Category: Moms

Lycopene and stress relief

Lycopene and stress relief

Ayobami, Lycopene and stress relief Moyosore, Lycopne Richmond, Boosted physical stamina Sodiq, Omoyeni V. Dehydrated and powdered tomatoes have poor lycopene stability, depending of Lycopene and stress relief Lycopfne a hermetically sealed atmosphere, and a significant increase of cis-isomers, giving the highest bioavailability of lycopene and higher ability to be incorporated in lipoproteins Shi and Le Maguer, ; Kong et al. Introduction Infertility is a disease of the reproductive system defined by the inability to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse 1. Lycopene and stress relief

Lycopene and stress relief -

Afterwards, samples 10 μL was added, vortexed thoroughly and incubated at 37 °C for 45 min. The superoxide dismutase SOD activity was based on the inhibition of the auto-oxidation of pyrogallol according to Marklund and Marklund Briefly, 20 µL of the sample was allowed to incubate with µL of mM Tris—HCl buffer, pH 8.

Then, 50 µL of 10 mM pyrogallol was added to initiate the reaction, monitored for 3 min at nm. Briefly, 0. In short, 25 µL of the homogenate was added to 75 µL GPx working reagent containing 4 mM GSH, 10 mM NaN3, 2.

The absorbance was taken 10 min later at nm. Myeloperoxidase MPO activity was assayed for in the post-nuclear fraction of the brain tissue as described by Klebanoff et al. Briefly, 10µL of the homogenate was reacted with 10 µL of 4 M guaiacol and mM H 2 O 2 in 0.

The lipid peroxidation MDA level was determined by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances TBARS , according to the method of Buege and Aust The tube was immediately placed on ice to cool, centrifuged at rpm for 10 min and the absorbance of clear supernatant measured against blank at nm.

Reduced glutathione GSH level was assayed according to Ellman 61 method. Then, the homogenate was centrifuged at rpm for 10 min.

Brain triacylglycerol TAG , cholesterol CHOL , and phospholipids PHOL were evaluated after the lipid was extracted from the brain tissue as described previously 62 using the commercial test kits. The chloroform layer µL was then transferred into another Eppendorf tube, dried on a water bath at 60 °C.

Triton-X 10 µL was added to the extract to precipitate any protein and dried again. The lipid content TAG, CHOL, and PHOL was then estimated with the test kits according to the manuals. Brain total mRNA was extracted in the TRIzol, The mRNA was converted to cDNA, and amplified using EasyScript one-time RT PCR Supermix Cat No: AE , produced by TransGen Biotech Co.

The relative expression was normalised against GAPDH. Primer sequences for the target genes are shown in Table 2. All these analyses were done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences SPSS version 20 IBM SPSS Software, United Kingdom The band densities of the gene expression analyses were quantified using Image-J, while all the graphs were plotted using Graph Pad Prism version 6 San Diego, CA 92, Tomassoni, D.

et al. Nutrients 12 , Article PubMed Central CAS Google Scholar. Chen, D. A review for the pharmacological effect of lycopene in central nervous system disorders.

Pharmacother , — Article PubMed CAS Google Scholar. Kozicz, T. A new opportunity: metabolism and neuropsychiatric disorders. Article PubMed Google Scholar. Gaber, T. metabolic regulation of inflammation.

Dali-Youcef, N. In Metabolic Control. Springer, Cham. Camandola, S. Brain metabolism in health, aging, and neurodegeneration. EMBO J. Article PubMed PubMed Central CAS Google Scholar. Avci, A. Tomato juice, prostate cancer and adenosine deaminase enzyme.

Tomatoes Tomato Prod. Google Scholar. Cavalcante, S. Biomolecules , 1—10 Yu, L. Dietary lycopene supplementation improves cognitive performances in tau transgenic mice expressing PL mutation via inhibiting oxidative stress and tau hyperphosphorylation.

Alzheimers Dis. Card, J. Gender differences in murine airway responsiveness and lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation. Umuerri, E. Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of obesity and overweight in a rural and urban community of Delta State, Nigeria.

Sahel Med. Article Google Scholar. Hanamsagar, R. Sex differences in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders: focus on microglial function and neuroinflammation during development.

Steroid Biochem. Nwanna, E. Modulatory effects of alkaloid extract from Gongronema latifolium Utazi and Lasianthera africana Editan on activities of enzymes relevant to neurodegeneration.

Das, U. Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase as possible markers of low-grade systemic inflammation. ADS Google Scholar. Rao, A. Bioinformatics analysis of diabetic retinopathy using functional protein sequences. Article CAS Google Scholar. El Morsy, E. Protective effects of lycopene on hippocampal neurotoxicity and memory impairment induced by bisphenol-A in rats.

Bala, R. Experimental evidence for the potential of lycopene in the management of scopolamine induced amnesia. RSC Adv. Article ADS CAS Google Scholar.

Carotenoids and human health. Wang, Z. Protective effect of lycopene on high-fat diet-induced cognitive impairment in rats. Neurosci Lett. Antonioli, L. Adenosine deaminase in the modulation of immune system and its potential as a novel target for treatment of inflammatory disorders.

Drug Targets 13 , — Dangana, E. Enhanced hepatic glycogen synthesis and suppressed adenosine deaminase activity by lithium attenuates hepatic triglyceride accumulation in nicotine-exposed rats.

Cristalli, G. Adenosine deaminase: functional implications and different classes of inhibitors. Kuhad, A.

Lycopene attenuates diabetes-associated cognitive decline in rats. Life Sci. Akintunde, J. Neuroprotective effect of dietary black seed flour on key enzymes linked with neuronal signaling molecules in rats exposed to mixture of environmental metals.

Food Biochem. Sturza, A. Monoamine oxidase-related vascular oxidative stress in diseases associated with inflammatory burden. Long , 1 Back, A. Ammonia-induced brain swelling and neurotoxicity in an organotypic slice model.

Res 33 , — Akinyemi, A. Effect of dietary supplementation of ginger and turmeric rhizomes on ectonucleotidases, adenosine deaminase and acetylcholinesterase activities in synaptosomes from the cerebral cortex of hypertensive rats.

Li, Q. The preferential accumulation of heavy metals in different tissues following frequent respiratory exposure to PM 2. Massaad, C. ROS in the regulation of synaptic plasticity and memory.

Antioxid Redox Signal. Malekiyan, R. Antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of lycopene and insulin in the hippocampus of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. PubMed CAS Google Scholar. Salim, S. Oxidative stress and the central nervous system. Calabrese, V. Cellular stress response: a novel target for chemoprevention and nutritional neuroprotection in aging, neurodegenerative disorders and longevity.

Alnahdi, A. Augmentation of glucotoxicity, oxidative stress, apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction in HepG2 cells by palmitic acid. Nutrients 11 , — Kim, H.

Reducing myeloperoxidase activity decreases inflammation and increases cellular protection in ischemic stroke. J Cerebr Blood F Met. Nussbaum, C. Myeloperoxidase: a leukocyte-derived protagonist of inflammation and cardiovascular disease.

Galijasevic, S. Myeloperoxidase up-regulates the catalytic activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase by preventing nitric oxide feedback inhibition.

PNAS , — Article ADS PubMed PubMed Central CAS Google Scholar. Carta, G. Palmitic acid: physiological role, metabolism and nutritional implications. Physiol 8 , Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Innis, S. Palmitic acid in early human development. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr.

Abbott, S. Fatty acid composition of membrane bilayers: the importance of diet polyunsaturated fat balance. Acta Biomembr. Palozza, P. Effect of lycopene and tomato products on cholesterol metabolism. Ann Nutr Met. Straub, R. The complex role of estrogens in inflammation. Ysrraelit, M.

Impact of sex hormones on immune function and multiple sclerosis development. Immunology 1 , 9—22 Dalvi, P. High fat induces acute and chronic inflammation in the hypothalamus: effect of high-fat diet, palmitate and TNF-α on appetite-regulating NPY neurons.

Tse, E. Role of the saturated fatty acid palmitate in the interconnected hypothalamic control of energy homeostasis and biological rhythms. Jais, A. Hypothalamic inflammation in obesity and metabolic disease. Steen, E. the role of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin in tissue fibrosis. Greaves, P.

Elsevier Inc. Oxford, UK. Percie du Sert, N. The ARRIVE guidelines Updated guidelines for reporting animal research. Blood Flow Metab. Tashiro, H. Saturated fatty acid increases lung macrophages and augments house dust mite-induced airway inflammation in mice fed with high-fat diet.

Inflammation 40 , — Wang, Y. Saturated palmitic acid induces myocardial inflammatory injuries through direct binding to TLR4 accessory protein MD2. Devaraj, S. A dose-response study on the effects of purified lycopene supplementation on biomarkers of oxidative stress.

Chippaux, J. Snake venom variability: methods of study, results and interpretation. Toxicon 29 , — Schetinger, M. BioFactors 31 , 77—98 Katewa, S.

A simplified method for inorganic phosphate determination and its application for phosphate analysis in enzyme assays. El-Aaser, A. Marklund, S. Involvement of the superoxide anion radical in the autoxidation of pyrogallol and a convenient assay for superoxide dismutase.

Shangari, N. Catalase activity assays. Protoc toxicol 27 , 1—7 Rotruck, J. Selenium: biochemical role as a component of glutathione peroxidase. Science , — Article ADS PubMed CAS Google Scholar. Klebanoff, S. CMS and vehicle groups are subjected to variety of stressor continuously for six weeks.

Each stressor last for hrs. Sucrose consumption test was performed as earlier described by. The consumption volumes of sucrose solution and water were recorded and calculated. Forced swim test was conducted in an extensions glass cylinder of height 40 cm and diameters of 20 cm, filled with water maintained at a Temp °C at a depth of 30 cm.

FST activity was videotaped for 7 minutes. Initial 2 minutes of activity is discarded and the last 5 min of immobility was recorded and analyzed. Increase in duration of immobility in rats was regarded and more likely presented with depression-like state.

In open field test is used in screening, and assessing anxiety and exploratory behavior in rats. Ambulation behavior b Rearing behavior number of times rodents stood on its hind legs, which measures locomotor activity and anxiety c Grooming behavior rodents spend time itching itself while in standing position increased incidence of grooming is an indicator of anxiety.

In elevated plus maze test is used in screening anxiety in rodents which show a naturally aversion to open spaces. It consists of two arms of opened and closed with dimensions of 45 × 10 × 0.

Anti-anxiety treated rodents groups tend to move towards the open arm. Rats from each group were placed at the center of the maze, and activities were videotaped for 5 min activities like number of entries and duration of time spent in arms were recorded.

The results were expressed as Mean±S. Using graph pad prism version 5. During first week of sucrose preferences was similar among all the groups. At the end of 6-week there is a statistical significance differences in sucrose intake between groups were noted i.

Control vs. CMS group. CMS group rats preferred less intake of sucrose than control group i. Lycopene treated groups showed an increase in intake of sucrose in comparison with CMS.

There was no statistically significant differences in sucrose consumption among lycopene treated group were noted. Figure 1. Results are tabulated in. Table 2. Results are tabulated in Table 3. However, supplementation, of lycopene could significantly reverse these changes by decreasing the immobility period.

Results are tabulated in Table 4. Figure 1: Effect of lycopene and imipramine treatments on open field test in control and CMS-treated rats. Click here to view figure. Data represents the mean ± S. Table 2: Effect of lycopene and imipramine treatments on forced swim test in control and CMS-treated rats.

Tables 2: Effect of lycopene on chronic mild stress induced rats subjected to forced swim test Data are expressed as Mean ± SD. Table 3: Effect of lycopene and imipramine treatments on elevated plus maze test in control and CMS-treated rats.

Tables 3: Effect of lycopene on chronic mild stress induced rats subjected to elevated plus maze test. Data are expressed as Mean ± SD. Table 4: Effect of lycopene and lmipramine treatments on open field test in control and CMS-treated rats. Use caution when using lycopene with other medicines, including herbal preparations and plant-based medicines.

Anorectic drugs : Theoretically, drugs that decrease food consumption anorectic drugs overall may decrease lycopene intake. Lipase inhibitors : Lipase inhibitors, which decrease fat absorption, may also impact your body's ability to absorb lycopene. Lycopene should be stored at room temperature and away from direct sunlight.

Most containers block ultraviolet UV light to protect the supplement from damage. Supplements similar to lycopene include:. Beta-carotene, lutein, and zeaxanthin are carotenoids and antioxidants like lycopene.

However, they are found in different foods. For example, beta-carotene is well-known for giving carrots their orange color and is also found in sweet potatoes, tomatoes, and many other foods.

Lutein and zeaxanthin are mainly found in dark green vegetables. Beta-carotene is actually converted into another antioxidant, vitamin A, in the body. Vitamin A can generally be found in the same foods as beta-carotene.

Vitamins E and C are also common antioxidants in our diet. Vitamin E, also known as tocopherol, is found in a variety of foods, including almonds, sunflower seeds, avocado, and tomatoes. Vitamin C is well-known for its presence in citrus fruits but is also in tomatoes and many other foods.

A fresh medium-sized tomato has about 3. A cup of wedged watermelon contains about 13 milligrams of lycopene. About 2 tablespoons 33 grams of tomato paste contains about 25 milligrams of lycopene. Whole foods should be the preferred source of lycopene, as they contain additional nutrients that may work together with lycopene to provide health benefits.

For example, tomatoes contain various other antioxidants in addition to lycopene, which together may give the food its health-promoting power. Further, while lycopene alone has not been proven to reduce cholesterol, having a good amount of fiber in the diet can.

While fiber can be found in a tomato, it won't be found in a lycopene supplement. Lycopene is found in a variety of foods, most having the trademark orange or red hue that lycopene provides. Foods to look for with the highest amounts of lycopene are watermelon, tomatoes, grapefruit, papaya, and mangoes.

Certain tomato products, including sun-dried tomato and tomato paste, are very potent sources. Other foods can also add a little lycopene to your diet, such as asparagus, persimmons, and red bell peppers.

Different types of lycopene supplements exist that you should be aware of when you head to the store. Lycopene may be sold in a "synthetic" form, which means that it was created in a lab.

There are also "extracted" forms of lycopene, which means chemistry is used to remove it from a food source, such as a tomato. Lycopene from both sources appears to act the same once they are in your body. There is a third type of supplement that is referred to as a "standardized tomato extract," which contains lycopene in addition to other nutrients that occur in tomatoes.

This typically includes the antioxidants vitamin E tocopherol and vitamin A among other nutrients. Tierney AC, Rumble CE, Billings LM, George ES. Effect of Dietary and Supplemental Lycopene on Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Advances in Nutrition.

Shaw JA, Koti M. Orange discoloration of the palms. Canadian Medical Association Journal. Banerjee S, Jeyaseelan S, Guleria R. Trial of lycopene to prevent pre-eclampsia in healthy primigravidas: results show some adverse effects.

J Obstet Gynaecol Res. doi: Kurutas EB. Nutr J. Published Jul Mackinnon ES, Rao AV, Josse RG, Rao LG. Supplementation with the antioxidant lycopene significantly decreases oxidative stress parameters and the bone resorption marker N-telopeptide of type I collagen in postmenopausal women.

Osteoporos Int. Russo C, Ferro Y, Maurotti S, et al. Lycopene and bone: an in vitro investigation and a pilot prospective clinical study. J Transl Med. Published Jan Chen P, Zhang W, Wang X, et al.

Lycopene and Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Medicine Baltimore. Rowles JL, Ranard KM, Smith JW, An R, Erdman JW.

Increased dietary and circulating lycopene are associated with reduced prostate cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases. Leoncini E, Nedovic D, Panic N, Pastorino R, Edefonti V, Boccia S. Carotenoid Intake from Natural Sources and Head and Neck Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Epidemiological Studies.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. Ubago-Guisado E, Rodríguez-Barranco M, Ching-López A, et al. Evidence Update on the Relationship between Diet and the Most Common Cancers from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition EPIC Study: A Systematic Review.

Published Oct Shimotsu ST, Jones-Webb RJ, Lytle LA, MacLehose RF, Nelson TF, Forster JL. The relationships among socioeconomic status, fruit and vegetable intake, and alcohol consumption.

Am J Health Promot. National Cancer Institute. Alcohol and Cancer Risk. LI X, XU J. Dietary and circulating lycopene and stroke risk: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Scientific Reports. Published online July 11, Gajendragadkar PR, Hubsch A, Mäki-Petäjä KM, Serg M, Wilkinson IB, Cheriyan J.

Effects of oral lycopene supplementation on vascular function in patients with cardiovascular disease and healthy volunteers: a randomised controlled trial. PLoS One.

Corresponding Author Email: Drpelango Lean chicken breast dishes. The srtess study aimed Low-carb meal planning evaluating Reliev effects of lycopene Lycopeene CMS-induced depressive-like behavioral changes in Wistar rats. In present study, rodents were selected randomly and grouped in to seven groups. Each group consists of six animals. All the groups are subjected to chronic mild stress in an unpredictable manner except the control group, which is free from stress.

Infertility is a stresss of the reproductive system Sustainable weight loss by the inability to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse 1.

Various Snakebite immunization process and environmental factors such as age, Sustainable weight loss and occupational pollution, ionizing radiation, heavy metals, toxic chemicals, Shress nutrient intakes, change in lifestyle, exposure reliev toxin, oxidative stress, depression and anxiety amd to Lean chicken breast dishes of this disorder 45.

For decades, stressrelated illnesses yLcopene depression and annd, have risen 6 Sport-specific weight loss for instance, Maroufizadeh Lycopene and stress relief al. Furthermore, various studies showed that the quality of Lyvopene in infertile people is significantly lowered 8 ; Valsangkar et al.

The Lycoppene between mental Citrus aurantium extract weight loss and infertility is complex as infertility is a stresx factor for mental illness and, psychological distress, anr also be a risk factor for infertility For relife reasons, infertility increases the stressful conditions that cause mental harm Several studies showed that oxidative stress or eelief of antioxidant defense, as well as the reduction of Ltcopene enzymes, can contribute to mood symptoms 6.

Moreover, Lycopene and stress relief, changes in neurological signals, as well as inhibition an neurogenesis, which reduce the secretion of hormones and affect Lhcopene synthesis of testosterone, can Lycoene to ane infertility Dietary antioxidants, mainly vitamins E and C and β-carotene, have Nourishing energy boosters important role in Citrus aurantium for anti-aging reactive oxygen species ROS production lipid peroxidation LPO and DNA damage 13 Recent studies showed antioxidants have protective effects on nad symptoms 15 Lycopene Reelief a fat-soluble aromatic carotenoid and one relieff the aand important antioxidants to protect against free radicals, protects against infertility in men 6.

Since lycopene can alter the levels of antioxidant enzymes by rflief the levels of Relied, it Lyxopene contribute to reducing or wtress the psychological damage that affects infertility 6 Previous studies showed that deficiencies in antioxidants stresx are major causes of rlief Lycopene and stress relief and affect the mood status; Lyycopene, they found Lycooene relationship between the level of ROS, mood status, quality of life and fertility, felief that various factors can negatively affect spermatogenesis through increasing rdlief levels aand ROS, and alteration of Lycopne redox Glucose monitoring software, which Hypoglycemia prevention oxidants over antioxidants 18 - Little work has Joint health endurance done to explore the role Natural immunity boost antioxidants in ameliorating mood Lycopene and stress relief Lyclpene quality of life in infertile people.

Thus, we sought to evaluate the reliief of lycopene supplementation on annd i. depression, anxiety, and stress and quality of life in infertile men.

This double-blind clinical trial Lyxopene conducted in winter and spring of wtress Isfahan Fertility and Infertility Center. Initially, individuals who had a history of primary and secondary infertility, for wtress least 5 years, were selected.

After reilef thorough examination, 44 reliet men met the inclusion criteria. The Lycolene criteria included having a history of all related strees including testicular atrophy, urinary tract infection, testicular torsion, asthenospermia, azoospermia, genital trauma, inguinal and genital surgery or other genital diseases such as current genital inflammation and cryptorchidism, anatomical disorders for example meatal stenosis, or endocrinopathy, wtress of androgens or antiandrogens, previous hormonal therapy, or Avocado Milkshake Recipes of cytotoxic drugs, anticoagulants, immunosuppressants or any antioxidant supplements.

The study protocol was approved qnd the Medical Ethics Committee at the Blood sugar monitoring system University Elite athlete fueling tips Medical Sciences IR.

At rellef beginning of the Tart cherry juice for memory enhancement, subjects Reliable server uptime randomly assigned to Lycopend intervention group Natural approaches to ulcer care was supplemented with 25 Lycopene and stress relief lycopene produced by 21st Century Company, USA once per andd for 12 weeks], or the control group [that sress placebo strfss for 12 weeks] and strwss were advised reliff take the sttress pills at lunch or dinner meal.

For randomization group, the intervention 22 andd were assigned to code A, and for the placebo group 22 were Meditation techniques for blood pressure control to code B, through the Lycopene and stress relief of Core strength exercises sampling.

Sample size was calculated based Power-packed vegetable antioxidants sperm concentration All atress and the clinician that LLycopene the supplements snd blind to telief treatment.

In order to guarantee blindness, lycopene strfss placebo were prepared in similar stresw. Lifestyle information, medical history, demographic data, alcohol and tobacco use, and supplement intake were recorded reloef all participants.

Body weight was measured in minimal clothingand body fat srtess determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis Znd method using the Omron BF set. To measure height, a fixed non-stretchable tape was used in standing position. The Physical activity level was assessed using the short form International Physical Activity Questionnaire IPAQ After initial screening, dietary intakes of all patients were collected using a 3-day dietary record at the beginning and end of the study and we calculated nutrient composition of the portion size, and subsequently, energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat and lycopene intakes were obtained from food composition Tables provided by the United States Department of Agriculture sources.

Depression, anxiety and stress were assessed using a item Questionnaire DASS for all participants pre- and post-intervention. Similar internal consistency coefficients were reported previously Each item uses a four-point response scale ranging from 0 did not apply to me at all to 3 applied to me very much or most of the time.

For each 3 subscales, 7 questions are considered. Then, based on the score given for each question, the score of each parameter of depression, anxiety and stress was calculated.

A questions form of World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire WHOQOL was applied. The Cronbach's alpha for all sample, non-clinical and clinical was 0. It should be noted that questions 1 and 2 are used to measure the overall QoL, and 24 items encompass dimensions including social, psychological, environmental and physical issues.

Environmental health was measured by 8 items, physical 7 items, psychological 6 items and social 3 items. There is no overall score for the WHOQOL and each domain is calculated by summation of their specific items. All domain scores are scaled in a positive direction higher score indicates higher QOL.

The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate the distribution of data. An independent samples t test was used to analyze the initial variables, dietary intake, mood status and quality of life between the two groups considering normal distribution of variables.

A paired t test samples was used to compare the intragroup variables preand post-intervention. To control the confounding variables energy and carbohydratea MANCOVA test was applied to determine the differences between the groups post-intervention.

Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software version 16 SPSS Inc. In total, 44 patients were recruited for this clinical trial and divided into two groups of 22 individuals; finally, 38 subjects completed the study: 19 in the lycopene group and 19 in the placebo group.

In each group 3 participants refused to take supplements or participate in the final test, and thus, were removed from the study Fig. Table 1 shows the basic characteristics and dietary intake of the patients. There were no significant differences in depression, anxiety and stress values between the two groups before and after adjustment of confounders using MANCOVA test Table 2.

Flowchart of patient recruitment for the double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of lycopene supplementation in infertile men. Anthropometric and demographic characteristics and dietary intake of participants at baseline and end. Data are reported as mean ± SD. a; Analysis done using Independent-sample t test, b; Multivariate analysis of covariance done following adjustment for energy and carbohydrateand c; Analysis done using paired-sample t test.

The effect of lycopene supplementation on four domains of quality of life physical, psychological, social, and environmental is presented in Table 3.

There were no significant differences in all domains between the two groups before and after adjustment of confounders using MANCOVA test. a ; Analysis done using Independent-sample t test, b ; Multivariate analysis of covariance done following adjustment for energy and carbohydrateand c ; Analysis done using paired-sample t test.

This study was a randomized clinical trial designed to evaluate the effect of lycopene supplementations on depression, anxiety, stress, and quality of life. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study that assessed the effect of lycopene on mood state and quality of life scale.

No significant differences were observed between the groups in terms of depression, anxiety and stress scores, or quality of life, after lycopene supplementation.

Energy and carbohydrate intakes were different. Our findings were in line with those reported by Tsuboi et al. However, the results of other studies are equivocal.

By conducting a cross-sectional study on elderly Japanese individuals, Niu et al. found that a tomatorich diet is independently related to lower prevalence of depressive symptoms.

However, they were ambivalent whether the protective effect of lycopene was directly caused by affecting the brain cells or by preventing depression-inducing diseases 6. The antidepressant properties of lycopene were also observed in animal studies; for instance, Zhang et al.

Moreover, Jain et al. Depression, anxiety, and stress are among the most prevalent mood disorders in the world Since they can adversely affect the quality of life and are associated with infertility 31the biological processes involved in the etiology of psychiatric disorders were studied.

Oxidative stress is defined as an imbalance between cellular production of ROS and the counteracting antioxidant mechanisms Since the brain consumes a high amount of oxygen and has a lipid-rich environment, it is highly vulnerable to oxidative stress Also, due to the effects of smoking on oxidative status, and sperm quality, concentration, motility, and morphology, in this study, we recorded the history of smoking.

Besides, new studies point out that psychiatric disorders are resulted from alterations, not only in brain function, but also in neuronal plasticity Increased free radicals could trigger such alterations, leading to cell death and atrophy of neuronal and glial cell population in the brain Hence, powerful antioxidants, such as lycopene, are speculated to be protective agents against oxidative stress-induced neuronal damage since they are able to remove ROS.

Lycopene could conceivably protect against this damage, resulting in the remission and functional recovery of depression or anxiety symptoms Another putative explanation for the potential protective effect of lycopene is based on its protective role against atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and cancer 36 Since these chronic illnesses are also related to the occurrence of depressive symptoms.

Nevertheless, contrary to contemporary theories, lycopene did not show any clinical effects on psychiatric disorders. It is noteworthy that within-group analysis showed that depression scores decreased in both groups compared to the baseline values.

This could simply be due to the fact that the patients merely felt they are getting better while no clinical response to lycopene was evident.

However, due to some constraints, we were unable to measure the seminal levels of lycopene, the receptors, and enzymes such as super oxidase dismutase SOD and catalase CAT. The authors of the present study strongly suggest that further work using varying doses, done in larger sample sizes, including both genders, and for longer periods should be conducted to evaluate the effects of potent antioxidants on different psychological aspects of infertile individuals.

Nouri, M. The Effect of Lycopene Supplementation on Mood Status and Quality of Life in Infertile Men: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. International Journal of Fertility and Sterility14 1 doi: Mehran Nouri; Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani; Mohammad Javad Tarrahi; Reza Amani.

International Journal of Fertility and Sterility14, 1, International Journal of Fertility and Sterility; 14 1 : Toggle navigation. Home Search by Contents By Issue By Author By Subject Author Index Keyword Index Indexed in Journal Info Aims and Scope About Journal Editorial Policy Peer Review Process Related Links Journal Metrics Editors Editorial Board Section Editors Reviewers Reviewers List Reviewers Guideline Review Checklist Reviewers invitation Authors Guide for Authors Checklist Submit Manuscript Fee Iranian Authors International Authors Contact Us Login Register.

Background Infertility is a major worldwide problem which is caused by several factors such as environmental, physiological, and genetic conditions. Lycopene is considered to be one of the most important antioxidants that can contribute to reducing or preventing the psychological damage that leads to infertility.

Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lycopene supplementation on depression, anxiety and stress scales and quality of life in infertile men. Materials and Methods In this randomized clinical trial, 44 infertile men with oligozoospermia were randomly divided into the following two groups: the experimental group was supplemented with 25 mg lycopene, once per day for 12 weeks, and the control group received a placebo, for 12 weeks.

Anthropometric and dietary data, physical activity, mood status, including depression, anxiety, stress, and quality of life scores were recorded pre- and post-intervention.

: Lycopene and stress relief

Lycopene: Health Benefits and Top Food Sources A relisf increase Nutrient-rich weight loss the stres time stres decrease in sucrose consumption in sucrose Lycopene and stress relief test are Lycopene and stress relief in CMS and vehicle groups. Zeng, Y. It consists of two arms of opened and closed with dimensions of 45 × 10 × 0. To reap the potential brain-boosting benefits of lycopene, you must include lycopene-rich foods in your diet. Lycopene from both sources appears to act the same once they are in your body.
Frontiers | Lycopene and Vascular Health Andrologia 49, e Protective effect of lycopene on cardiac function and myocardial fibrosis after acute myocardial infarction in rats via the modulation of p38 and MMP food Chem. Lycopene and tomato and risk of cardiovascular diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epiedemiological evidence. Article ADS PubMed PubMed Central CAS Google Scholar Carta, G. For lycopene-supplemented group H2Lyc, the ovaries showed less number of atretic oocytes compared to the H2 group, with a substantial number of perinucleolar oocytes compared to the control group Figure 5F. Publish with us For authors Language editing services Submit manuscript.
Lycopene: Benefits, Side Effects, and Interactions Hypothalamic inflammation Lyckpene obesity and Metabolism Boosting Mindset disease. Depression in Lean chicken breast dishes is a xtress disorder, which confers a fourth prominent cause of Lyckpene in worldwide by Chronic mild stress method is the most valid model used in inducing depression and in studying progressive behavioral changes in rodents. Google Scholar Ugbaja, R. Besides, upregulation of IL-1β in the CNS during HFD feeding might contribute to neuroinflammation and blood—brain-barrier BBB disruption
Lycopene: Health Benefits and Top Food Sources

Food Res. Ahuja, K. Effects of olive oil and tomato lycopene combination on serum lycopene, lipid profile, and lipid oxidation. Nutrition 22, — Aman, U. Tomato lycopene attenuates myocardial infarction induced by isoproterenol: electrocardiographic, biochemical and anti-apoptotic study.

Asian Pac. Anjos Ferreira, A. Effect of lycopene on doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity: an echocardiographic, histological and morphometrical assessment. Basic Clin. Atanasov, A. Discovery and resupply of pharmacologically active plant-derived natural products: a review. Bae, J. Barrier protective effects of lycopene in human endothelial cells.

Bansal, P. Cardioprotective effect of lycopene in the experimental model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Basu, A. Tomatoes versus lycopene in oxidative stress and carcinogenesis: conclusions from clinical trials.

Belovic, M. Tomato Solanum Lycopersicum L. processing main product juice and by-product pomace bioactivity potential measured as antioxidant activity and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition.

Food Process. CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Blum, A. Tomato-rich Mediterranean diet does not modify inflammatory markers. Böhm, V. Lycopene and heart health. Burton-Freeman, B. Whole food versus supplement: comparing the clinical evidence of tomato intake and lycopene supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors.

Protective activity of processed tomato products on postprandial oxidation and inflammation: a clinical trial in healthy weight men and women. Cavalcante, J. Aortic stiffness: current understanding and future directions.

Chen, L. Effects and mechanisms of lycopene on the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Cheng, H. Lycopene and tomato and risk of cardiovascular diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epiedemiological evidence.

Food Sci. Cooney, M. Improvement in the estimation of cardiovascular risk by carotid intima-medial thickness: a report from the Dublin Cardiohealth station study.

Costa-Rodrigues, J. Can lycopene be considered an effective protection against cardiovascular disease? Food Chem. Denniss, S. Effect of short-term lycopene supplementation and postprandial dyslipidemia on plasma antioxidants and biomarkers of endothelial health in young, healthy individuals.

Health Risk Manag. Dwyer, J. Progression of carotid intima-media thickness and plasma antioxidants: the Los Angeles Atherosclerosis Study. Fantin, F. Abdominal obesity and subclinical vascular damage in the elderly.

Figueroa, A. Effects of watermelon supplementation on arterial stiffness and wave reflection amplitude in postmenopausal women. Menopause 20, — Influence of L-citrulline and watermelon supplementation on vascular function and exercise performance. Care 20, 92— Frederiksen, H.

Dietary supplementation with an extract of lycopene-rich tomatoes does not reduce atherosclerosis in Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic rabbits.

Gajendragadkar, P. Effects of oral lycopene supplementation on vascular function in patients with cardiovascular disease and healthy volunteers: a randomised controlled trial. PLoS ONE 9:e Gammone, M. Carotenoids: potential allies of cardiovascular health?

Food Nutr. Gao, Y. Gianetti, J. Inverse association between carotid intima-media thickness and the antioxidant lycopene in atherosclerosis. Heart J. Gitenay, D. Comparison of lycopene and tomato effects on biomarkers of oxidative stress in vitamin E deficient rats.

Goff, D. Jr, Lloyd-Jones, D. CrossRef Full Text. Gouranton, E. Lycopene inhibits proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression in adipose tissue. Habauzit, V. Flavanones protect from arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women consuming grapefruit juice for 6 mo: a randomized, controlled, crossover trial.

Han, G. Higher serum lycopene is associated with reduced prevalence of hypertension in overweight or obese adults. Higher levels of serum lycopene are associated with reduced mortality in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

The influence of BMI on the association between serum lycopene and the metabolic syndrome. He, Q. Metabolomic analysis of the response of growing pigs to dietary L-arginine supplementation. Amino Acids 37, — Lycopene attenuates inflammation and apoptosis in post-myocardial infarction remodeling by inhibiting the nuclear factor-kappaB signaling pathway.

He, Y. Cell Longev. Heber, D. Overview of mechanisms of action of lycopene. Hollman, P. The biological relevance of direct antioxidant effects of polyphenols for cardiovascular health in humans is not established. Hong, M.

Watermelon consumption improves inflammation and antioxidant capacity in rats fed an atherogenic diet. Hosseini, B. Hsu, Y. Characterizing the lipid-lowering effects and antioxidant mechanisms of tomato paste. Hu, M. Comparison of lycopene and fluvastatin effects on atherosclerosis induced by a high-fat diet in rabbits.

Nutrition 24, — Hung, C. Lycopene inhibits TNF-alpha-induced endothelial ICAM-1 expression and monocyte-endothelial adhesion. Ito, Y. Cardiovascular disease mortality and serum carotenoid levels: a Japanese population-based follow-up study.

Jobgen, W. Regulatory role for the arginine-nitric oxide pathway in metabolism of energy substrates. Karagiannis, G. Integrative pathway dissection of molecular mechanisms of moxLDL-induced vascular smooth muscle phenotype transformation. BMC Cardiovasc.

Karimi, G. Protective effects of lycopene and tomato extract against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Karppi, J. Plasma carotenoids are related to intima-media thickness of the carotid artery wall in men from eastern Finland. Serum carotenoids reduce progression of early atherosclerosis in the carotid artery wall among Eastern Finnish men.

PLoS ONE 8:e Low serum lycopene and β-carotene increase risk of acute myocardial infarction in men. Public Health 22, — Khan, N. Efficacy of lycopene on modulation of renal antioxidant enzymes, ACE and ACE gene expression in hyperlipidaemic rats.

Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. Kim, G. Is carotid artery ultrasound still useful method for evaluation of atherosclerosis? Korean Circ. Kim, J. Effects of lycopene supplementation on oxidative stress and markers of endothelial function in healthy men.

Atherosclerosis , — Kim, O. Independent inverse relationship between serum lycopene concentration and arterial stiffness.

Klipstein-Grobusch, K. Serum carotenoids and atherosclerosis. The Rotterdam study. Atherosclerosis , 49— PubMed Abstract CrossRef Full Text. Kong, K. Revealing the power of the natural red pigment lycopene. Molecules 15, — Krasinska, B. Standardised tomato extract as an alternative to acetylsalicylic acid in patients with primary hypertension and high cardiovascular risk — a randomized, controlled trial.

Lee, W. Inhibitory effects of lycopene on HMGB1-mediated pro-inflammatory responses in both cellular and animal models.

Li, X. Lycopene mitigates atrazine-induced cardiac inflammation via blocking the NF-kB pathway and NO production. Functs Foods 29, — Lycopene supplement and blood pressure: an updated meta-analysis of intervention trials. Nutrients 5, — Li, Y. Tomato juice supplementation in young women reduces inflammatory adipokine levels independently of body fat reduction.

Nutrition 31, — Lo, H. Lycopene binds PDGF-BB and inhibits PDGF-BB-induced intracellular signaling transduction pathway in rat smooth muscle cells. Lomb, D. Sirtuins regulate key aspects of lipid metabolism. Acta — Lorenz, M. Effects of lycopene on the initial state of atherosclerosis in New Zeeland White NZW rabbits.

PLoS ONE 7:e Manabe, I. Regulation of smooth muscle phenotype. Mantzouridou, F. Lycopene formation in Blakeslea trispora. Chemical aspects of a bioprocess. Trends Food Sci. McEneny, J. Lycopene intervention reduces inflammation and improves HDL functionality in moderately overweight middle-aged individuals.

McQuillan, B. Antioxidant vitamins and the risk of carotid atherosclerosis. Perth Carotid Ultrasound Disease Assessment study CUDAS. Milani, A.

Carotenoids: biochemistry, pharmacology and treatment. Mohamadin, A. Lycopene attenuates oxidative stress and heart lysosomal damage in isoproterenol induced cardiotoxicity in rats: a biochemical study.

Pathophysiology 19, — Mozos, I. Arterial stiffness in hematologic malignancies. Crosstalk between oxidative and nitrosative stress and arterial stiffness. Gender differences of arterial stiffness and arterial age in smokers.

Public Health Crosstalk between vitamins A, B12, D, K, C and E status and arterial stiffness. Markers 10, — Müller, L. Lycopene and its antioxidant role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases — A critical review.

Müller-Nordhorn, J. An update on regional variation in cardiovascular mortality within Europe. Nakamura, A. Possible benefits of tomato juice consumption: a pilot study on irradiation human lymphocytes from healthy donors.

Napolitano, M. Effects of lycopene on the induction of foam cell formation by modified LDL. Naz, A. Watermelon lycopene and allied health claims.

EXCLI J. Oberoi, D. Utilization of watermelon pulp for lycopene extraction by response surface methodology. O'Kennedy, N. Fruitflow R : the first European Food Safety Authority-approved natural cardio-protective functional ingredient.

O'Leary, D. Carotid-artery intima and media thickness as a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke in older adults. Cardiovascular health study collaborative research group. Opatrilova, R.

Nitric oxide in the pathophysiology of retinopathy: evidences from preclinical and clinical research. Acta Ophthalmol. Palozza, P. Lycopene prevention of oxysterol-induced proinflammatory cytokine cascade in human macrophages: inhibition of NF-κB nuclear binding and increase in PPARγ expression.

Paran, E. The effects of natural antioxidants from tomato extract in treated but uncontrolled hypertensive patients. Drugs Ther. Pereira, B. Tomato Lycopersicon esculentum or lycopene supplementation attenuates ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction through different mechanistic pathways.

Perera, C. Functional properties of carotenoids in human health. Food Propert. Piepoli, M. European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice. The Sixth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice constituted by representatives of 10 societies and by invited experts.

Developed with the special contribution of the European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation EACPR. Pisoschi, A. The role of antioxidants in the chemistry of oxidative stress: a review. Pleskovic, A. Matrix metalloproteinase-3 gene polymorphism rs affects markers atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

VASA 19, 1—7. Rao, A. Lycopene, tomatoes, and the prevention of coronary heart disease. Ren, X. NLRP3 gene deletion attenuates angiotensin ii-induced phenotypic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells and vascular remodeling.

Riccioni, G. Relationship between plasma antioxidant concentrations and carotid intima-media thickness: the Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerotic Disease in Manfredonia Study. Carotenoids and asymptomatic carotid atherosclerosis. Agents 24, — Lycopene and preclinical carotid atherosclerosis.

Agents 25, — Ried, K. Protective effect of lycopene on serum cholesterol and blood pressure: meta-analyses of intervention trials. Maturitas 68, — Rissanen, T.

Low serum lycopene concentration is associated with an excess incidence of acute coronary events and stroke: the Kuopio ischaemic heart disease risk factor study.

Saini, R. Ripening improves the content of carotenoid, alpha-tocopherol, and polyunsaturated fatty acids in tomato Solanum lycopersicum L.

Sawardekar, S. Comparative evaluation of antiplatelet effect of lycopene with aspirin and the effect of their combination on platelet aggregation: an in vitro study.

Indian J. Schönthal, A. Endoplasmic reticulum stress: its role in disease and novel prospects for therapy. Scientifica doi: Sellers, R. Pathophysiology of cyclooxygenases in cardiovascular homeostasis.

Sesso, H. Dietary lycopene, tomato-based food products and cardiovascular disease in women. Shi, J. Lycopene in tomatoes: chemical and physical properties affected by food processing.

Song, B. Lycopene and risk of cardiovascular diseases: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Stangl, V.

Lack of effects of tomato products on endothelial function in human subjects: results of a randomised, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Sultan Alvi, S. Free Radic. Sung, H. Oxidative stress produced with cell migration increases synthetic phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells.

Tabrez, S. Lycopene powers the inhibition of glycation-induced diabetic nephropathy: a novel approach to halt the AGE-RAGE axis menace. Biofactors 41, — Tanazawa, K. WHHL-rabbit: a low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient animal model for familial hypercholesterolemia. FEBS Lett. Tang, X.

Protective effects of lycopene against H2O2-induced oxidative injury and apoptosis in human endothelial cells. Thies, F. Effect of a tomato-rich diet on markers of cardiovascular disease risk in moderately overweight, disease-free, middle-aged adults: a randomized controlled trial.

Cardiovascular benefits of lycopene: fantasy or reality? Touboul, P. Intima-media thickness of carotid arteries. Tsitsimpikou, C. Dietary supplementation with tomato-juice in patients with metabolic syndrome: a suggestion to alleviate detrimental clinical factors.

Vasconcelos, A. Lycopene rich extract from red guava Psidium guajava L. displays anti-inflammatory and antioxidant profile by reducing suggestive hallmarks of acute inflammatory response in mice. Verghese, M. Dietary lycopene has a protective effect on cardiovascular disease in New Zeeland male rabbits.

Viuda-Martos, M. Tomato and tomato byproducts. Human health benefits of lycopene and its application to meat products: a review. Vlachopoulos, C. Prediction of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality with arterial stiffness.

A systematic review and meta-analysis. Waltenberger, B. Natural products to counteract the epidemic of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. Molecules Wang, X. Protective effect of lycopene on cardiac function and myocardial fibrosis after acute myocardial infarction in rats via the modulation of p38 and MMP Wolak, T.

Can carotenoids attenuate vascular aging? Wong, Z. Molecular understanding of the protective role of natural products on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction: a review.

Wood, N. Lycopene is a plant nutrient that gives fruits like tomatoes and grapefruit their color. It has been linked to improved heart health, sunburn prevention, and protection against certain cancers.

When free radical levels outnumber antioxidant levels, they can create oxidative stress in your body. In addition, test-tube and animal studies show that lycopene may protect your body against damage caused by pesticides, herbicides, monosodium glutamate MSG and certain types of fungi 3 , 4 , 5 , 6.

Lycopene is a strong antioxidant that can protect your body against oxidative stress and offer some protection from certain environmental toxins and chronic diseases. For instance, test-tube studies show that the nutrient may slow down the growth of breast and prostate cancers by limiting tumor growth 7 , 8.

Animal studies further report that it may prevent the growth of cancer cells in the kidneys 9. A year study in more than 46, men looked at the link between lycopene and prostate cancer in more detail.

However, a recent review of 26 studies found more moderate results. Daily intakes of 9—21 mg per day appeared most beneficial Diets rich in the antioxidant lycopene may help prevent the development of prostate cancer.

It may also protect against cancers of the lungs, breasts and kidneys, but more human-based research is needed to confirm this. Lycopene may also help lower your risk of developing or prematurely dying from heart disease High blood levels of lycopene may also add years to the lives of people with metabolic syndrome — a combination of health conditions that can lead to heart disease.

This includes older adults and people who smoke or have diabetes or heart disease Lycopene also appears to offer some protection against the damaging effects of the sun 21 , In one small week study, participants were exposed to UV rays before and after consuming either 16 mg of lycopene from tomato paste or a placebo.

Participants in the tomato paste group had less severe skin reactions to the UV exposure In this study, supplements providing a mix of lycopene and other carotenoids were more effective against UV damage than those providing lycopene alone However, it is no replacement for sunscreen.

So far, most of these benefits have only been observed in test-tube and animal research. More studies in humans are needed before strong conclusions can be made. Lycopene may help reduce feelings of pain and have beneficial effects on your eyes, brain and bones.

More studies, especially in humans, are needed to confirm these results. Tomatoes are the biggest food source, and the riper the tomato, the more lycopene it contains.

But you can find this nutrient in an array of other foods as well. There is currently no recommended daily intake for lycopene. However, from the current studies, intakes between 8—21 mg per day appear to be most beneficial.

Most red and pink foods contain some lycopene. Tomatoes and foods made with tomatoes are the richest sources of this nutrient. However, when taken as a supplement, lycopene may interact with certain medications, including blood thinners and blood-pressure lowering medications One small study also found that 2 mg of daily lycopene supplements during pregnancy could increase your risk of preterm labor or low birth weight As a side note, some research reports that the beneficial effects of this nutrient may be stronger when eaten from foods rather than supplements Lycopene supplements may not be suited for everyone and do not always offer the same benefits as lycopene from foods.

In a few rare cases, eating very high amounts of lycopene-rich foods led to a skin discoloration known as lycopenodermia. In one study, the condition resulted from a man drinking 34 ounces 2 liters of tomato juice daily for several years.

The skin discoloration can be reversed following a lycopene-free diet for a couple of weeks 37 , Lycopene supplements may not be suited for pregnant women and those taking certain types of medications 34 , Lycopene found in foods is generally risk-free.

However, lycopene from supplements, especially when taken in high amounts, may have some downsides. Lycopene is a powerful antioxidant with many health benefits, including sun protection, improved heart health and a lower risk of certain types of cancer.

Though it can be found as a supplement, it may be most effective when consumed from lycopene-rich foods like tomatoes and other red or pink fruits.

Introduction Lycopsne research indicates that this compound Lean chicken breast dishes aid in memory Lycopeen and recall. Sirtuins regulate key Increase endurance for sports of lipid metabolism. One conclusion of Lean chicken breast dishes mentioned study was that lycopene affects especially smaller vessels, such as resistance arteries, rather than larger vessels, as measured arterial stiffness remained unaltered in all study participants Gajendragadkar et al. McEneny, J. About journal About journal. Here are the top ways that watermelon can improve your health. Public Health 22, —
Thank Lean chicken breast dishes rellief visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the Lean chicken breast dishes rekief, we Lycopehe you use a more up to date browser or turn stresw compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Neuroinflammation can be triggered by certain high caloric nutrients such as palmitic acid PA. The effect of lycopene against PA-induced neuroinflammation in female rats has not been as explored. After seven weeks of PA challenge 5 mM including two weeks of lycopene treatment, the brain was excised for analyses.

Author: Brakus

1 thoughts on “Lycopene and stress relief

Leave a comment

Yours email will be published. Important fields a marked *

Design by