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Anthocyanins and metabolism boosting

Anthocyanins and metabolism boosting

Natural energy and fat burner composition in Antthocyanins, blue, pink, purple, and red cereal grains. Scientific Reports, 8 wndBlood sugar crash dizziness Ethics declarations Ethics approval and consent to participate The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Sun Yat-sen University No. Supplementary Information. The oral administration of C3G improved key parameters indicating insulin sensitivity in mice. Anthocyanins and metabolism boosting

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Kyunggido, Korea , and PPARα-deficient mice were purchased from Taconic Hudson, NY, USA. Male mice were used in the experiments.

Animal Inc. Body weight was assessed weekly. All animal experiments were performed according to a protocol approved by the Animal Experiment Committee of Korea University Protocol No.

Sample preparation and detailed methods for CE-MS and GC-TOF-MS are presented in the Supplementary Methods. Statistical analysis was performed with GraphPad Prism 8.

For metabolomic analysis, ANOVA was performed using SPSS Version PCA and PLSR were used to distinguish different diets on the basis of the content of metabolites in samples and to explore the correlations between metabolites and obesity-related biochemical parameters.

Further information on research design is available in the Nature Research Reporting Summary linked to this article. Source data underlying plots shown in figures are available in Supplementary Data 1.

Full blots are shown in Supplementary Information. Additional data related to this paper are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request. Olivas-Aguirre, F.

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Download references. This work was supported by a National Research Foundation of Korea NRF grants funded by the Korean government MSIT Grant Nos. This research was supported by the School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology for BK21 PLUS, Korea University.

Department of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, BK21 PLUS. Korea University, Seoul, , Republic of Korea. Department of Food Science and Engineering, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, , Republic of Korea. School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, , Republic of Korea.

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. conceived the study; Y. designed experiments; S. and M. performed metabolomic analysis; Y.

performed indirect calorimetry and fatty acid oxidation experiments; J. performed glucose uptake and gene expression experiments; Y. performed immunoblotting analysis; Y. performed animal experiments; Y. and T. performed and interpreted ligand activity assays. wrote the manuscript.

Correspondence to Sung-Joon Lee. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4. Reprints and permissions. A dietary anthocyanin cyanidin O -glucoside binds to PPARs to regulate glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in mice.

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Abstract We demonstrate the mechanism by which C3G, a major dietary anthocyanin, regulates energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Introduction Cyanidin O -glucoside C3G is a major flavonoid anthocyanin in plant-based foods, such as leafy vegetables, berries, red cabbages, teas, and coloured grains 1 , 2.

Results C3G reduced dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in HFD-fed mice First, we performed mouse feeding studies with oral administration of C3G to mice fed a high-fat diet HFD. Full size image. Table 1 Major liver metabolites from mice fed a HFD and C3G for 8 weeks using CE-MS and GC-TOF-MS.

Full size table. Discussion Several reports have also revealed the diverse biological activities of cyanidin aglycone and C3G, including the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism, oxidative stress, and inflammation 1 , 18 , 19 ; however, none of these studies have clearly demonstrated the direct molecular targets of C3G.

Methods Materials and reagents Commercially available materials and reagents are listed in Supplementary Table 5. Metabolomic analysis Sample preparation and detailed methods for CE-MS and GC-TOF-MS are presented in the Supplementary Methods. Reporting summary Further information on research design is available in the Nature Research Reporting Summary linked to this article.

Data availability Source data underlying plots shown in figures are available in Supplementary Data 1. References Olivas-Aguirre, F.

Article PubMed Central CAS Google Scholar Deng, G. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Yang, L. Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar van Dam, R. Article PubMed CAS Google Scholar Kimble, R. Google Scholar Guo, X. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Grosso, G.

Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Cassidy, A. Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Winkel-Shirley, B. Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Zhao, J. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Czank, C.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Rakic, V. Article Google Scholar Higgs, G. CAS PubMed Google Scholar Yuan, M. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Hawley, S. Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Kimura, I. Article PubMed CAS Google Scholar Aisenberg, W. Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Khoo, H.

Article PubMed PubMed Central CAS Google Scholar Rozanska, D. Article PubMed Google Scholar Zhang, J. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Fan, W. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Hondares, E. Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Hiukka, A.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Jeremic, N. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Ahmadian, M. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Moller, D.

Article CAS Google Scholar Yamazaki, T. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Scazzocchio, B. Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Takashina, Y. Article CAS PubMed Central Google Scholar Chypre, M. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Salie, M. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Festuccia, W.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Pooyandjoo, M. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Honda, T. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Tutunchi, H. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar de Ferrars, R. Article PubMed PubMed Central CAS Google Scholar Hassimotto, N. Bee-pollination species are more abundant in plants such as Primulaceae containing delphinidine-anthocyanins, while other anthocyanins are preferred by wasps or birds.

Cyaninidinglucoside, a common anthocyanin, protects the plant against some larvae. Other anthocyanins have similar activities. As an antioxidant, anthocyanins protect plants from free radicals formed by daylight or plant degradation that break down DNA and cause cell death.

There are indications that anthocyanins promote health as antioxidants, reducing the risk of chronic heart disease, improving visual and antiviral activity. However, these claims have not been scientifically proven. Natural colorants for food and nutraceutical uses.

CRC press. Obesity, defined as the increase in adipose tissue, occurs as a result of disturbance in energy balance, and is an important health problem that is rapidly increasing all over the world Krassas et al. Self-reported prevalence of obesity among 20, adults from large territories of Greece, Serbia and Turkey.

Hormones Athens, Greece , 2 1 , Insulin resistance IR is associated with many metabolic disorders including impaired insulin releasing, non-insulin dependent diabetes, cardiovascular diseases hypertension and dyslipidemia etc.

However, with the pathogenesis of IR developing in obesity related mechanisms are not fully understood Lee et al.

Association between serum leptin and adiponectin levels with risk of insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance in non-diabetic women. The Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences, 25 3 , Insulin and glucagon levels of glucose in equilibrium is a narrow range under normal physiological conditions.

It was thought to have been managed. Today this understanding the presence of a more complex multihormonal system has changed direction. Both glucose metabolism this multihormonal regulates both food intake and insulin and amylin released from the pancreas, glucagon-like peptide-1 GLP-1 , ghrelin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide GIP secreted from the intestinal tract, adipokines leptin, adiponectin, visfatin, resistin and adipsin secreted from adipose tissue have an important place Aronoff et al.

Glucose metabolism and regulation: beyond insulin and glucagon. Diabetes Spectrum, 17 3 , The mechanisms involved in preventing obesity due to anthocyanins can be classified under five pathways. These mechanisms are inhibition of lipid absorption, increasing of energy expenditure, regulation of lipid metabolism, regulation of gut microbiota and controlling of food intake.

The mechanisms led to anti-obesity effect and their interactions connected with obesity metabolism have investigated by in vitro experiments and clinical trials with test animals Table 1. The hunger is controlled by hypothalamus present in the human brain.

The neurons available in the hypothalamus are responsible for controlling food intake and energy expenditure. There are two specific neuron types in the hypothalamus: anorexigenic or appetite-suppressing Pro-opiomelanocortin neurons 1 and orexigenic or appetite provocative neuropeptide Agouti-related peptide neurons 2.

Brain regulation of energy metabolism. Endocrinology and Metabolism Seoul, Korea , 31 4 , The level of gastrointestinal satiety is controlled by the main signal produced from the digestive tract. Thus, a full stomach and intestine provoke satiety, by means of the vagus nerve connecting to the hypothalamus.

Furthermore, the enteric hormone cholecystokinin induces satiety, while the hormone ghrelin stimulates the appetite. When the level of nutrients such as amino acids and glucose are increased in the blood, concentrations of the hormones such as cholecystokinin, insulin, and glucagon are elevated Ştefănescu Braic et al.

Vaccinium Extracts as Modulators in Experimental Type 1 Diabetes. Journal of Medicinal Food, 21 11 , Raspberry alleviates obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle through activation of AMP-activated protein kinase AMPK α1. Food intake is essentially controlled by the the hormones named insulin, and ghrelin with cholecystokinin in the body.

Insulin, ghrelin and cholecystokinin with glucagon-like peptide-1 GLP-1 are released by the signals produced from adipose tissue, pancreas and digestive tract stomach and intestine , respectively Ştefănescu Braic et al.

The main inhibition effect of the pancreatic lipase enzyme is preventing lipid absorption. This mechanism is mainly depended on decreasing energy intake into the body.

Over-consumption of fat during daily diet causes mainly hyperlipidemia and triggers to increase the weight of adipose tissue. In addition, the occurrence of some significant metabolic diseases is related to the increase in fat tissue.

Pancreatic lipase enzyme is required for the dietary fat absorption. Therefore, it is important to inhibit pancreatic lipase enzyme in order to reduce obesity development Vijayaraj et al.

Journal of Food Biochemistry, 43 3 , e Anthocyanin-rich fruits and vegetables contain significant anthocyanins that are able to inhibit pancreatic lipase enzyme, thus, some fruits and vegetables rich in anthocyanins have significant effects on preventing obesity. Due to, high content of anthocyanin, it has been declared that many fruits such as pomegranate and blood orange, have a very high pancreatic lipase inhibiting activity Xie et al.

Recent advances in understanding the anti-obesity activity of anthocyanins and their biosynthesis in microorganisms. In the research in which the effect of litchi flower extract in the Mediterranean diet containing anthocyanin-rich fruit and vegetables was investigated, it was determined that the extract samples have a suppressive effect on pancreatic lipase.

In the researches in which some anthocyanin-containing fruits were used, it was found that pomegranate and blood orange juices have significant pancreatic lipase inhibition due to the high anthocyanin content Chen et al. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of anthocyanins extract from black soybean seed coat in high fat diet and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

In another research, black rice extract containing cyanidin 3-glucoside and peonidin 3-glucoside anthocyanins in the arrest of cholesterol absorption in Caco-2 cells has been tested. It has also been observed that the adsorption by dose-dependent recombinant actions has also been reduced by the two anthocyanins tested.

The hypolipidemic activity of cyanidin 3-glucoside was determined, is caused by its regulatory role on the lipogenic enzymes available in hypercholesterolemic erythrocytes Chen et al. Potential role of cyanidin 3-glucoside C3G in diabetic cardiomyopathy in diabetic rats: an in vivo approach.

Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 25 3 , The main mechanism of this enzyme on energy metabolism is to increase energy expenditure in the cell.

The mechanism is mainly based on the stimulation of fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis. Activated protein kinase enzyme is one of the most significant enzymes that play a role in the energy balance of the human body. The main action of activated protein kinase enzyme is to preventing of triglyceride synthesis, stimulating fatty acid oxidation and exposing of energy due to accelerated reactions seen in the mitochondria Chen et al.

As known, energy expenditure is managed by mitochondria in the cell structure. Activated protein kinase enzyme AMPK is the main factor to control signals responsible for obtaining energy.

AMPK: mechanisms of cellular energy sensing and restoration of metabolic balance. Molecular Cell, 66 6 , The mission of AMPK in the cell is inhibition of the lipid metabolism. The inhibition of lipid metabolism occurs via provoking the metabolic stress and the formation of cytokines which are formed by adipocytes such as adiponectin and leptin.

In addition, AMPK enzyme prevents triglyceride synthesis, increases fatty acid oxidation and provokes the mitochondrial cycle.

Therefore, if the AMPK enzyme is activated, hypertriglyceridemia and deposition of triglycerides in the muscle tissue and liver decrease. There are also uncoupled mitochondrial proteins regulate thermogenesis which is the process of heat production in the organism Chen et al.

Blackcurrant extract ameliorates hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetic mice in association with increased basal secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase.

Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, 64 4 , Theoretical model and characteristics of mitochondrial thermogenesis. Biophysics Reports, 4 2 , At the end of the observation period, fat tissue ratio and weight gain, blood cholesterol, and triglyceride levels decreased compared to the control group fed with black carrot extracts, black carrot fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum and black carrot fermented with Aspergillus oryzae.

It has been mentioned that AMPK pAMPK and Acetyl CoA carboxylase are responsible for the positive changes Park et al. Aronia melanocarpa extract ameliorates hepatic lipid metabolism through PPARγ2 downregulation.

PLoS One, 12 1 , e Some proteins in the mitochondria present in the fat tissues are responsible for the thermogenesis. Thermogenesis is a metabolic process during which the human body burns calories which are obtained from energy compounds to produce heat Kang, Kang, J.

MiRp regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and thermogenesis through PGC1-α signalling in beige adipocytes. Scientific Reports, 8 1 , In the mice fed with black soybean extract including the anthocyanins listed as 6.

Uncoupling protein 1 UCP-1 in brown adipose tissue and uncoupling protein 2 UCP-2 in white adipose tissue are the proteins playing role in the mitochondrial cycle and have been shown to regulate protein expression levels and genes Kanamoto et al.

A black soybean seed coat extract prevents obesity and glucose intolerance by up-regulating uncoupling proteins and down-regulating inflammatory cytokines in high-fat diet-fed mice.

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59 16 , Furthermore, it was seen that the hepatic triglyceride accumulation and serum lipids are lowered. Anthocyanin fraction led to an increase in AMPK phosphorylation and a decrease in the levels of SREBP-1, ACC, and FAS Hwang et al. Purple sweet potato anthocyanins attenuate hepatic lipid accumulation through activating adenosine monophosphate—activated protein kinase in human HepG2 cells and obese mice.

Nutrition Research New York, N. If the amount of energy-giving compounds in the body is higher than the consumption of those compounds, the fat accumulation in the body is unavoidable. Therefore, lipid metabolism should be sustained in balance.

Two enzymes as acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase are significant players in the regulation of lipid metabolism Chen et al. In the regulation of lipid metabolism, lipolysis and lipogenesis are major active mechanisms. If lipolysis does not remain in force effectively, dyslipidemia occurs.

The lipolysis causes to reduce fat deposition while lipogenesis leads to fat accumulation. The fatty acids formed as a result of lipolysis are the compounds open to oxidation. As declared in recently, lipid metabolism can directly be influenced by the anthocyanins available in the diet.

It has been observed that fatty acid compositions in rats fed with black soybean were changed and decreased. It was seen that this decrease in the level of fatty acids can help to prevent the inflammation in the body Sato et al.

Black soybean extract reduces fatty acid contents in subcutaneous, but not in visceral adipose triglyceride in high-fat fed rats. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 66 5 , Adzuki bean ameliorates hepatic lipogenesis and proinflammatory mediator expression in mice fed a high-cholesterol and high-fat diet to induce nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

The role of anthocyanins on obesity is significant due to the regulating effect on lipid metabolism. Black carrot fermented with Aspergillus oryzae and cranberry extract has been found to reduce gene and mRNA expression in the oxidation mechanism for fatty acids and enzyme fatty acid synthase Lemecha et al.

Cheng et al. Nutrition Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif. In another study made with mice fed by Queen Garnet juice and a pure cyanidin-3 glucoside, it has been determined that both of the diets caused to reduce the abnormal metabolic reactions due to high-fat consumption Bhaswant et al.

Cyanidin 3-glucoside improves diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats. Pharmacological Research, , Sweet cherry is a fruit that mainly contains anthocyanins including cyanidin 3-rutinoside, cyanidin 3- 2G-glucosyl-rutinoside and pelargonidin 3-rutinoside. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 65 3 , Anti-obesity effects of artificial planting blueberry Vaccinium ashei anthocyanin in high-fat diet-treated mice.

International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 67 3 , Fat accumulation and inflammation are the changes that cause damage in glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. That's why disrupted glucose metabolism leads to an increase in tissue damage and inflammation. Finally, endothelial dysfunction occurs Frueh et al.

Systems biology of the functional and dysfunctional endothelium. Cardiovascular Research, 99 2 , The anti-diabetic role of anthocyanins is based on the inhibition of some enzymes such as α -glucosidase and α -amylase available in the pancreas Kalita et al.

Inhibition of α-glucosidase, α-amylase, and aldose reductase by potato polyphenolic compounds. PLoS One, 13 1 , e The anti-diabetic effect of anthocyanins can be seen just like traditional anti-diabetic drugs. In their activation mechanisms, the carbohydrate digestion is being prevented in the gut by reducing the level of glucose available in the blood.

Anthocyanins mainly including cyanidin, delphinidin, pelargonidin, and petunidin glycosides have inhibition effect on the enzymes that response from the digestion of the carbohydrates Belwal et al. Dietary anthocyanins and insulin resistance: When food becomes a medicine.

Nutrients, 9 10 , In recent years, comprehensive studies regarding insulin resistance on human adipocytes cells 3T3-L1 , muscle cells L6 myotubes , β -cells and satellite cells available in the rodents pancreas, the rat liver cells H4IIE and the hepatocytes HepG2 cells , have been done in-vitro conditions Belwal et al.

It has been found that anthocyanins can lead to raising glucose level and insulin sensitivity in the adipose tissues and the muscles, and thus can regulate insulin resistance for diabetics.

Furthermore, anthocyanins can suppress the lipogenic factors that play an effective role in the adipocyte cells Scazzocchio et al. CyanidinO-β-glucoside and protocatechuic acid exert insulin-like effects by upregulating PPARγ activity in human omental adipocytes.

Diabetes, 60 9 , Leptin plays a significant role among these neuron cells. The main hormone related to satiety is leptin. Leptin is synthesized and secreted mainly by fat cells called adipocytes of the white adipose tissue. Its main function is regulating energy balance.

The leptin receptors are mainly found in the hypothalamus, which is known to act in controlling metabolic rate and food intake. It is also produced by brown adipose tissue. Leptin is satiety controlling hormone. Leptin concentration increases or decreases in plasma.

Normally, if the body fat mass increases, the level of leptin in blood also increases. Leptin and the maintenance of elevated body weight.

Nature Reviews. Neuroscience, 19 2 , Leptin resistance is a disfunctioning of leptin mechanism that results in overweight and obesity Wu et al.

Food Chemistry, 1 , Lipid phosphatases as drug discovery targets for type 2 diabetes. Drug Discovery, 5 4 , Therefore, controlling of leptin resistance in obesity treatment is an important strategy.

The purified cyanidin 3-glucoside used in the diet of the rats has found to stimulate adipocytokine leptin and adiponectin secretion in the adipose tissue Nemes et al. Effect of anthocyanin-rich tart cherry extract on inflammatory mediators and adipokines involved in Type 2 diabetes in a high fat diet induced obesity mouse model.

Nutrients, 11 9 , But, there are also the findings in which the different correlation between leptin and adiponectin was found. For example, adiponectin levels in the mice fed with the anthocyanin-rich foods increased while leptin secretion is decreased Wu et al.

Raspberry anthocyanin consumption prevents diet-induced obesity by alleviating oxidative stress and modulating hepatic lipid metabolism. Approaches regarding the functions of GLP-1, a member of the incretin hormone family, suggest that it acts as an endocrine hormone. Pharmacology, physiology, and mechanisms of incretin hormone action.

Cell Metabolism, 17 6 , GLP-1 controls saturation and food intake in the gastrointestinal tract. Having an important place in glucose homeostasis, it is a neuropeptide hormone and found in both the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract.

After food intake, as a response to glucose, stimulates insulin release and inhibits glucagon release. This mechanism is responsible for weight loss and glycemic control Muscogiuri et al. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism, 28 2 , CNS Drugs, 29 12 , The highest L-cell density expressing GLP-1 is in the colon, but nutrients do not reach the colon until after a meal 60 min.

Also, the insulin peak occurs after 15 min Wichmann et al. Microbial modulation of energy availability in the colon regulates intestinal transit.

Tani et al. Anthocyanin mostly delphinidine 3-rutinoside rich blackcurrant extracts were found to ameliorate glucose tolerance by stimulating GLP-1 secretion and inducing insulin secretion. Castro-Acosta et al.

Drinks containing anthocyanin-rich blackcurrant extract decrease postprandial blood glucose, insulin and incretin concentrations. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 38, They determined that beverages containing black currant delayed the occurrence of glucose in the blood and decrease the insulin and incretin releasing.

The concentration of GLP-1 in blood plasma was increased for 90 min after mg High dose consumption. As a result of the study, it was found that the blackcurrant consumption equivalent to approximately g reduces incretin, postprandial glycemia, and insulinemia secration.

Anthocyanin content of Blackcurrant shows cardio-metabolic health benefits on human metabolism. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide GIP is a peptide hormone which expresses the gut. After food intake, it binds to glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptors GIPRs and became activated.

Brain, stomach, adipocytes, pancreatic islets are the different tissues expressing GIPRs. GIP signaling is related with numerous activities, liked overnutrition to obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes.

K-cells and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide in health and disease. Vitamins and Hormones, 84, reported that GIP intervents in the modulation of β -cell neogenesis, differentiation, proliferation as well as the stimulation of glucose-stimulated insulin-releasing.

Additionally, GIP has extra-pancreatic effects and facilitates insulin secretion. The GIP level is associated with increased visceral fat area VFA independent of the effect of low-density lipoprotein and insulin, indicating that GIP is modulating adiposite deposits Møller et al.

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide is associated with lower low-density lipoprotein but unhealthy fat distribution, independent of insulin: the ADDITION-PRO Study.

The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 2 , In terms of anthociyanin effects on GIP, Castro-Acosta et al. determined that, anthocyanin-rich blackcurrant drinks, by the mg High dose samples, showed off the inhibitory effect in plasma glucose, and insulin concentrations for 30 min and GIP concentrations in plasma up to 90 min.

reducing postprandial glycemia, insulinemia and incretin secration by GIP suppression, increase the cardio-metabolic health benefits on human metabolism. Role of ghrelin in the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal disease.

Gut and Liver, 7 5 , Dysfunctions of leptin, ghrelin, BDNF and endocannabinoids in eating disorders: beyond the homeostatic control of food intake.

Psychoneuroendocrinology, 38 3 , In addition, it acts in the regulation of immune and cardiovascular systems, regulates insulin-like growth factor and plays a dominant role in gastrointestinal system such as gastric emptying and bowel motility Melissas et al.

Alterations of global gastrointestinal motility after sleeve gastrectomy: a prospective study. Annals of Surgery, 6 , Although ghrelin is still not well-defined in the pathophysiology of obesity, the relationship between increased ghrelin levels and increased appetite has been determined, and the control of the hormone is could be an effective way of treating obesity.

In the studies conducted, the problem was determined to be insensitivity or oversensitivity to ghrelin regardless of the consumption of food Anderson et al.

The impact of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy on plasma ghrelin levels: a systematic review. Obesity Surgery, 23 9 , Alterations in gut hormones after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: a prospective clinical and laboratory investigational study.

Annals of Surgery, 4 , The effects of ghrelin on obesity are evident in studies conducted between obese and slim experimental object comparing ghrelin levels with appetite, although this has not been proven by studies at the molecular level.

In recent decades, it has well understood that microorganism in the available in the human gut is critical in terms of healthiness. Therefore, the studies focused on the probiotics and the factors which help to their growth and are defined as prebiotics have been increased recently.

Diet is a process that acts the gut microbiota and thus the human metabolism. It has been found that obesity can cause different changes in the content of gut microbiota. It has been observed that the mice nourished with the diet containing high-fat were preserved from the diet originated obesity by anthocyanin-rich food Xie et al.

On the other hand, the microbiota belonged to the genetically obese mice has been transplanted into the gut of healthy lean mice and observed that the size of adipose tissue increased. Due to the consumption of high-fat diet in mice, obesity and the inflammation in white adipose tissue increased and has been found strong correlation regarding the toll-like receptors and chemokine CCL2.

It has been determined that the consumption of anthocyanins improved the growth of specific fecal bacteria such as Lactobacillus spp. and Enterococcus spp. and the probiotic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium spp.

Hidalgo et al. Metabolism of anthocyanins by human gut microflora and their influence on gut bacterial growth. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 60 15 , The intestinal metabolites of anthocyanins have also beneficial bioactive effects Xie et al.

A positive correlation has been found between the content of anthocyanin metabolites and the growth of Bifidobacteria Xie et al. Obesity could also be affected by intestinal microbiota Parks et al. Genetic control of obesity and gut microbiota composition in response to high-fat, high-sucrose diet in mice.

Cell Metabolism, 17 1 , Gastrointestinal microbiomodulator GIMM utilization causes to support the specific hormones and increases the intestinal short-chain fatty acid concentrations versus to the control group Tsuda, Tsuda, T.

Recent progress in anti-obesity and anti-diabetes effect of berries. Antioxidants, 5 2 , Anthocyanins could play the role just as prebiotics and affect obesity by promoting intestinal bacterial growth Jamar et al.

BioFactors Oxford, England , 43 4 , Raphanus sativus sango sprout contains cyanidin-based anthocyanins and isothiocyanates. In the regarded diet, the number of microorganisms in the intestine increased compared to the high-fat diet while the number of Enterococcus spp.

decreased Vivarelli et al. The combined effect of Sango sprout juice and caloric restriction on metabolic disorders and gut microbiota composition in an obesity model. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 69 2 , Bioavailability and bioaccessibility are the important definitions of the mechanisms that express the absorption and utilization of the anthocyanins by the body.

Because it is not possible to digest all the nutritional components after consumption. Furthermore, all of the absorbed components may not give a beneficial reflection on the body organs. Therefore, it is important how much of the body components are beneficial to the body. Bioavailability is a significant metabolic process that defines the utilization and thus the biodegradability of the dietary nutrients.

Bioavailability is an important factor that designates the preventive effect of anthocyanins against diseases Oracz et al. Bioavailability is a term that can be expressed as the antioxidant amount that has a biological impact, available in blood and urine, after absorption intestinally.

It is a level of ingested component that can show its biological impact when it was included in the systemic circulation in the body. Bioaccessibility is an outcome measurement of in vitro studies that show the potential impact of dietary antioxidants against diseases.

Factors influencing the bioavailability of antioxidants in foods: a critical appraisal. Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD, 18 10 , In recent studies, regarding the health benefits of anthocyanins, have mainly been focused on three issues; anthocyanin content in the product, bioavailability, and mechanism of their action.

In the systemic circulation, anthocyanins reveal a unique pattern different from flavonoids Bertoia et al. Dietary flavonoid intake and weight maintenance: three prospective cohorts of , US men and women followed for up to 24 years. BMJ, , i PMID: The effect of pH in the human digestion process is significant in terms of synergistic and antagonistic interactions Braga et al.

Bioavailability of anthocyanins: Gaps in knowledge, challenges and future research. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 68, Generally, antioxidative compounds exist in glycosylated forms or as esters or polymers, therefore they cannot be absorbed natively, must be hydrolyzed by the specific enzymes before absorption.

Even, some antioxidants can reach up to the large intestine without degraded Stevens et al. The intestinal fate of citrus flavanones and their effects on gastrointestinal health. Nutrients, 11 7 , Rethinking the mechanism of the health benefits of proanthocyanidins: absorption, metabolism, and interaction with gut microbiota.

Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 18 4 , Potential factors influencing the effects of anthocyanins on blood pressure regulation in humans: a review. Nutrients, 11 6 , The availability of the phenolic compounds is also affected by the nature of the food matrix, for example, their lipophilic structure limits their solubilization and absorption.

Anthocyanin absorption and metabolism by human intestinal Caco-2 cells—A review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 16 9 , Another factor that can play a role in the interactions is protein some proteins affect the bioavailability of anthocyanins by modifying biological function Ge et al.

Nanocomplexes composed of chitosan derivatives and β-Lactoglobulin as a carrier for anthocyanins: Preparation, stability and bioavailability in vitro.

Food Research International, , For example, glucose and proteins, except starch, can cause to decrease in the transport efficiency of anthocyanins in the gastric cells Oliveira et al. Comparison of the in vitro gastrointestinal bioavailability of acylated and non-acylated anthocyanins: purple-fleshed sweet potato vs red wine.

They facilitate the introduction of phenolics into the cell and interact for the absorption Tungmunnithum et al. Flavonoids and other phenolic compounds from medicinal plants for pharmaceutical and medical aspects: An overview.

Medicines Basel, Switzerland , 5 3 , Regular consumption of fruit and vegetables is important for daily diet. It has been stated that a long consumption period of anthocyanins causes to increase their beneficial effects on the structure of the cells Tungmunnithum et al.

Extrinsic and intrinsic immunometabolism converge: perspectives on future research and therapeutic development for obesity. Current Obesity Reports, 8 3 , Estimation of the daily intake value of polyphenols is difficult due to the various biological factors.

When considering the whole human metabolism, anthocyanins can affect mechanisms of the homeostasis related to lipids, glucose and amino acids and can suppress the inflammation.

In recent years, significant efforts including alternative approaches have been paid to prevent adipogenesis, glucose transport, and intake, to decrease inflammation, and to strengthen the immune response.

Anthocyanins are the compounds that have positive effects on gut microbiota and can interact with them. This synergistic effect can help to decrease inflammatory markers associated with many chronic diseases, and also, can support the hormonal balance.

Development of obesity causes chronic inflammation accompanied by insulin resistance and therefore, the harmful microorganisms in the gut become dominant Baldwin et al.

Table grape consumption reduces adiposity and markers of hepatic lipogenesis and alters gut microbiota in butter fat-fed mice. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 27, In obese mice fed with polyphenol-rich grape juice have been observed less white adipose tissue and higher glucose tolerance than the mice fed with high-fat content.

As a result, it has been found that the grape-based treatments changed the microbiota in the gut and decreased the inflammation probability in the white adipose tissues Collins et al.

A polyphenol-rich fraction obtained from table grapes decreases adiposity, insulin resistance and markers of inflammation and impacts gut microbiota in high-fat-fed mice. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 31, Anthocyanins are compounds that have colors from red to purple. Anthocyanin-rich fruits are could be listed as pomegranate, blackberry, blueberry, goka, blackcurrant, cranberry, aronia, mulberry, sumac drupes, and blood orange; the vegetables are violet cauliflower and red cabbage, and the cereals are black bean and black rice.

Health benefits including antioxidant effects of anthocyanins in fruit and vegetables are affected by the various processing technologies such as drying, pasteurization, concentration etc.

Yousuf et al. Health benefits of anthocyanins and their encapsulation for potential use in food systems: a review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 56 13 , Antiobesity effects of anthocyanins in preclinical and clinical studies.

Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, , Significant findings of some anthocyanin-rich fruits and vegetables regarding their health benefits are summarized below. It has been found that anthocyanin-rich foods are significant in terms of anti-obesity activity.

As mentioned by Jiao et al. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 64, It should be considered that the bioavailability of anthocyanins according to product type juice, extract, and powdered form may lead to different results on the weight gain of the test animals.

Similar results were also obtained from the mulberry juice. The mulberry juice provided to decrease the level of blood cholesterol, insulin resistance, and body weight just as blueberry juice.

In another study, blueberry juice also decreased the lipid accumulation of the rats Vendrame et al. The effects of wild blueberry consumption on plasma markers and gene expression related to glucose metabolism in the obese Zucker rat.

Journal of Medicinal Food, 18 6 , Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of blueberry on the obesity pathology have been investigated by Lewis et al.

Dietary supplementation with blueberry partially restores T-cell-mediated function in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice. British Journal of Nutrition, 12 , and Hoskin et al. Blueberry polyphenol-protein food ingredients: the impact of spray drying on the in vitro antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory markers, glucose metabolism and fibroblast migration.

Their cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory roles have been explained by the ability to replicate the signals including nuclear factor stress and the mitogen activated protein kinase. According the study conducted by Boušová et al. Cranberry extract—enriched diets increase NAD P H: quinone oxidoreductase and catalase activities in obese but not in nonobese mice.

The plasma thiol content and glutathione S-transferase enzyme function were increased in both groups and, MDA content in the blood was lowered while the enzymes catalase and liver quinone oxidoreductase increased in the obese mice.

Raspberry is known with effects on obesity and weight gain Wu et al. It was determined that raspberry anthocyanins affected insulin signaling pathway in the obese mice, due to some metabolomics produced. Raspberry anthocyanins found to reduce obesity by alleviation of oxidative stress, regulation of lipid metabolism and amelioration of the gut microbiome Tu et al.

Characterization of the functional changes in mouse gut microbiome Associated with Increased Akkermansia muciniphila Population Modulated by Dietary Black Raspberries.

ACS Omega, 3 9 , Also, raspberry extracts have a controlling effect on obesogenic signals in the hepatocytes Fotschki et al. Raspberry Polyphenolic Extract Regulates Obesogenic Signals in Hepatocytes.

Molecules Basel, Switzerland , 23 9 , The mulberry extract was determined to decrease liver steatosis, adipose hypertrophy and insulin resistance for the subjects fed with the high-fat diet. Yimam et al. Morus alba, A Medicinal Plant for Appetite Suppression and Weight Loss.

Journal of Medicinal Food, 22 7 , also determined that Morus alba extracts provide appetite suppression, regulation of body weight, and improve metabolic syndrome. It has been found that weight gain and obesity can be prevented by this anthocyanin concentrate. Aronia as an anthocyanin-rich fruit was observed to inhibit the fat accumulation in the internal organs and hyperglycemia due to prevention of pancreatic lipase enzyme activity in rats, thereby intestinal lipid absorption can be reduced Lim et al.

Nutrients, 11 5 , Table grapes , having high content if polyphenols and anthocyanins, determined to be negative metabolic consequences of the high-fat diet Collins et al. In a study in which the test animals were used, it was observed that the mice fed with a high-fat diet and the grape stalk, caused to improve glucose tolerance, reduce the inflammation and white adipose tissue formation Kim et al.

International Journal of Molecular Medicine, 43 1 , In addition, when the moderate level of fat diet including the grapes was used to feed the test animals, adiposity reduced, the liver triglyceride levels increased and, white adipose tissue inflammatory gene expression decreased moderately Pérez-Ramírez et al.

International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 71 1 , The anthocyanins-rich vegetables as purple colored carrots, potatoes, and maize Zea mays L. have significant health benefits including preventing obesity just like anthocyanins-rich fruits.

The metabolic syndrome parameters and insulin resistance have been investigated throughout 8 weeks in the obese Zucker rats fed with purple color vegetables potatoes and carrots versus the same vegetables without purple color Ayoub et al. The effect of anthocyanin-rich purple vegetable diets on metabolic syndrome in obese Zucker rats.

Journal of Medicinal Food, 20 12 , It has been expressed that the purple vegetables may lead to positive metabolic changes in the test rats having the background of a high-fat diet and obesity.

Purple corn can play a role in preventing obesity-associated disorders by mechanisms such as downregulating inflammatory mediators including IL-6, TNF-alpha, COX-2 and IL-1 beta Tomay et al.

Purple corn extract induces long-lasting reprogramming and M2 phenotypic switch of adipose tissue macrophages in obese mice. Journal of Translational Medicine, 17 1 , Black carrot Daucus Carota L. Akhtar et al. Black carrot Daucus carota L. and purple maize Zhang et al. have significant roles in metabolic syndrome, Diabetes mellitus , and obesity.

Furthermore, black carrot anthocyanins play a role as the major biological components to prevent certain diseases.

Purple sweet potato attenuate weight gain in high fat diet induced obese mice. Journal of Food Science, 82 3 , The fruits including blood orange, pomegranate, mulberry, aronia, berries blackberry, blackcurrant, cranberry, strawberry, raspberry i.

There are five anti-obesity mechanisms that originated from the anthocyanins available in the colored fruits and vegetables. These mechanisms are; inhibition of lipid absorption, increasing energy expenditure, regulation of lipid mechanism, controlling of food intake and regulation of gut microbiota.

The anti-inflammatory effects of anthocyanins have been explained sufficiently by many researchers. Glucoside-based anthocyanins including delphinidinglucoside, petunidinglucoside, and cyanidinglucoside inhibit mainly F-κB activities through mitogen-activated protein kinase MAPK enzyme Vendrame et al.

Whereas, cyclooxygenase COX enzyme activity is inhibited by cyanidin Lee et al. Dietary anthocyanins against obesity and inflammation. It can be concluded that the form of fruit or vegetable as anthocyanin source juice, extract and powdered form has different effects on fat accumulation in the body.

When considering the product type of fruit and vegetable as a source of anthocyanin, different results on the weight gain have been obtained with different fruit and vegetable forms. Open menu Brazil.

Food Science and Technology. About the journal Editorial Board Instructions to authors Contact. Português Español. Open menu. table of contents « previous current next ». Text EN Text English. PDF Download PDF English. Abstract Anthocyanins have a great potential for human health, as a sub-group of phenolic compounds.

Figure 1 Chemical structure of the common anthocyanins. The Aromatic A-ring condensed with non-aromatic C-ring and other aromatic B-ring that forming a carbon-carbon bonding.

Table 1 Anti-obesity mechanisms and effects on the body parameters of the anthocyanins. Practical Application: Effects of Anthocyanins in metabolic pathways over obesity. References Akhtar, S. Anderson, B. Obesity Surgery , 23 9 , Andre, C. Antioxidant profiling of native Andean potato tubers Solanum tuberosum L.

reveals cultivars with high levels of β-carotene, α-tocopherol, chlorogenic acid, and petanin. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry , 55 26 , Aronoff, S. Diabetes Spectrum , 17 3 , Ayoub, H. Journal of Medicinal Food , 20 12 , Azzini, E.

Open access peer-reviewed chapter. Submitted: 04 Ans Anthocyanins and metabolism boosting 15 August Published: Anthocyanins and metabolism boosting December com customercare Glutathione and gut health. The objectives Anthocyanins and metabolism boosting boostkng chapter are to summarize and discuss i the anthocyanins structure and content in ketabolism and Blood sugar crash dizziness dietary intake ii the Anthocyanns bioavailability and human metabolic pathways and iii the in vitro and in vivo potent anti-neuroinflammatory effects of anthocyanins and their metabolites. Indeed, anthocyanins are polyphenolic compounds belonging to the group of flavonoids, and are one of the most commonly consumed polyphenols in a normal diet. They are responsible of red, blue and purple color of several fruits and vegetables and their intake has been related with several human health benefits. The anthocyanins structures diversities as well as their content in various fruits, vegetables and cereals is addressed. Thank you for Iron deficiency in endurance athletes nature. Boostung are Power-packed nutrition a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, Blood sugar crash dizziness recommend Anhocyanins use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. High-fat HF diets are thought to disrupt the profile of the gut microbiota in a manner that may contribute to the neuroinflammation and neurobehavioral changes observed in obesity.

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