and mitochondrial oxygen consumption. The current analysis only includes individuals who made it to the finals, which may have induced a bias to more successful athletes.

Athletes that suffer more from time-of-day effects might have been excluded because they did not reach the finals, resulting in an underestimation of the time-of-day effect.

Shorter recovery time is also associated with impaired physical performance 26 , In London and Athens, heats and semi-finals were scheduled approximately 9 h apart, while in Beijing, recovery time after heats was Yet, differences in performance between heats and semi-finals are smaller in Beijing compared to other Olympic venues, suggesting that time-of-day effects counteracted beneficial effects of longer recovery time, including a night's sleep.

Our analysis concerns only swimmers and therefore generalization to other sports might be difficult. However, we chose to analyze specifically this sport because swimming requires minimal aiding materials such as bikes or shoes that could induce variation within and between athletes, while water temperature varies within a relatively narrow range, further minimizing confounding factors.

In addition, swimming employs muscles in both arms and legs. Since there is no indication that muscle clocks differ over the body between arms and legs, we expect that this circadian effect on swim performance is actually reflecting a general variation over the day in muscle performance, and could therefore affect other sport performance in a similar manner.

In upcoming Olympic venues, swimmers and other athletes may have to perform at times of day that do not coincide with their circadian peak performance. Athens Olympic swim schedules were analyzed using Eastern Standard Time, Beijing swim schedules using China Standard Time, London swimming schedules using Greenwich Mean Time, and Rio de Janeiro using Brasilia Standard Time.

Olympic swim contests exist of three race types: heats varying number of competing athletes , from which the 16 fastest finish times can partake in semi-finals, after which the 8 highest ranked athletes participate in finals. To ensure a homogenous sample of athletes, only athletes that qualified for the finals were included, resulting in a total of athletes 72 female per Olympic venue.

The breakdown of athletes per Olympic venue can be found in Fig. Data of all four Olympic venues consisted of four different strokes in two or three distances, resulting in nine different combinations: backstroke and m , breaststroke and m , butterfly and m , and freestyle 50, , and m.

Both at the Olympic venue of Athens and Beijing, one finalist was disqualified at the m breaststroke and m freestyle respectively , resulting in inclusion of data points in total for the current analysis. To exclude effects of novel training methods, techniques and equipment e.

shark suits used in Beijing 28 , data were normalized as follows: first the average swim time over race type heats, semifinal and final , was calculated per individual, stroke, distance, and per Olympic venue; then the percentage difference between each race swim time heat, semifinal and final and the average swim time was calculated for each combination of stroke and distance.

This normalization method allowed for inclusion of all available swim strokes and distances in a single linear mixed model. To assess differences between race type, normalized swim scores were plotted separately for heats, semi-finals and finals per Olympic venue.

To accommodate differences in race timing finals in the morning in Beijing, whereas held in the evening in Athens and London , we compared swim times between all four Olympics venues in a linear model R-studio, version 1.

Subject identity was included as random effect, to control for between-subject variation. To visualize time-of-day effects, the residual variation after subtraction of the components race type, Olympic venue, individual, and intercept of the linear mixed model from the normalized data was calculated.

This residual variation was plotted against local time at Olympic venue h and the sine function that resulted from the linear mixed model was plotted through the data.

Over time, this may lead to weight gain, stress, and brain fog. Multiple factors can cause desynchrony in the circadian rhythm, like daylight savings or far away travel destinations. For athletes, the main culprit is often jetlag. The higher the level of competition, the more likely and more frequently athletes will cross multiple time zones to compete.

The signals early or delayed from the new environment confuse the circadian clock, causing sleeping problems and hormone fluctuation. LET'S MOVE Tips and Insights from Performance Experts. php on line 71 For athletes, routines are essential to their success.

Competing Interests. Author Contributions. Data Accessibility Statement. Article Navigation. Research Article April 16 Circadian Rhythm and Memory Performance: No Time-Of-Day Effect on Face Recognition Collections: Section: Cognitive Psychology.

Sergii Yaremenko , Sergii Yaremenko. This Site. Google Scholar. Melanie Sauerland , Melanie Sauerland. Lorraine Hope Lorraine Hope. yaremenko maastrichtuniversity. Collabra: Psychology 7 1 : Article history Received:.

Get Permissions. Cite Icon Cite. toolbar search Search Dropdown Menu. toolbar search search input Search input auto suggest. View large Download slide. Figure 1. Example of encoding stimuli presented in crime-related context top row and neutral context bottom row.

Following a 5-min filler task object search , we introduced the neutral context:. Table 1. Time of testing Context Optimal Non-optimal Recognition task Crime-related. View Large. Figure 2. Table 2. Factor SS F 1, 89 p η p 2 optimality 0.

The authors report no competing interests. Supplementary Table 1. Counterbalancing plan for face stimuli presented during encoding, face recognition and source memory task. Adan, A. Circadian Typology: A Comprehensive Review. Chronobiology International , 29 9 , — Anderson, M.

Individual differences in the effect of time of day on long-term memory access. The American Journal of Psychology , 2 , — Andrade, M.

Correlations between morningness-eveningness character, sleep habits and temperature rhythm in adolescents. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 25 , — Baehr, E. Individual differences in the phase and amplitude of the human circadian temperature rhythm: With an emphasis on morningness-eveningness.

Journal of Sleep Research , 9 2 , — Bailey, S. Circadian rhythmicity of cortisol and body temperature: Morningness-eveningness effects. Chronobiology International , 18 2 , — Benjamin, A.

Parallel effects of aging and time pressure on memory for source: Evidence from the spacing effect. Bindemann, M. A bottleneck in face identification: Repetition priming from flanker images.

Experimental Psychology , 54 3 , — Boutet, I. Multistability of overlapped face stimuli is dependent upon orientation. Perception , 30 6 , — Brackmann, N.

Developmental trends in lineup performance: Adolescents are more prone to innocent bystander misidentifications than children and adults. Bruce, V. Face perception. Psychology Press. Burton, A. Why has research in face recognition progressed so slowly? The importance of variability.

Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology , 66 8 , — Deffenbacher, K. Mugshot exposure effects: Retroactive interference, mugshot commitment, source confusion, and unconscious transference.

Law and Human Behavior , 30 3 , — Duffy, J. Association of intrinsic circadian period with morningness—eveningness, usual wake time, and circadian phase.

Behavioral Neuroscience , 4 , — Faul, F. Behavior Research Methods , 41 4 , — Behavior Research Methods , 39 2 , — Fitzgerald, R. Eyewitness identification across the life span: A meta-analysis of age differences.

Psychological Bulletin , 6 , — Goldstein, D. Time of day, intellectual performance, and behavioral problems in Morning versus Evening type adolescents: Is there a synchrony effect?

Personality and Individual Differences , 42 3 , — Green, D. Signal detection theory and psychophysics. Halberg, F.

Transdisciplinary unifying implications of circadian findings in the s. Journal of Circadian Rhythms , 1 , 2.

Hasher, L. Automatic and effortful processes in memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General , 3 , — Automatic processing of fundamental information: The case of frequency of occurrence. American Psychologist , 39 12 , — Haxby, J.

Distributed and overlapping representations of faces and objects in ventral temporal cortex. Science , , — Hirst, W. Characterizing attentional resources. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General , 1 , 68— Horne, J.

A self-assessment questionnaire to determine morningness-eveningness in human circadian rhythms. International Journal of Chronobiology , 4 , 97— Intons-Peterson, M.

Age, testing at preferred or nonpreferred times testing optimality , and false memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition , 25 1 , 23— Johnson, M. Source monitoring. Psychological Bulletin , 1 , 3— Kanwisher, N. The fusiform face area: A module in human extrastriate cortex specialized for face perception.

The Journal of Neuroscience , 17 11 , — Levandovski, R. Chronotype: A review of the advances, limits and applicability of the main instruments used in the literature to assess human phenotype. Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy , 35 1 , 3— Lindsay, D.

Autobiographical memory, eyewitness reports, and public policy. Lundqvist, D. The Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces - KDEF [CD ROM]. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychology section, Karolinska Institutet. Macmillan, N. Detection theory.

May, C. Synchrony effects in cognition: The costs and a benefit. Synchrony effects in inhibitory control over thought and action. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance , 24 2 , — Implicit memory, age, and time of day: Paradoxical priming effects.

Psychological Science , 16 2 , 96— Optimal time of day and the magnitude of age differences in memory. Psychological Science , 4 5 , — Mitchell, K. Source monitoring 15 years later: What have we learned from fMRI about the neural mechanisms of source memory?

Psychological Bulletin , 4 , — Necka, E. Matthews Ed. Nowack, K. The synchrony effect revisited: Chronotype, time of day and cognitive performance in a semantic analogy task. Chronobiology International , 36 , — Palermo, R. The influence of divided attention on holistic face perception.

Cognition , 82 3 , —

About this Research Topic J Phys Fitness Sports Med. Google Scholar Facer-Childs, E. Rights and permissions Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4. Google Scholar Racinais, S. Here, we find significantly different diurnal variation profiles between ECTs and LCTs, for daytime sleepiness, psychomotor vigilance, executive function and isometric grip strength.
How the Circadian Rhythm Impacts Athletic Performance – Accel Performance Performance on long-term memory rhjthm also ghythm the standard synchrony effect pattern, perfrmance Fat oxidation pathways in the body performance at Diabetic retinopathy stages peaks as opposed to circadian troughs. BMC Sports Sci. Our study showed that ECTs performed their best MVC at h, whereas the peak for LCTs was at h Fig. May, C. for the assay reagents.
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