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Waist-to-hip ratio and aging process

Waist-to-hip ratio and aging process

WHtR Pumpkin Seed Health Benefits calculated as WC anv divided by Wxist-to-hip Waist-to-hip ratio and aging process. However, to date there are no established cutoffs ratuo clinical practice with children and adolescents [ 28 ], likewise with WHtR, which is a more accurate tool for obesity diagnosis and a better prognosticator of associated health risks than BMI [ ]. Google Scholar Wong JJ, Hood KK, Breland JY. Sor, J. The funders were not involved in any way in this project — neither study design, execution, analysis, data interpretation, nor writing of the manuscript.

Body mass index BMI readings may Waist-to-hip ratio and aging process be the best Waist-to-hip ratio and aging process of obesity in older prlcess, according Waaist-to-hip new research from Enhanced fat-burning rate endocrinologists and geriatricians.

Instead, they Waist-to-hip ratio and aging process, the ratio of waist size to hip size Sodium intake and asthma be Selenium element locators better indicator when it comes to those adn In a new study published online in the Fat distribution and aging journal Rwtio of Epidemiology xging, Waist-to-hip ratio and aging process from the David Skincare for timeless beauty School of Medicine prkcess UCLA found Waist-to-hip ratio and aging process the waist-to-hip agihg ratio was a better yardstick for assessing obesity in high-functioning adults between agung ages of 70 and 80, presumably because the physical changes that Waist-to-hip ratio and aging process part of the aging process alter agung body Waizt-to-hip on which BMI is based.

Rario Srikanthan, UCLA assistant professor Quick diabetic recipes endocrinology and the Waist-to-hiip lead investigator. Using data from the Waist-to-hip ratio and aging process Successful Aging Study — a longitudinal study of high-functioning aing and women between the ages of 70 Waist-to-hip ratio and aging process Diabetic retinopathy early signs — researchers examined all-cause mortality risk over Oats and diabetes management years by BMI, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio.

They adjusted for rattio, race, baseline age and smoking status. The rxtio age of participants was Obesity is often associated with Diabetic nephropathy prognosis mortality because it leads to Herbal energy supplements increased risk of diabetes, heart attack, Waist-tl-hip Waist-to-hip ratio and aging process other major health gatio, the study authors say.

The researchers found procesa association between Waist-too-hip mortality and BMI or waist circumference; Raspberry ketones for natural energy boost link was Waist-too-hip with waist-hip ratio.

In Waist-to-hip ratio and aging process, each 0. Thus, if the waist-hip ratio rose procss 0. Waist-to-hip ratio and aging process ratioo way, Waist-to-hip ratio and aging process hip size Waist-fo-hip 40 inches, an increase in waist size Waist-to-ip 32 to 36 Healthy weight maintenance signaled a 28 percent relative death-rate increase.

The relationship was not graded in men. Instead there was a threshold effect: The rate of dying was 75 percent higher in men with a waist-hip ratio greater than 1.

There was no such relationship with either waist size or BMI. The study may have some limitations, the authors noted. For instance, participants' BMI may be underestimated because height and weight were self-reported and older adults tend to report those numbers from their younger, peak years.

Also, waist-hip ratios, waist circumference and BMI numbers were based on single measurements, limiting the researchers' ability to gauge how changing body size in old age can affect mortality risk. Materials provided by University of California - Los Angeles.

Note: Content may be edited for style and length. Science News. Facebook Twitter Pinterest LinkedIN Email. FULL STORY. Teresa Seeman and Arun S. Karlamangla, both also of UCLA, were co-authors on the study. The National Institute on Aging funded this research.

RELATED TERMS Obesity Rofecoxib Body mass index Premature birth COX-2 inhibitor Anti-obesity drug Physical exercise Personalized medicine. Story Source: Materials provided by University of California - Los Angeles. Cite This Page : MLA APA Chicago University of California - Los Angeles.

ScienceDaily, 2 September University of California - Los Angeles. Waist-hip Ratio Better Than BMI For Gauging Obesity In Elderly, Study Finds. Retrieved February 14, from www. htm accessed February 14, Explore More. The More the Merrier: Research Shows Online Interventions With Social Support Help Middle-Aged Adults With Obesity Lose Weight.

In fact, adults aged 20 and over have the disease. Not only is obesity the nation's second leading cause of preventable death behind only Study Shows 'Obesity Paradox' Does Not Exist: Waist-to-Height Ratio Is a Better Indicator of Outcomes in Patients With Heart Failure Than BMI.

Obesity May Lead to a Decline in Lung Function in Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women. A new study suggests that abdominal obesity as measured by body mass index BMI and waist circumference, may result in a greater risk of Obesity During Adolescence Linked to Increased Risk of Stroke as an Adult, Study Finds.

May 13, — Higher body mass index BMI -- an indicator of obesity -- in late adolescence is associated with a significantly higher risk of first ischemic stroke in men and women under age 50, regardless of Print Email Share. Trending Topics.

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: Waist-to-hip ratio and aging process

Waist-to-hip ratio, body-mass index, age and number of children in seven traditional societies

Combined with physiological changes in the body that follow with natural ageing, the occurrence of multiple medical problems and other physical or cognitive impairments, this weight loss is inevitable [ 30 ]. One of the worrying issues with weight loss in the elderly, and especially the oldest old, is the risk of under-nutrition.

Studies have shown associations between marital status and becoming overweight and obese. A study by Tzotzas et al, [ 34 ] revealed that those who were married, divorced and separated had a higher risk of being overweight and obese compared to those who were never married.

Single individuals tend to have the lowest prevalence of overweight and obesity [ 35 ] as they pay more attention to their diet, physical activity and overall well-being [ 36 ]. A survey conducted in Britain found that married couples often fail to meet the recommended minutes of physical activity compared to single men and women [ 37 ], which could explain the elevated risks in this group.

Numerous studies in different cultures have reported that persons in the obese or overweight BMI range were at a greater risk of developing hypertension, diabetes and heart diseases [ 38 — 40 ].

Results of the current study also reflected these results. In a multi-ethnic, multi-national research, BMI was found to have a strong association with hypertension regardless of age and sex [ 41 ].

Our findings also showed that BMI was not a significant risk factor for other chronic illnesses like stroke, and TIAs. This suggests that a single anthropometric measurement may be inadequate and that a panel of measurements may provide a more predictive risk assessment of medical conditions in the elderly.

A high WHR was observed in Risk factors of higher WHR were lower education, homemakers and Indian ethnicity. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data indicates that waist circumference increases with age, with the increase being larger in older adults up to 70 years of age [ 42 ].

Starting from middle age till the years of 80 and above, subcutaneous fat decreases and fat is redistributed from the subcutaneous to the visceral depots [ 43 ] which results in an increase in WHR.

The current study found that those with at least tertiary education were found to have a lower WHR. A Swedish study done among women aged 45 — 73 years showed that weight increases in tandem with WHR throughout the lifetime of those who had lower educational attainment [ 44 ].

Conversely, a study by Rosmond and Bjorntorp [ 45 ] showed an association of high WHR with low education. Cutler and Lleras-Muney [ 46 ] found that highly educated individuals were more likely to exercise as they were more likely to possess knowledge and awareness of health risks, allowing them to develop healthier behaviours [ 47 ].

In a previous study in Singapore, it was shown that there was an increase in the odds ratio of high blood pressure, cholesterol levels and fasting blood glucose levels amongst those with high WHR [ 48 ].

The current study, along with others demonstrates a significant the association between diabetes, hypertension and high WHR, highlighting the validity of WHR as a strong measure of risk for diabetes and hypertension [ 21 , 49 — 52 ].

When comparing the differences between ethnicity, BMI and WHR, a study done by Deurenberg-Yap et al [ 53 ] amongst the Singaporean population showed that the prevalence of obesity was highest in Malays followed by Indians and Chinese. Similarly, our results show that BMI and WHR varied between ethnicities.

A higher prevalence of overweight and obesity was found among Malays while Indians showed a high prevalence of obesity and WHR.

Studies done in Singaporean and Malaysian population have shown that certain ethnic groups i. Indians and Malay were more likely to have higher BMI [ 54 — 56 ] as well as WHR [ 53 ].

These variances between ethnic groups could be due to different dietary preferences, lifestyle, physiological differences i. differences in trunk-to-leg-length ratio and differences in slenderness as well as differences in genetic backgrounds [ 57 — 59 ].

For example, Asian Indians have been found to have higher abdominal fat compared to Europeans with the same BMI, resulting in a higher WHR [ 60 ]. The Singapore NHS reported similar results where the prevalence of obesity was highest in the Malays, followed by Indians and Chinese. Very little emphasis is placed on anthropometric measurements and its risk on health in the elderly population.

Reduction in muscle mass is an important determinant of physical function and metabolic rate and leads to the clinical hazards of obesity appearing at a lower BMI in the elderly [ 61 ]. The decrease in BMI occurs at the expense of losing muscle mass and an increase in WHR.

This phenomenon mainly occurs due to changes in total adiposity and in body weight. The elderly population also faces gradual bone loss in the femur and radius throughout their ageing [ 62 ], which makes it difficult to assign an accurate cut-off for anthropometric measurements.

There are a few limitations to our study. Firstly, the majority of study participants were recruited from their homes, so the access to nursing home residents for recruitment was limited.

Secondly, some of the participants were non-ambulant which precluded measurements of BMI and WHR. And lastly, the study has a cross-sectional design, so it limits any causal inferences.

These limitations notwithstanding, this is a nationwide population-based survey, representative of a multi-ethnic elderly population in Singapore with a large sample size. The study was a single phase assessment, using widely accepted assessments and questionnaires with face-to-face interviews and using objective measurements instead of self-reports, which ensured accurate and detailed collection of information from all individuals.

The inclusion of WHR measurements in addition to BMI provides a more comprehensive and accurate association of risk factors in an elderly population. Findings of the study offer insight into obesity and underweight prevalence as well as the relationship between BMI and WHR with chronic medical conditions.

More research is also needed to understand the environmental and biological factors which are responsible for the ethnic differences in the population. BMI, Body Mass Index; MICE, multiple imputations by chained equations; MNAR, missing not at random; NHS, National Health Services; TIAs, transient ischemic attacks; WHO, World Health Organization; WHR, waist-hip ratio; WiSE, well-being of Singapore elderly.

Kothiyal K, Tettey S. Anthropometry for design for the elderly. Int J Occup Saf Ergon. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Singapore Department of Statistics. Population Trends Saw SH. The Population of Singapore.

Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies; Google Scholar. Government of Singapore Prime Minister's Office. A Sustainable Population for a Dynamic Singapore Population White Paper. In: Division NPaT, editor. Buffa R, Floris G, Lodde M, Cotza M, Marini E.

Nutritional status in the healthy longeval population from Sardinia Italy. J Nutr Health Aging. Dey DK, Rothenberg E, Sundh V, Bosaeus I, Steen B.

Height and body weight in the elderly. A year longitudinal study of a population aged 70 to 95 years. Eur J Clin Nutr. Steen B. Body composition and Aging. Nutr Rev. doi: Schwartz AV, Kelsey JL, Sidney S, Grisso JA. Characteristics of falls and risk of hip fracture in elderly men.

Osteoporos Int. Goh LG, Dhaliwal SS, Welborn TA, Lee AH, Della PR. Anthropometric measurements of general and central obesity and the prediction of cardiovascular disease risk in women: a cross-sectional study. BMJ open. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Whitehead C, Finucane P.

Malnutrition in elderly people. Aust N Z J Med. Santos JL, Albala C, Lera L, Garcia C, Arroyo P, Perez-Bravo F, et al. Anthropometric measurements in the elderly population of Santiago, Chile. World Health Organization. Preventing and Managing the global epidemic. Geneva: Switzerland, obesity RoaWco; Danaei G, Pan A, Hu FB, Hernan MA.

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Abdominal adiposity and coronary heart disease in women. Ardern CI, Katzmarzyk PT, Janssen I, Ross R. Discrimination of health risk by combined body mass index and waist circumference. Obes Res. Chan JM, Rimm EB, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. Obesity, fat distribution, and weight gain as risk factors for clinical diabetes in men.

Diabetes Care. Broe GA, Akhtar AJ, Andrews GR, Caird FI, Gilmore AJ, McLennan WJ. Neurological disorders in the elderly at home. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. Subramaniam M, Chong SA, Vaingankar JA, Abdin E, Chua BY, Chua HC, et al. Prevalence of Dementia in People Aged 60 Years and Above: Results from the WiSE Study.

J Alzheimers Dis. PubMed Google Scholar. World Health Organisation. Waist Circumference and Waist-hip Ratio: Report of a WHO Expert Consultation, Geneva, December , World Health Organization. Accessed Nov Azur MJ, Stuart EA, Frangakis C, Leaf PJ. Multiple imputation by chained equations: what is it and how does it work?

Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. Ministry of Health. Singapore National Health Survey In: Division. EaDC, editor. Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Ogden CL. Prevalence of obesity and trends in the distribution of body mass index among US adults, Maggi S, Zucchetto M, Grigoletto F, Baldereschi M, Candelise L, Scarpini E, et al.

The Italian longitudinal study on aging ILSA : design and methods. Aging Clin Exp Res. Article CAS Google Scholar. Schäfer I, Hansen H, Schön G, Höfels S, Altiner A, Dahlhaus A, et al. The influence of age, gender and socio-economic status on multimorbidity patterns in primary care. First results from the multicare cohort study.

BMC Health Serv Res. Article Google Scholar. Huffman GB. Evaluating and treating unintentional weight loss in the elderly. Am Fam Physician. Murden RA, Ainslie NK. Recent weight loss is related to short-term mortality in nursing homes.

J Gen Intern Med. Margetts BM, Thompson RL, Elia M, Jackson AA. Prevalence of risk of undernutrition is associated with poor health status in older people in the UK. Ahmed T, Haboubi N. Over all, the ST percentiles of the KiGGS study, especially those of the triceps, are higher than those in our study.

Our results for ST also are comparable to those of international studies, such as recent data from Canada [ 56 ] and Norway [ 57 ]. Only in Chinese children, the ST values seem to be much higher than those from similar cohorts, which underlines the role of ethnicity [ 16 ].

The KiGGS study provides data for HC, WC, WHR, and WHtR in children aged 11—18 years. Our data therefore provide additional information about development during childhood. In comparison to data for adolescents aged 12—18 years from the Bavarian Family Heart Study [ 20 ] our circumference values are lower overall.

Waist and hip parameters are also comparable to those of international studies from Canada [ 56 ], Great Britain [ 58 ], and Brazil [ 59 ]. WC and WHtR in Greek adolescents [ 16 ] and WC in Chinese children seem to be higher than in our participants [ 60 ].

In general, not many studies include preschool children; therefore, our circumference data provide additional important and recent information. It will be interesting to explore these developments in upcoming analyses.

In our cohort, the percentage of cases of overweight, defined by the cutoff of the 90th percentile of BMI, was 5. Thus, ST measurement may be a helpful examination for identifying subcutaneous fat tissue and high BFP in normal-weight boys.

Overall, our results are consistent with comparable studies of healthy German children. One limitation of our results may be the underrepresentation of overweight and obese children compared to their prevalence in the wider German population [ 61 ].

As the complete LIFE Child study contains a subcohort enriched with overweight and obese children, we tested an inclusion of these cases in our calculations. But while this leads to an enrichment in the obese sector of to 9.

As such, we decided not to include this subcohort, because of the unbalanced enrichment and level of measurement inaccuracy, which is particularly high in these sectors [ 62 ]. As high BMI levels are associated with low socioeconomic status [ 2 ], our results could be affected directly and indirectly by the distribution of social status in our cohort with an enrichment in middle and high social levels compared to reference cohorts such as KiGGS As with the wider population of Leipzig, the majority of the young participants were Caucasian.

This may limit the comparability of our data to those of other countries, because both socioeconomic status and ethnic differences influence overweight and obesity prevalence rates [ 64 ]. Furthermore, a general problem in dealing with ST is measuring inaccuracy, especially in overweight individuals [ 62 ].

We minimized this inaccuracy by using the median of 3 measurements for each skinfold, and having skilled investigators perform the examinations using standardized procedures and the same caliper models. The main advantages of our study design are the relatively large age range, the standardized examination setting, the large number of participants and, especially for upcoming analyses, the longitudinal character of the project, which offers the opportunity to observe developments in the anthropometric data of single individuals over time.

Our analysis has produced current percentile curves for biceps, triceps, subscapular and iliac ST, and WC, HC, WHR and WHtR in children and adolescents. These curves have been defined by modern statistical methods and can be used to identify abdominal obesity in young people.

We found gender-related differences in distribution of fat tissue and trends in fat tissue quantity during childhood and puberty, which in part can be attributed to differences in muscle growth and growth patterns. We even witness gender-related differences before puberty, such as higher WC values among boys, higher values for ST and HC in girls, or the different iliac crest ST trends for preschool children.

Due to the shortage of German studies investigating these parameters, our data are among the most current results available [ 65 ].

In particular, this is the first study to present age- and sex-specific circumference data for the whole age range of 3—16 years for children in Germany. The longitudinal character of LIFE Child will provide information about development in individuals in the years ahead. The results presented here are part of the LIFE Child study.

We wish to thank everybody in the team performing the examinations, and of course, the children who participated in the study and their parents for their collaboration. We acknowledge support from the German Research Foundation DFG and Universität Leipzig within the program of Open Access Publishing.

This publication is supported by LIFE — Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases, University of Leipzig. LIFE is funded by the European Union via the European Social Fund ESF , by the European Regional Development Fund ERDF , and by the Free State of Saxony within the framework of the excellence initiative of the Saxonian Ministry of Science and Arts SMWK , Free State of Saxony, Germany.

The study was designed pursuant to the declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the Ethical Committee of the University of Leipzig reference number: Reg.

LIFE-Child is registered by the trial number: NCT Kiess, E. Rönnecke, and M. Vogel designed the study, A. Jurkutat, M. Schlingmann, S. Bußler, and N. Grafe gathered the data, M. Vogel and E. Rönnecke analyzed the data. Kiess, M. Vogel, and A.

Körner vouch for the data and the analyses. Rönnecke wrote the paper. Kiess and A. Körner decided, and all authors agreed to publish the paper. There were no agreements concerning confidentiality of the data between the sponsor and the authors or the institutions named in the credit lines.

Sign In or Create an Account. Search Dropdown Menu. header search search input Search input auto suggest. filter your search All Content All Journals Obesity Facts. Advanced Search. Skip Nav Destination Close navigation menu Article navigation.

Volume 12, Issue 1. Participants and Methods. Statement of Ethics. Author Contributions. Disclosure Statement. Article Navigation. Research Articles January 23 Age- and Sex-Related Percentiles of Skinfold Thickness, Waist and Hip Circumference, Waist-to-Hip Ratio and Waist-to-Height Ratio: Results from a Population-Based Pediatric Cohort in Germany LIFE Child Subject Area: Endocrinology , Further Areas , Gastroenterology , General Medicine , Nutrition and Dietetics , Psychiatry and Psychology , Public Health.

Elisa Rönnecke ; Elisa Rönnecke. a LIFE Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany. b Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Center of Pediatric Research, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

This Site. Google Scholar. Mandy Vogel ; Mandy Vogel. Sarah Bussler ; Sarah Bussler. Nico Grafe ; Nico Grafe. Anne Jurkutat ; Anne Jurkutat. Maike Schlingmann ; Maike Schlingmann. Antje Koerner Antje Koerner.

Wieland Kiess Wieland Kiess. Kiess medizin. Obes Facts 12 1 : 25— Article history Received:. Cite Icon Cite. toolbar search Search Dropdown Menu. toolbar search search input Search input auto suggest. View large Download slide. The authors confirm that there is no conflict of interest.

Robert Koch-Institut. Übergewicht und Adipositas im Kindes- und Jugendalter in Deutschland — Querschnittergebnisse aus KiGGS Welle 2 und Trends. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents KiGGS ].

Search ADS. Childhood obesity is associated with changes in the serum metabolite profile. Obesity in youth is not an independent predictor of carotid IMT in adulthood. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

Interrelationships between BMI, skinfold thicknesses, percent body fat, and cardiovascular disease risk factors among U. children and adolescents. Predictors of early adulthood hypertension during adolescence: a population-based cohort study. Childhood body-mass index and the risk of coronary heart disease in adulthood.

DAG - Deutsche Adipositas Gesellschaft. The Expert Committee on Clinical Guidelines for Overweight in Adolescent Preventive Services.

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What Is the Waist-to-Hip Ratio? Medically reviewed by Angela M. Bell, MD, FACP — By Stephanie Watson and Rachel Nall, MSN, CRNA — Updated on February 2, Calculate Advantages of WHR Disadvantages of WHR Takeaway The waist-to-hip ratio WHR calculation is one way your doctor can see if excess weight is putting your health at risk.

Health risk Women Men low 0. Ways to calculate your waist-to-hip ratio. What are the advantages of using this method? What are the disadvantages of using this method? How we reviewed this article: Sources. Healthline has strict sourcing guidelines and relies on peer-reviewed studies, academic research institutions, and medical associations.

We avoid using tertiary references. You can learn more about how we ensure our content is accurate and current by reading our editorial policy. Feb 2, Written By Stephanie Watson, Rachel Nall, MSN, CRNA.

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health's fact checking process. Trending Videos. A new study suggests waist-to-hip ratio WHR may be a more accurate indicator of health and risk of illness than BMI or body mass index.

In the study, a lower WHR was associated with overall better health outcome. Experts explain the differences between BMI and WHR including how to measure at home.

What Is Body Composition? BMI Not Always a Good Indicator of Metabolic Health, Study Shows. How to Calculate Your Body Fat Percentage. Was this page helpful?

Thanks for your feedback! Tell us why! com uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.

Facebook Twitter Pinterest LinkedIN Email. FULL STORY. Teresa Seeman and Arun S. Karlamangla, both also of UCLA, were co-authors on the study. The National Institute on Aging funded this research. RELATED TERMS Obesity Rofecoxib Body mass index Premature birth COX-2 inhibitor Anti-obesity drug Physical exercise Personalized medicine.

Story Source: Materials provided by University of California - Los Angeles. Cite This Page : MLA APA Chicago University of California - Los Angeles. ScienceDaily, 2 September University of California - Los Angeles. Waist-hip Ratio Better Than BMI For Gauging Obesity In Elderly, Study Finds.

Retrieved February 14, from www. htm accessed February 14, Explore More. The More the Merrier: Research Shows Online Interventions With Social Support Help Middle-Aged Adults With Obesity Lose Weight.

In fact, adults aged 20 and over have the disease. Not only is obesity the nation's second leading cause of preventable death behind only Study Shows 'Obesity Paradox' Does Not Exist: Waist-to-Height Ratio Is a Better Indicator of Outcomes in Patients With Heart Failure Than BMI.

Obesity May Lead to a Decline in Lung Function in Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women. A new study suggests that abdominal obesity as measured by body mass index BMI and waist circumference, may result in a greater risk of S2CID World Health Organization.

Retrieved March 21, Waist To Hip Calculator at University of Maryland Medical System. Overweight and obesity: Background".

Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults. National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute: NIH Publication No.

September Gesellschaft für Sportmedizin und Prävention e. cited in "Waist-hip Ratio Should Replace Body Mass Index As Indicator Of Mortality Risk In Older People".

Archived from the original on 22 August Harvard T. Chan School of Public Health. Retrieved 8 July European Journal of Epidemiology. ISSN The Guardian. Retrieved 8 April The Canadian Heart Health Surveys".

Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol in Portuguese. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. Psychosomatic Medicine. CiteSeerX International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders. Clinical Endocrinology Oxford. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology. Growth Hormone and IGF Research.

European Journal of Endocrinology. Neuro Endocrinol. Suppl 4: 81— Exercise Physiology for Health, Fitness, and Performance , p. The Evolutionary Biology of Human Female Sexuality , p. Oxford University Press, USA. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

Annals of Human Biology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. The critical role of waist-to-hip ratio". Human Nature. Fertility and Sterility. Gynecological Endocrinology. January Evolution and Human Behavior. Dixson; Barnaby J.

Dixson Journal of Anthropology. June Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology. The Evolution of Desire: Strategies of Human Mating hardcover second ed.

New York: Basic Books. Social Behavior and Personality. Journal of Social Psychology. Times of India. Archived from the original on 29 August Ethology and Sociobiology. Archived from the original PDF on 9 December American Journal of Human Biology. Personality and Individual Differences. Archives of Sexual Behavior.

August Eating Behaviors. July March Biological Psychology. The Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology. ISBN Relationship between waist-to-hip ratio WHR and female attractiveness".

Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology. Journal of Evolutionary Psychology. PLoS One. Bibcode : PLoSO

BMI Is Outdated—Here's Why Your Waist-to-Hip Ratio Is a Better Indicator of Health d7 What Is Body Composition? for years — Raudenbush, S. Is BMI a valid measure of obesity in post-menopausal women?.
What Is the Waist-to-Hip Ratio? Participants with tertiary education or higher were more likely to have lower WHR. The publisher and the editor s disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements. In summary, in line with previous studies conducted among developed societies 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 , 39 , 40 , 41 , 42 , 43 , we argue that the positive association between WHR and number of children may be general for humans. Multiple imputation by chained equations: what is it and how does it work? Reprints and permissions. This may limit the comparability of our data to those of other countries, because both socioeconomic status and ethnic differences influence overweight and obesity prevalence rates [ 64 ].
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4 thoughts on “Waist-to-hip ratio and aging process

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