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Citrus aurantium for joint support

Citrus aurantium for joint support

Citrus aurantium for joint support cessation of exercise, it is expected that there will Citruss a fast reactivation of vagal modulation, which will provide an foe reduction and recovery in HR 6. Caffeine is perhaps one of the most widely utilized over the counter supplements in the fitness industry [ 67 ]. But if you want to speed up the process, these essential oils may be the key to stretch mark-free….

Citrus aurantium for joint support -

After screening, eligible applicants were provided with a list of guidelines to abstain from certain citrus fruits mandarin, sweet, and bitter orange , alcoholic and caffeinated beverages, or nutriments coffee, sports drinks, chewing gum, chocolate , and exercise 24 h prior to the ensuing study sessions.

Participants were told to have a light meal e. Through a random sequence, in the second step, participants were randomized to consume a capsule containing mg C. This amount was selected as it is regularly applied in clinical practice In the final stage, the participants received the protocol contrary to the previous one to safeguard the study's crossover.

An independent researcher who did not participate in the data logging was responsible for randomizing the interventions, choosing the capsules, and assigning them to the investigator. The capsules were opaque and visibly identical; neither the participant nor the investigator could recognize the capsules' contents.

The capsules were attained in commercial form from a reliable provider Florien Fitoativos ® Ltd. Naringin and hesperidin concentrations were not analyzed. The participants persisted for 20 min walking at this speed, and at the end of the activity, the participants were once more seated and monitored for an additional 60 min 8.

SBP and BPD measurements were completed indirectly using a stethoscope Littman Classic II, Saint Paul, USA and aneroid sphygmomanometer Welch Allyn Tycos, New York, USA on the participants' left arm For HR and HRV indices scrutiny, cardiac activity was logged beat by beat throughout the data logging technique with a sampling rate of 1 kHz using a Polar ® heart rate monitor model RSCX.

The HR and HRV recordings were logged at the following epochs: Rest R1: 90th to 95th min of resting after capsule ingestion , and all through exercise recovery: 0 to 5th min; 5th to 10th min; 15th to 20th min; 25th to 30th min; 35th to 40th min; 45th to 50th min, and; 55th to 60th min Figure 2.

Series with regular heartbeats R-R intervals were required to make the HRV indices, as recommended by the Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology In these series, digital and manual filters were executed to remove artifacts.

After collection, the RR intervals were exported to the software program Kubios ® HRV Analysis to produce the linear indices of the frequency domain and time domain Frequency domain analysis was accomplished via spectral analysis by means of the Fast Fourier Transform FFT to cause the high frequency HF index with a sampling rate of 0.

The non-linear HRV analysis was achieved using the PyBios ® software Biomedical Signal Analysis in Python Version 1. We dispersed the number of RR intervals through six levels 0—5 , transforming them into a spatial methodology; a sequence of three symbols.

All patterns were independently assembled into two clusters, according to the number and type of variation between symbols:. A pilot study conducted with six participants performed the sample size calculation. We applied the root mean square of successive differences between RR intervals in the online software at www.

br , which provided the magnitude of the difference. We measured a standard deviation of The Shapiro-Wilk statistical test was enforced to assess data normality. For the cardiovascular recovery and autonomic reactivity analysis during the experimental protocols Rest vs.

recovery , One-way analysis of variance ANOVA1 for repeated measures and the Bonferroni post-test was enforced when the assumption of data normality was attained. Friedman's test followed by Dunn's post-test was required for data that did not acquire a normal distribution. Cohen's d calculated effect sizes to measure the magnitude of changes for significant differences.

Assessments were achieved using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences SPSS IBM ® SPSS Statistics v. The descriptive data of twelve healthy males that met the study criteria are included in Table 1.

These datasets strengthen the homogeneity of our sample. The HR recovery analysis revealed no significant differences between the protocols. In the placebo protocol, the comparison of resting and after exercise established an increase in HR from 0 to 5th min of recovery Rest vs.

In the C. aurantium protocol, the same results were attained, and HR values remained significantly enlarged from 0 to 5th min of recovery Rest vs. Table 2. No significant changes were identified in the C. aurantium intervention during the recovery analysis rest vs.

recovery for DBP, MAP, and PP. Only SBP demonstrated significant changes in 1 min following exercise Rest vs. aurantium protocol. During the placebo protocol, SBP remained significantly higher during 3 min of recovery compared to rest Rest vs. Table 3.

Time and frequency domain indices in addition to non-linear analyzes revealed that autonomic heart rate recovery occurred more quickly in the C. aurantium protocol compared to the placebo protocol. In the placebo protocol, the investigation of recovery rest vs. recovery of the HF index revealed that its values remain depressed throughout 10 min of recording after exercise Rest: Figure 3.

In the placebo protocol, pNN50 index values continued to be significantly decreased throughout 20 min of recovery related to resting values Rest: Our findings demonstrate that the ingestion of C. aurantium p-synephrine mg prior to exercise fast-tracks the fall in SBP after physical exertion.

Earlier studies propose that one of the benefits of using C. aurantium equated to other adrenergic substances e. Activation of β-3 adrenergic receptors triggers reverse inotropic effects, antagonizing the activation of further classes of adrenoreceptors β-1 and β-2 in cardiac tissue and, thus, decreasing sympathetic modulation to the heart.

This clarifies why overall, the binding of p-synephrine with β-3 adrenergic receptors does not increase BP or HR, displaying cardioprotective effects In this study, in the placebo intervention, for the spectral analysis, the HF index, representative of parasympathetic modulation, needed 10 min after termination of exercise to recover.

aurantium protocol, we did not find substantial changes in the HF index in exercise recovery vs. Analogous deviations occurred in the pNN50 index and were reduced 20 min after cessation of exercise in the placebo protocol.

While in the protocol with C. aurantium , this index continued to be reduced for only 10 min after exercise. aurantium protocol, transformations were only following 5 min of recovery.

However, in the C. aurantium protocol, the values were only meaningfully reduced for 5 min after the cessation of exercise. These observations make C. aurantium a safe nutritional compound to be applied during exercise, which supports the recovery of autonomic parameters following exercise.

Since a slow post-exercise autonomic recovery is linked with an increased cardiovascular risk 25 , the results of our study indicate that C.

aurantium compounds have a potential preventive role on the onset of cardiovascular complications in physical exercise. As caffeine and C. aurantium are frequently sold as complementary formulas for use in humans, preceding studies have assessed the effects of using these substances alone and in combination.

Through a randomized clinical trial, Guitiérrez-Hellín et al. aurantium alone or in combination with caffeine would have different results for fat utilization during aerobic physical exercise. No superiority was found between C. aurantium alone and combined with caffeine on the total values of fat consumption during the physical exercise session, while both interventions were superior to the placebo treatment.

This supports the isolated use of C. aurantium an alternate way to be applied as an adjunct in cutting body fat without inducing cardiac risk.

In the study by Guitiérrez-Hellín et al. aurantium isolated supplement. In contrast, the HR and SBP were significantly higher when caffeine was included in the formulation. Our study achieved no changes for HR, and SBP was lessened more quickly following exercise. The identification of β-3 adrenoreceptors in cardiovascular tissues posed challenges to the paradigm of sympathetic regulation by β-1 and β-2 adrenoceptors.

The binding response of p-synephrine to the β-3 receptor may elucidate why no increase in HR or BP is detected when C. aurantium is enforced alone. In contrast, when C. aurantium is combined with caffeine in dietary supplements, it is capable of affecting these parameters, particularly in caffeine-sensitive individuals It has been revealed that the combination of these substances promotes a significant increase in the concentration of plasma catecholamines e.

The study by Kliszczewicz et al. aurantium upsurges sympathetic modulation to the heart throughout rest and corroborates the increases in HR and SBP achieved in the study by Guitiérrez-Hellín et al. It is assumed that caffeine alone can increase HR during physical exercise Despite that, a recent meta-analysis demonstrated that caffeine could not delay vagal return to the heart after exercise, evaluated by the HF and root mean square of successive differences between RR intervals RMSSD indices Equally, Kliszczewicz et al.

aurantium combined. Caffeine and C. aurantium combination have no extra effects on exercise fat utilization 5. These substances appear to exhibit the opposite cardiovascular effects and, thus, caffeine seems to overlap the beneficial effects of the isolated use of C.

aurantium on cardiovascular health. In this study, C. aurantium supplementation alone optimized the recovery of SBP and HRV indices after exercise. The nutritional characteristics demonstrated in the flavonoids e.

aurantium perform antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, which are partly answerable for accelerating the return of parasympathetic control of heart rate seen by vagal indices of HRV. Such properties can hasten the removal of metabolites produced by physical exercise, restoring baroreflex sensitivity and decreasing metaboreflex activation more quickly at the end of physical exercise While C.

aurantium exhibited cardioprotective effects, it is essential to be careful with its usage. Bui et al. Yet, in other studies that enforced doses beneath mg in an acute 5 , 30 , 31 and chronic for 15 days 32 form, no changes were achieved for the HR, SBP, and DBP values, nor electrocardiographic disturbances.

Likewise, our results do not support the findings of Bui et al. The results from the study of Ratamess et al. In your results, the p-synephrine supplementation mg did not evoke changes in HR before, during, and following resistance exercise unless mg of caffeine was added to the formulation.

The same occur in the rest situation, in another study by Ratamess et al. The study of Bui et al. Although it is a randomized and crossover study, there is a lack of information about allocation order in the study.

aurantium, and provoked adjustments in blood pressure, because of higher sweet and fat content e. Furthermore, the authors did not report guarantees that snack was equal on the others evaluation days.

Bitter orange caused cardiovascular effect was only observed based on statistical adjustments. A difference was seen compared to placebo but not when compared to baseline. All these factors raise questions about the validity of their conclusions. The results recognized in our analyses will advance health professionals' conduct who work with the prescription of nutritional supplements.

Consequently, it may be an alternative way to replace other compounds that demonstrate similar contributions regarding fat utilization during exercise but that promote unwanted cardiovascular effects e.

Our study highlights important points about the study population, given that it is restricted to healthy and physically active males. Notwithstanding the number of participants having exceeded the sample size calculation, the final sample is considered small.

With the desire to improve body composition. In spite of this, these facts do not allow these results to be extrapolated to other populations and, therefore, further research with obese individuals is needed to confirm the safety of using C. aurantium in combination with exercise.

For the time being, we prefer to use a healthy population free from metabolic disorders to prevent possible adverse events from C.

aurantium supplementation. Nevertheless, we encourage further studies to be established with C. aurantium as an intervention with these preliminary data. Studies with females and other health conditions should also be performed to increase the external validity of these data and expand the application of C.

aurantium promoted the resumption of parasympathetic control and output of sympathetic flow of cardiac rhythm after physical exercise and decreased SBP.

Based on these and previous findings, we assume that C. aurantium is a safe nutritional compound with submaximal aerobic exercise in healthy males when used appropriately, moreover, your combination with a good diet there could be improved fat oxidation in exercise without the cardiovascular risk.

The raw data supporting the conclusions of this article will be made available by the authors, without undue reservation. The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by University Center of the Juazeiro do Norte Process: CJRB supervised the study, performed experiments, performed the statistical analysis, wrote the introduction, methods, discussion, and results in sections.

FJ, ER, and MS collected data and performed conduction of experiments. AP performed the statistical analysis, improved interpretation analysis, and wrote the results in sections.

DG drafted the manuscript, improved interpretation analysis, and reviewed English grammar and spelling. VV and CRBJ supervised the study, reviewed the manuscript content, and gave final approval for the version submitted for publication.

All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers.

Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher. We thank the graduate research scholarships providing from Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior — Brasil CAPES, Finance Code and undergraduate research scholarships providing from University Center of the Juazeiro do Norte UniJuazeiro.

McLester CN, Bailey P, Bechke EE, Williamson CM, McLester JR, Kliszczewicz B. The effects of caffeine and citrus aurantium on performance during repeated maximal anaerobic exercise bouts in habitual caffeine users.

J Strength Cond Res. doi: PubMed Abstract CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Stohs SJ. Safety, efficacy, and mechanistic studies regarding citrus aurantium bitter orange extract and p-synephrine. Phytother Res. Suntar I, Khan H, Patel S, Celano R, Rastrelli L.

An overview on citrus aurantium L. Oxid Med Cell Longev. Kliszczewicz B, Bechke E, Williamson C, Green Z, Bailey P, McLester J, et al.

Citrus Aurantium and caffeine complex versus placebo on biomarkers of metabolism: a double blind crossover design. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. Do not exceed the recommended daily dose.

Keep out of reach of young children. Store away from light, heat, and humidity. Anti-caking agent: magnesium stearate. Code 13 referent: - 45 capsules. Code 13 referent: - capsules.

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Thanks to auratnium expertise joimt Energy-boosting activities for kids field Energy-boosting activities for kids phytotherapy, Arkopharma pharmaceutical laboratories have developed Arkogélules® Citrus Aurantium: an exclusive formula which acts with the greatest Jount for Energy-boosting activities for kids body. Better known as bitter orange or bigarade orange, Citrus aurantium is a tree from East Africa and Asia. The peel is used in the preparation of bitter tonics or sweet liqueurs such as Curaçao. The flowers are used in the preparation of perfumes such as Neroli essence. In phytotherapy, Citrus peel is also used to help with weight loss as it helps break down fat. Citrus aurantium for joint support

The herbs and pure plant oils included in this hoint specifically support flexibility and comfort. Ctrus Sea Salt within the jolnt, rich in cell nutrients. The salt helps auraantium restore blood fibrin and provides jont chloride to heart Energy-boosting activities for kids.

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Shipping calculated at checkout. Size ml ml. Add to cart. A daily tonic, Joint Support may support joint mobility. Supports joint comfort. Supports sleep and helps to alleviate stress. Helps to correct nutritional disorders.

acida and C. Light-Treated Rain Water Dosage Shake bottle vigorously prior to each dose. To accustom to product take a ¼ to ½ dose for the first 2 or 3 days. If taking prescribed medication, consult with your Doctor prior to using herbal tonics.

Avoid coffee or tea for ¼ hour before and after dose. Do not exceed stated dose. Keep out of reach of children. Not to be taken or pregnancy or lactation.

: Citrus aurantium for joint support

Bitter Orange: Compounds, Benefits, and Downsides Reyes del Paso Garcinia cambogia ingredients, Langewitz W, Mulder LJ, auramtium Roon Energy-boosting activities for kids, Duschek S. IgE-mediated multimorbidities Citrsu allergic Citrus aurantium for joint support and the potential for omalizumab therapy. By Kelli McGrane, MS, Suppirt. Copy to clipboard. After consumption, participants were monitored throughout a min ingestion period, then completed a repeated Wingate protocol, and were then monitored throughout a min recovery period. Its expansion rate slows down after mid-September and harvested in November Hu et al. The non-linear HRV analysis was achieved using the PyBios ® software Biomedical Signal Analysis in Python Version 1.
MeSH terms

Usage tips For oral use only. For adults only. Take 1 capsule in the morning and at lunchtime with a large glass of water.

Recommendations for use Do not combine with caffeine-based products. Do not use during pregnancy or breastfeeding, or during treatment for chronic conditions, in particular for hypertension, cardiovascular disease or depression.

Stop using the product if you experience agitation or restlessness. Dietary supplements must not be used as a substitute for a varied and balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle.

Do not exceed the recommended daily dose. Keep out of reach of young children. You may want to avoid this fruit and its extracts if you have high blood pressure, an irregular heartbeat, or glaucoma.

Likewise, bitter orange supplements are banned for NCAA athletes. Our experts continually monitor the health and wellness space, and we update our articles when new information becomes available.

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Here's why. A Quiz for Teens Are You a Workaholic? How Well Do You Sleep? Health Conditions Discover Plan Connect. Nutrition Evidence Based What Is Bitter Orange, and Does It Aid Weight Loss? Medically reviewed by Adrienne Seitz, MS, RD, LDN , Nutrition — By Amber Charles Alexis, MSPH, RDN on March 17, The fruit and its extracts.

Compounds and nutrients. Does bitter orange aid weight loss? Health benefits of bitter orange. Downsides and side effects of bitter orange. Dosage and safety information.

Culinary uses of bitter orange. The bottom line. How we reviewed this article: History. Some studies have been reported on the content and types of them. For example, it was found that CACH contains 16 kinds of amino acids, including eight kinds of essential amino acids, and the content of ASP is the highest Zheng et al.

These studies provided an extremely important theoretical basis for the industrial development of CACH, and promoted the further development of its medical and food industry. The production of CACH is large and the storage is abundant.

The ethnomedical applications of CACH has attracted the attention of the scientific community. It stimulates the trend of in-depth research on various pharmacological mechanisms of CACH. Currently known extracts and isolated compounds have various pharmacological effects, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumor, hypolipidemic and protection on organs.

The specific pharmacological activities are shown in Table 3 and summarized as follows Figure 5. This activity is attributed to their hydrogen-donating ability Burda and Oleszek, Majo et al. Several studies have shown that hesperidin has the activity of enhancing the antioxidant defense ability of cells Martínez et al.

According to the research of Shi et al. Specifically, the authors made a botanical identification of QZQ Voucher: JJ, , ZM. Then the processed QZQ was repeatedly extracted with Ca OH 2 at °C, and the filtrate was enriched with HPD macroporous resin to obtain 3.

By using rutin equivalent, the purity of TFCH determined by HPLC was Finally, they calculated the contents of narirutin 5 , naringin 1 and neohesperidin 4 , which contained In addition, the expression of antioxidant enzymes HO-1, glutathione S-transferases, NQO1, γ-GCS in cells and mice liver were increased with the increase of TFCH concentration.

These results suggest that total flavonoids may be the material basis of antioxidant activity of CACH. However, the specific mechanism of action need to be further confirmed. CACH could be used in the treatment of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer, these diseases are mainly related to the overexpression of inflammatory factors.

Jiang et al. The specific method was to induce male SD rats with HFD, and then used TFCH treated rats. Wang et al. More specifically, the anti-inflammatory factors IL-4, IL were increased in the lung tissues of mice after treating with TFCH.

Meanwhile authors counted the number of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid BALF via Swiss-Giemsa staining. It found that TFCH significantly altered the numbers of total leukocytes, eosinophils, monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in BALF in a dose-dependent manner, and improved the inflammatory microenvironment of bronchoalveolar cells.

Based on the above findings, this paper summarizes the current studies on the anti-inflammatory mechanism of CACH, as shown in Figure 6. In recent years, the preventive and therapeutic effects of CACH on diabetes and hyperlipidemia received extensive attention and research.

Although its mechanism has not been fully elucidated, its hypoglycemic effect may be achieved by increasing glucose consumption, regulating intestinal flora, and improving lipid metabolism. Early research showed that the intervention of naringin and neohesperidin increased intracellular glucose consumption, a process associated with increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase Zhang et al.

According to the literature of Ling et al. The proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells are mediated by many factors. Modern researchs have made the effort on tumor microenvironment, pathogenesis and biomarkers for a long time, but the development of highly specific antitumor drugs is still one of the bottlenecks in this field Mashouri et al.

The use of diet to treat cancer has been a new research direction in recent years. From the perspective of regulating the cancer metabolic microenvironment, the method of antitumor is to find out the active molecules of food, which can specifically target metabolic pathway.

As mentioned above, CACH contains abundant flavonoids, including neohesperidin 4 and PMFs Interestingly, Interestingly, early studies have shown that neohesperidin has neuroprotective activity Hwang and Yen, ; Martínez et al.

Duan et al. According to the literatures in the database, it is found that the anti-tumor activity of CACH is related to intervening cell cycle and inhibiting proliferation. The targets and toxicological datas in this process still need to be further explored.

More and more in-depth research on antitumor activity may be one of the future directions and trends. As a fructus aurantii of Chinese herbals, QZQ has the characteristics of multi-target, multi-pathway, synergistic effect, non-toxicity, which are great value for the development of new drugs.

Although it will change the types and content of active components after the TCM processing of CACH into QZQ, literatures shown that both of them have significant protection effect on organs, such as respiratory system protection, intestinal adjustment, hepatoprotective activity, etc. In these aspects, QZQ has direct or indirect regulatory effect on lung, stomach and other organs, which is not particularly different from the traditional effect of conventional fructus aurantii.

The specific research contents are summarized as follows. Previous studies have found CACH has protective effects on some liver disease models. The main disease models were nonalcoholic fatty liver disease NAFLD and liver fibrosis in these studies.

The main pathological feature of NAFLD is diffuse hepatic fatty lesion, the disease spectrum includes simple fatty liver, steatohepatitis, and hepatic sclerosis, and some patients may even develop liver cancer Yu et al. Sufficient data indicate the prevention and treatment activities of CACH on liver diseases are mainly achieved through anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and intestinal microflora regulation.

For example, NF-κB, the key protein in the mechanisms of regulating liver inflammation in NAFLD, has been widely studied. TFCH was extracted and prepared by Jiang et al.

TFCH improves the inflammatory environment of the liver by inhibiting the phosphorylation of IκBα to block the disintegration process of NF-κB, thereby inhibiting the synthesis and release of inflammatory factors.

The results were also confirmed in positive drug group Polyene phosphatidycholine capsule group, In addition, Shi et al. Unfortunately, the intermolecular regulatory role of these mechanisms has not been clearly elucidated. Airway inflammation is the most common pathological feature of respiratory diseases.

Allergic asthma is one of the typical diseases of respiratory system caused by chronic inflammation. It is triggered by some external factors, leading to infiltration of immune and inflammatory cells and accumulation in the airway. Wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness and bronchoconstriction are the diagnostic characteristics of it in clinic Humbert et al.

The flavonoids extract of CACH could alleviate local irritation by inhibiting the synthesis and release of inflammatory factors in airway smooth muscle. It provides a potential therapeutic strategy for allergic asthma. Liu et al. Therefore, the deterioration of airway inflammation was inhibited, and airway pathology and hyperresponsiveness were improved.

Relevant studies on the regulation of QZQ on respiratory system are important to the industrial development of CACH. They prove that the local folk prescriptions in Changshan are meaningful, and also provide scientific basis for the rational use of QZQ. Intestinal adverse reactions caused by drugs are very common and have been paid more and more attention by pharmaceutical industry.

Reasonable intervention of intestinal microenvironment is of great significance to guide rational drug use in clinic. Chen et al. Authors induced intestinal injury in SD rats via continuous irrigation stomach with diclofenac 7. Meanwhile, administration of PTFC attenuated the decrease in intestinal tight junction protein expression and was associated with intestinal mucosal barrier repair in the NSAID-induced small intestine injury model.

He et al. It could significantly increased the relative abundances of Bacteroidaceae and Christensenellaceae. Furthermore, PTFC reduced the content of toxic bile acids and increased the ratio of secondary to primary bile acids.

Rutaceae plants have a long medicinal history. They are widely used in many traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions and have been widely recognized in the clinical practice of TCM. Citrus fruits are grown in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of the Earth.

In recent years, they have become more and more popular in the World, and their rich bioactive substances have made a significant contribution to global human health. Daily consumption of citrus fruits is one of the ideal dietary approaches to prevent diseases, which is related to the intervention of inflammatory production, antigen presentation, antioxidant defense mechanisms and intestinal microbiota.

QZQ is the dry and immature fruit of CACH, a hybridization of Citrus grandis Osbeck and C. It has the function of promoting blood circulation and is used in TCM clinical treatment.

Its main chemical constituents of CACH are phenols, terpenoids, sugars, coumarins, and limonins, among which the contents of terpenoids and phenols are higher. As a fructus aurantii of Chinese herbals, CACH shows a variety of significant pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumor and hypolycemic activities, which provide a certain pharmacological basis for its clinical application.

Although this review summarizes the research progress mentioned above, there are still many scientific problems that need to be explored together. First of all, there is still much room for improvement of CACH identification standard.

Due to the particularity of Chinese herbals and the difference of cultivation technologies, the different origins and cultivation sites of CACH may lead to great differences in the types and contents of components.

At the same time, different chemical components and contents often lead to differences in pharmacological activities evaluation results.

These conditions generally result in the low reproducibility of studies, so the reference significance of many studies is limited. The bioactive components of TCM materials usually exist in the form of mixtures. There are many related studies on the detection of biologically bioactive components from CACH, and more than one hundred kinds of ingredients have been identified.

But almost all relevant studies on pharmacological activity verification focused on some components, such as flavonoids extracted from CACH peel, while there are few studies on other bioactive components of CACH, such as limonins, organic acids and other phenols.

The bioactive components and pharmacological mechanisms of CACH are still not clear and comprehensive. It is more common that researchers focus too much on the results. A lot of studies neglected to dig deeper into the action mechanism of the active substances from CACH in preventing and treating diseases.

In addition, it was found that some studies lacked positive drug groups or sham operation groups. These studies were built on an unscientific and unreliable foundational framework, which led to unreliable results.

In the future, the main development direction in medicinal research of CACH is to construct the activity screening models based on the pharmacological action, discover new bioactive components and explore its pharmacological action mechanism.

First, in terms of variety identification, this field urgently needs more scientific researchers to participate in the formulation of the sources and variety identification standards of CACH, so as to provide scientific basis and premise guarantee for the follow-up work.

Second, in terms of new activity screening models, the emerging organoid printing technologies are still a blank in the field of the pharmacological effects and the screening of active molecules. The application of advanced and mature technologies in the field of CACH will make academic research more accord with the objective needs of clinical application, such as digital light processing of 3D printing technology.

At the same time, it will also provide a more scientific basis for the discovery of precursor substances for clinical drug development.

Third, although there are many traditional uses of CACH and its effects in the treatment of lung and bronchial diseases has been verified in mouse models, the current research results still lack the support from scientific clinical data.

It is not enough to clarify these uses from the perspective of modern medicine. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain its toxicology and pharmacokinetics data, so as to provide a safe basis for clinical research and product development of CACH.

In conclusion, the review summarized the basic background, chemical composition, pharmacological activity, development bottleneck and future direction of CACH. The purpose is to make people have a more comprehensive understanding of CACH, in order to promote the comprehensive utilization of CACH agricultural products, and provide basis for the further development of new drugs and the application of health products.

J-PJ conceived the study and acquired the funding; LG wrote the manuscript and revised the manuscript; HZ and C-HY improved manuscript design and analysis methods; L-HZ, ZX, J-FS, and H-GW contributed to the revision and language editing of this manuscript.

All authors agreed the submission of this manuscript, and agreed to be accountable for all aspects of this work. We appreciate the great support from the institute of Chinese materia medica, Zhejiang University of Technology and The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University Zhejiang Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

The remaining authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

The reviewer YW declared a shared parent affiliation with the authors LG, C-HY, L-HZ, ZX, and J-PJ to the handling editor at the time of review. All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers.

Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher. Ballistreri, G. Anthocyanins and other polyphenols in citrus genus: Biosynthesis, chemical profile, and biological activity.

Polyphenols Plants , — CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Bellocco, E. Influence of L-rhamnosyl-D-glucosyl derivatives on properties and biological interaction of flavonoids.

PubMed Abstract CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Burda, S.

Frontiers | Citrus aurantium ‘Changshan-huyou’—An ethnopharmacological and phytochemical review

TFCH improves the inflammatory environment of the liver by inhibiting the phosphorylation of IκBα to block the disintegration process of NF-κB, thereby inhibiting the synthesis and release of inflammatory factors.

The results were also confirmed in positive drug group Polyene phosphatidycholine capsule group, In addition, Shi et al. Unfortunately, the intermolecular regulatory role of these mechanisms has not been clearly elucidated.

Airway inflammation is the most common pathological feature of respiratory diseases. Allergic asthma is one of the typical diseases of respiratory system caused by chronic inflammation. It is triggered by some external factors, leading to infiltration of immune and inflammatory cells and accumulation in the airway.

Wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness and bronchoconstriction are the diagnostic characteristics of it in clinic Humbert et al. The flavonoids extract of CACH could alleviate local irritation by inhibiting the synthesis and release of inflammatory factors in airway smooth muscle.

It provides a potential therapeutic strategy for allergic asthma. Liu et al. Therefore, the deterioration of airway inflammation was inhibited, and airway pathology and hyperresponsiveness were improved. Relevant studies on the regulation of QZQ on respiratory system are important to the industrial development of CACH.

They prove that the local folk prescriptions in Changshan are meaningful, and also provide scientific basis for the rational use of QZQ. Intestinal adverse reactions caused by drugs are very common and have been paid more and more attention by pharmaceutical industry.

Reasonable intervention of intestinal microenvironment is of great significance to guide rational drug use in clinic. Chen et al. Authors induced intestinal injury in SD rats via continuous irrigation stomach with diclofenac 7. Meanwhile, administration of PTFC attenuated the decrease in intestinal tight junction protein expression and was associated with intestinal mucosal barrier repair in the NSAID-induced small intestine injury model.

He et al. It could significantly increased the relative abundances of Bacteroidaceae and Christensenellaceae. Furthermore, PTFC reduced the content of toxic bile acids and increased the ratio of secondary to primary bile acids. Rutaceae plants have a long medicinal history.

They are widely used in many traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions and have been widely recognized in the clinical practice of TCM. Citrus fruits are grown in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of the Earth. In recent years, they have become more and more popular in the World, and their rich bioactive substances have made a significant contribution to global human health.

Daily consumption of citrus fruits is one of the ideal dietary approaches to prevent diseases, which is related to the intervention of inflammatory production, antigen presentation, antioxidant defense mechanisms and intestinal microbiota. QZQ is the dry and immature fruit of CACH, a hybridization of Citrus grandis Osbeck and C.

It has the function of promoting blood circulation and is used in TCM clinical treatment. Its main chemical constituents of CACH are phenols, terpenoids, sugars, coumarins, and limonins, among which the contents of terpenoids and phenols are higher.

As a fructus aurantii of Chinese herbals, CACH shows a variety of significant pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumor and hypolycemic activities, which provide a certain pharmacological basis for its clinical application.

Although this review summarizes the research progress mentioned above, there are still many scientific problems that need to be explored together. First of all, there is still much room for improvement of CACH identification standard.

Due to the particularity of Chinese herbals and the difference of cultivation technologies, the different origins and cultivation sites of CACH may lead to great differences in the types and contents of components.

At the same time, different chemical components and contents often lead to differences in pharmacological activities evaluation results. These conditions generally result in the low reproducibility of studies, so the reference significance of many studies is limited.

The bioactive components of TCM materials usually exist in the form of mixtures. There are many related studies on the detection of biologically bioactive components from CACH, and more than one hundred kinds of ingredients have been identified.

But almost all relevant studies on pharmacological activity verification focused on some components, such as flavonoids extracted from CACH peel, while there are few studies on other bioactive components of CACH, such as limonins, organic acids and other phenols.

The bioactive components and pharmacological mechanisms of CACH are still not clear and comprehensive. It is more common that researchers focus too much on the results. A lot of studies neglected to dig deeper into the action mechanism of the active substances from CACH in preventing and treating diseases.

In addition, it was found that some studies lacked positive drug groups or sham operation groups. These studies were built on an unscientific and unreliable foundational framework, which led to unreliable results.

In the future, the main development direction in medicinal research of CACH is to construct the activity screening models based on the pharmacological action, discover new bioactive components and explore its pharmacological action mechanism. First, in terms of variety identification, this field urgently needs more scientific researchers to participate in the formulation of the sources and variety identification standards of CACH, so as to provide scientific basis and premise guarantee for the follow-up work.

Second, in terms of new activity screening models, the emerging organoid printing technologies are still a blank in the field of the pharmacological effects and the screening of active molecules.

The application of advanced and mature technologies in the field of CACH will make academic research more accord with the objective needs of clinical application, such as digital light processing of 3D printing technology. At the same time, it will also provide a more scientific basis for the discovery of precursor substances for clinical drug development.

Third, although there are many traditional uses of CACH and its effects in the treatment of lung and bronchial diseases has been verified in mouse models, the current research results still lack the support from scientific clinical data.

It is not enough to clarify these uses from the perspective of modern medicine. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain its toxicology and pharmacokinetics data, so as to provide a safe basis for clinical research and product development of CACH.

In conclusion, the review summarized the basic background, chemical composition, pharmacological activity, development bottleneck and future direction of CACH.

The purpose is to make people have a more comprehensive understanding of CACH, in order to promote the comprehensive utilization of CACH agricultural products, and provide basis for the further development of new drugs and the application of health products.

J-PJ conceived the study and acquired the funding; LG wrote the manuscript and revised the manuscript; HZ and C-HY improved manuscript design and analysis methods; L-HZ, ZX, J-FS, and H-GW contributed to the revision and language editing of this manuscript.

All authors agreed the submission of this manuscript, and agreed to be accountable for all aspects of this work. We appreciate the great support from the institute of Chinese materia medica, Zhejiang University of Technology and The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University Zhejiang Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

The remaining authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

The reviewer YW declared a shared parent affiliation with the authors LG, C-HY, L-HZ, ZX, and J-PJ to the handling editor at the time of review. All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers.

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Behav Res Methods. Download references. The data sets used during the current study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request. Department of Exercise Science and Sport Management, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA, USA.

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. BK contributed to study design, data collection, data analysis, major contribution to the writing of the manuscript. EB contributed to data collection, performed HRV analysis and interpretation, blood assay analysis, conducted literature review, and major contribution to the writing of the manuscript.

CW contributed with data collection, assisted with data analysis Biomarker , and moderate contributions to the editing of the manuscript. PB contributed to study design, data collection, biomarker analysis, and moderate editing of the manuscript.

ZG significant contribution to editing of the manuscript. JM contributed to study design, data statistical analysis, and moderate editing of manuscript. CM contributed to the study design, data collection, moderate editing of manuscript, and procurement of funds.

All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Correspondence to Brian Kliszczewicz. The Institutional Review Board approved all testing procedures and protocols prior to beginning data collection 17— Participants read and sign an informed consent prior to participating in this study.

These authors declare that they have no competing interest and have no relation too the supplement or associated companies.

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4. Reprints and permissions.

Kliszczewicz, B. et al. Citrus Aurantium and caffeine complex versus placebo on biomarkers of metabolism: a double blind crossover design. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 16 , 4 Download citation. Received : 07 August Accepted : 30 January Published : 06 February Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:.

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative. Skip to main content. Search all BMC articles Search. Download PDF. Download ePub. Research article Open access Published: 06 February Citrus Aurantium and caffeine complex versus placebo on biomarkers of metabolism: a double blind crossover design Brian Kliszczewicz ORCID: orcid.

Methods Ten physically active males Introduction Thermogenic supplements have long been of interest to those seeking to improve body composition and performance enhancement. Experimental design This study was performed in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover design where only one investigator knew the identification of the supplementation; this investigator did not engage in the gathering or analysis of data.

Study Design. Full size image. Results Of the fourteen participants who volunteered for the study, four were removed due to adverse reactions to the phlebotomy procedure i.

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