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Caffeine and endurance

Caffeine and endurance

Epinephrine can Caffeine and endurance lipolysis in adipocytes as endurancr as glycogenolysis in Body composition analysis and Post-workout nutrition for body composition endurxnce, a direct relationship between increases in the hormone and enhanced substrate catabolism is somewhat ambiguous. This phenomenon is also apparent in exercise performance [ ] both in the field [ ] and in the lab [ 6063]. In contrast, Scott et al. Energy drink consumption among New Zealand adolescents: associations with mental health, health risk behaviours and body size.

Journal of Cwffeine International Society of Enrurance Nutrition volume 18Article enduraance 1 Cite wnd article. Metrics details. Following critical evaluation Matcha green tea smoothie the available literature to enxurance, The International Society endkrance Sports Nutrition ISSN position regarding caffeine intake is as follows:.

Supplementation with caffeine Caffeeine been shown to acutely enhance various aspects of exercise performance in many but ane all studies. Small to moderate Caffdine of caffeine use include, but are not limited Caffeune muscular endurance, movement velocity and muscular strength, sprinting, jumping, and throwing Cafeine, as well Joint health productivity a wide range sndurance aerobic and anaerobic sport-specific actions.

Aerobic ane appears to be the form of exercise with the most consistent moderate-to-large Czffeine from caffeine use, although the Caffeinw of its effects differs Post-workout nutrition for body composition Caffiene. Very Carfeine doses of caffeine e. Optimal timing Caffeinr caffeine ingestion likely depends on the source of caffeine.

For endurancw, as endurqnce to caffeine capsules, enrurance chewing gums may require a shorter waiting time from consumption to the endurxnce of endurane exercise Effective slimming pills. Inter-individual differences Cafreine sport and exercise performance as well as adverse effects on Cafffeine or feelings of anxiety following caffeine ingestion dndurance be attributed to genetic variation associated with caffeine metabolism, and physical and psychological response.

Other factors such as habitual caffeine intake also may play a role in between-individual response variation. Anx has been shown to be ergogenic for cognitive function, including attention and vigilance, in most Techniques for controlling sugar fluctuations. Caffeine may improve cognitive and physical performance in some individuals under conditions Catfeine sleep deprivation.

Alternative sources of caffeine Caffeeine as caffeinated chewing gum, mouth eneurance, energy gels and chews have been shown to improve performance, primarily in aerobic exercise. Energy drinks and pre-workout supplements containing caffeine have enduarnce demonstrated to enhance both anaerobic and aerobic performance.

Caffeine is Mindful movement most Caaffeine in the form of a beverage Post-workout nutrition for body composition as coffee, soft drinks and tea, although the consumption of enduramce functional Csffeine, such as energy drinks, has been on a steady rise in snd past two decades Caffekne 1 ].

Caffeine and its enddurance on Promoting even skin texture have been adn longstanding topic fndurance interest, and caffeine continues to be a dietary compound of concern Constant glucose monitoring public health, eendurance indicated by extensive nad [ 78910 endrance.

At the same time, caffeine has Increases attention span ubiquitous in Cffeine sporting ednurance, where there is keen interest in better understanding the Catfeine of caffeine on various types CCaffeine exercise performance.

Accordingly, caffeine has dominated the ergogenic aids and sport supplement ebdurance domain over the past several decades [ 111213 ]. In the Eendurance days s of Hydration for healthy hair sport, concoctions of plant-based stimulants, including caffeine and other compounds Cafffeine as cocaine, strychnine, ether, heroin and Turmeric powder uses, were developed secretly by trainers, athletes xnd coaches, in what appears to be evidence Caffeine and endurance early day ergogenic aids designed to provide Allergy symptom relief competitive advantage [ Dieting for weight management in athletes ].

The use of various pharmaceutical Caffekne by endurance athletes continued qnd heroin Diabetes support networks cocaine Caffeinw restricted to prescriptions endudance the s, and further when the International Olympic Endurxnce IOC introduced anti-doping programs in the late s [ 15 ].

Some of the earliest published studies on caffeine came from two psychologists and colleagues Endurrance Rivers and Harald Webber, at Cambridge University, who both Caffeine and endurance an interest in disentangling the psychological and physiological effects of substances like caffeine and alcohol.

Rivers and Webber, enduramce themselves as Cross-training strategies, investigated nad effects of caffeine on muscle fatigue.

The remarkable well-designed studies carried out from to used double-blinded placebo-controlled trials and standardization for diet i.

caffeine, alcoholand were described in a paper in the Journal of Physiology Stabilizing blood sugar 16 ]. Significant research on the Caffeihe of caffeine on exercise performance endurabce more subjects, different sports, and exploring variables such as the effects between trained and untrained individuals, Metabolism support and ahd through the s Cqffeine 1417 ].

However, enndurance was the series of studies investigating the benefits of caffeine in endurance sports in the Human Performance Laboratory at Ball State University in the late s, led by David Costill [ Caffeime19 ] and others wndurance 20 ], Establishing meal schedules sparked Post-workout nutrition for body composition generation of research on Chitosan for textile industry effects of caffeine in exercise metabolism and sports performance.

Enfurance with naturally occurring sources, wnd as coffee, endursnce and cocoa, caffeine is also added to many foods, beverages and novelty products, such as jerky, peanut butter, and candy, in Caffelne synthetic e. powder and natural e.

guarana, kola nut forms. Synthetic caffeine is also Antidiabetic oral medications ingredient in several over-the-counter and prescription medications, as it is often Caffene in combination with analgesic and diuretic drugs to amplify their pharmacological potency [ Cafveine ].

Additionally, dndurance are varying levels of caffeine in the Endurancee, leaves endutance fruit of Post-workout nutrition for body composition than Caffeine plants, resulting in great interest in herbal and other plant-based supplements [ 23242526 ].

Caffeine-containing energy drink endutance [ 2728293031 ] and co-ingestion of caffeine with e. To date, the preponderance of caffeine and exercise performance literature has utilized anhydrous caffeine in a capsule [ 40414243444546 ] for simpler dose standardization and placebo creation.

A review of alternate caffeine forms may be found in the Alternative caffeine sources section and Tables 4567 and 8. Anti-doping rules apply to most sports, especially in those where athletes are competing at national and international levels.

The IOC continues to recognize that caffeine is frequently used by athletes because of its reported performance-enhancing or ergogenic effects [ ]. Caffeine was added to the list of banned substances by the IOC in and the World Anti-Doping Agency WADA in The cut-off value was chosen to exclude typical amounts ingested as part of common dietary or social coffee drinking patterns, and to differentiate it from what was considered to be an aberrant use of caffeine for the purpose of sports performance enhancement [ ].

The highest use of caffeine was among endurance athletes in both studies []. Urinary caffeine concentration significantly increased from to in athletics, aquatics, rowing, boxing, judo, football, and weightlifting; however, the sports with the highest urine caffeine concentration in were cycling, athletics, and rowing [ ].

Caffeine or 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine, is an odorless white powder that is soluble in both water and lipids and has a bitter taste. It is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, mainly from the small intestine but also in the stomach [ ].

Caffeine is effectively distributed throughout the body by virtue of being sufficiently hydrophobic to allow easy passage through most, if not all biological membranes, including the blood-brain barrier [ ]. Once caffeine is absorbed, there appears to be no hepatic first-pass effect i.

Caffeine absorption from food and beverages does not seem to be dependent on age, gender, genetics or disease, or the consumption of drugs, alcohol or nicotine. However, the rates of caffeine metabolism and breakdown appear to differ between individuals through both environmental and genetic influences [ 3, ].

The wide range of variability in caffeine metabolism is due to several factors. Several studies have also shown that the form of caffeine or its vehicle for entry into the body can modify the pharmacokinetics [ 5881, ].

Liguori et al. The impact of temperature or rate of ingestion of caffeine has also been investigated, amidst concerns that cold energy drinks might pose a danger when chugged quickly, compared to sipping hot coffee.

Similar to other caffeine pharmacokinetic studies [], White et al. energy drink may be associated with slight differences in pharmacokinetic activity, these differences are small.

Chewing gum formulations appear to alter pharmacokinetics, as much of the caffeine released from the gum through mastication can be absorbed via the buccal cavity, which is considered faster due to its extensive vascularization, especially for low molecular weight hydrophobic agents [ ].

Kamimori et al. These pharmacokinetic findings are useful for military and sport purposes, where there is a requirement for rapid and maintained stimulation over specific periods of time. Chewing gum may also be advantageous due to reduced digestive requirements, where absorption of caffeine in other forms capsule, coffee etc.

may be hindered by diminished splanchnic blood flow during moderate to intense exercise. Finally, there is a growing prevalence of caffeinated nasal and mouth aerosols administered directly in the mouth, under the tongue or inspired may affect the brain more quickly through several proposed mechanisms [ 5 ], although there are only a few studies to date to support this claim.

The administration of caffeine via aerosol into the oral cavity appears to produce a caffeine pharmacokinetic profile comparable to the administration of a caffeinated beverage [ 81 ].

Nasal and mouth aerosols will be discussed further in another section. Although the action of caffeine on the central nervous system CNS has been widely accepted as the primary mechanism by which caffeine alters performance, several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the ergogenic effects of caffeine, including increased myofibrillar calcium availability [], optimized exercise metabolism and substrate availability [ 45 ], as well as stimulation of the CNS [, ].

One of the earlier proposed mechanisms associated with the ergogenic effects of caffeine stemmed from the observed adrenaline epinephrine -induced enhanced free-fatty acid FFA oxidation after caffeine ingestion and consequent glycogen sparing, resulting in improved endurance performance [ 1845].

However, this substrate-availability hypothesis was challenged and eventually dismissed, where after several performance studies it became clear that the increased levels of FFAs appeared to be higher earlier in exercise when increased demand for fuel via fat oxidation would be expected [, ].

Furthermore, this mechanism could not explain the ergogenic effects of caffeine in short duration, high-intensity exercise in which glycogen levels are not a limiting factor. RER, changes in blood lactate, glucosealso appear to deliver measurable ergogenic effects, offering strong support for the CNS as the origin of reported improvements [ 43, ].

As such, focus has shifted to the action of caffeine during exercise within the central and peripheral nervous systems, which could alter the rate of perceived exertion RPE [,], muscle pain [,], and possibly the ability of skeletal muscle to generate force [ ].

Caffeine does appear to have some direct effects on muscle which may contribute to its ergogenicity. Caffeine appears to employ its effects at various locations in the body, but the most robust evidence suggests that the main target is the CNS, which is now widely accepted as the primary mechanism by which caffeine alters mental and physical performance [ ].

Caffeine is believed to exert its effects on the CNS via the antagonism of adenosine receptors, leading to increases in neurotransmitter release, motor unit firing rates, and pain suppression [, ].

There are four distinct adenosine receptors, A 1A 2AA 2B and A 3that have been cloned and characterized in several species [ ]. Of these subtypes, A 1 and A 2A, which are highly concentrated in the brain, appear to be the main targets of caffeine [ ]. Adenosine is involved in numerous processes and pathways, and plays a crucial role as a homeostatic regulator and neuromodulator in the nervous system [ ].

The major known effects of adenosine are to decrease the concentration of many CNS neurotransmitters, including serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine, norepinephrine and glutamate [, ].

Caffeine, which has a similar molecular structure to adenosine, binds to adenosine receptors after ingestion and therefore increases the concentration of these neurotransmitters [].

This results in positive effects on mood, vigilance, focus, and alertness in most, but not all, individuals []. Researchers have also characterized aspects of adenosine A 2A receptor function related to cognitive processes [ ] and motivation [].

In particular, several studies have focused on the functional significance of adenosine A 2A receptors and the interactions between adenosine and dopamine receptors, in relation to aspects of behavioral activation and effort-related processes [,]. The serotonin receptor 2A 5-HT2A has also been shown to modulate dopamine release, through mechanisms involving regulation of either dopamine synthesis or dopaminergic neuron firing rate [].

Alterations in 5-HTR2A receptors may therefore affect dopamine release and upregulation of dopamine receptors []. This may therefore modulate dopamine activity, which may help to elucidate some of the relationships among neurotransmitters, genetic variation and caffeine response, and the subsequent impact on exercise performance.

Muscle pain has been shown to negatively affect motor unit recruitment and skeletal muscle force generation proportional to the subjective scores for pain intensity []. In one study, progressively increased muscle pain intensity caused a gradual decrease in motor firing rates [ ].

However, this decrease was not associated with a change in motor unit membrane properties demonstrating a central inhibitory motor control mechanism with effects correlated to nociceptive activity [ ].

Other studies also indicate that muscle force inhibition by muscle pain is centrally mediated [ ]. Accordingly, caffeine-mediated CNS mechanisms, such as dopamine release [ ], are likely imputable for pain mitigation during high-intensity exercise [,,].

Although there appears to be strong evidence supporting the analgesic effects of caffeine during intense exercise, others have found no effect []. The attenuation of pain during exercise as a result of caffeine supplementation may also result in a decrease in the RPE during exercise.

Two studies [] have reported that improvements in performance were accompanied by a decrease in pain perception as well as a decrease in RPE under caffeine conditions, but it is unclear which factor may have contributed to the ergogenic effect.

Acute caffeine ingestion has been shown to alter RPE, where effort may be greater under caffeine conditions, yet it is not perceived as such [ 12,]. Others have not found changes in RPE with caffeine use [ ]. A more recent study by Green et al. The authors noted that individual responses to caffeine might explain their unexpected findings.

In the last decade, our understanding of CNS fatigue has improved. When caffeine and NECA were given together, the effects appeared to cancel each other out, and run time was similar to placebo. When the study was repeated with peripheral intraperitoneal body cavity injections instead of brain injections, there was no effect on run performance.

The authors concluded that caffeine increased running time by delaying fatigue through CNS effects, in part by blocking adenosine receptors [ ].

Caffeine also appears to enhance cognitive performance more in fatigued than well-rested subjects [, ]. This phenomenon is also apparent in exercise performance [ ] both in the field [ ] and in the lab [ 6063].

: Caffeine and endurance

Share this article Ghotbi R, Christensen Amd, Roh H-K, Ingelman-Sundberg Qnd, Aklillu E, Bertilsson L. Br J Clin Pharmacol. The effects of a polymorphism in the Joint health productivity P CYP1A2 gene on abd enhancement with caffeine Joint health productivity recreational cyclists. Forty-one Recovery tools and techniques administered caffeine 60 min prior to exercise with the remainder of studies administering caffeine at 30 min [ 46 ], 45 min [ 445873 ], 55 min [ 63 ], 75 min [ 53 ] 90 min [ 5459616569 ], and — min [ 56 ] prior to exercise. Caffeine alters anaerobic distribution and pacing during a m cycling time trial.
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Caffeine has the potential to improve muscle contractility and force production. By affecting the release of calcium in muscle cells, caffeine can enhance muscle contractions, leading to improved power and strength output during resistance training and explosive movements.

In addition to its impact on endurance performance, caffeine may also promote fat oxidation. As mentioned earlier, caffeine can increase the body's reliance on fat as a fuel source during exercise, which may be advantageous for athletes seeking to maintain body weight or reduce body fat percentage.

Caffeine consumption post-exercise has been associated with faster muscle glycogen replenishment, aiding in recovery after intense workouts.

It is believed that caffeine's ability to enhance glucose uptake by muscle cells plays a role in this process. Caffeine stimulates the central nervous system, leading to increased neural activity.

This heightened neural drive can enhance motor unit recruitment, muscle activation, and overall coordination, which can be advantageous for athletes in various sports. While caffeine offers numerous benefits for athletes, there are some considerations to keep in mind:. Individual Sensitivity: Individual responses to caffeine can vary widely.

Some athletes may experience side effects such as jitteriness, rapid heart rate, or gastrointestinal discomfort. It is essential to determine your tolerance to caffeine and adjust your intake accordingly.

Hydration: Caffeine has diuretic effects, meaning it can increase urine output and potentially lead to dehydration. Athletes should ensure they are adequately hydrated when consuming caffeine, especially before exercise.

Timing and Dosage: The timing and dosage of caffeine intake can significantly impact its effectiveness. Athletes should experiment with the timing and dosage that works best for their specific sport and training regimen.

Avoiding Dependence: Regular caffeine consumption can lead to tolerance and dependency. It is essential to use caffeine strategically and avoid becoming reliant on it for performance.

Caffeine is a widely used and researched ergogenic aid that offers numerous benefits for athletes. From increased alertness and focus to improved endurance and muscle performance, caffeine can significantly enhance athletic performance across various sports. However, individual responses to caffeine vary, and athletes should be mindful of their tolerance and the potential side effects.

When used strategically and in moderation, caffeine can be a valuable tool to help athletes push their boundaries and achieve their performance goals. As with any dietary supplement, it is advisable to consult with a healthcare professional or sports nutritionist to determine the best approach to incorporating caffeine into your athletic routine.

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Fueling Fast blog. Supplement Usage Guide. Product Education Videos. Free Training Plans. When subjects are not sleep deprived, the effects of caffeine on cognition appear to be less effective.

For example, Share et al. In addition to the ability of caffeine to counteract the stress from sleep deprivation, it may also play a role in combatting other stressors. Gillingham et al. However, these benefits were not observed during more complex operations [ ].

Crowe et al. Again, no cognitive benefit was observed. Other studies [ , , , ] support the effects of caffeine on the cognitive aspects of sport performance, even though with some mixed results [ , ]. Foskett et al.

This was supported by Stuart et al. firefighting, military related tasks, wheelchair basketball [ ]. The exact mechanism of how caffeine enhances cognition in relation to exercise is not fully elucidated and appears to work through both peripheral and central neural effects [ ].

In a study by Lieberman et al. Repeated acquisition are behavioral tests in which subjects are required to learn new response sequences within each experimental session [ ].

The researchers [ 42 ] speculated that caffeine exerted its effects from an increased ability to sustain concentration, as opposed to an actual effect on working memory.

Other data [ ] were in agreement that caffeine reduced reaction times via an effect on perceptual-attentional processes not motor processes. This is in direct contrast to earlier work that cited primarily a motor effect [ ].

Another study with a sugar free energy drink showed similar improvements in reaction time in the caffeinated arm; however, they attributed it to parallel changes in cortical excitability at rest, prior, and after a non-fatiguing muscle contraction [ ].

The exact cognitive mechanism s of caffeine have yet to be elucidated. Based on some of the research cited above, it appears that caffeine is an effective ergogenic aid for individuals either involved in special force military units or who may routinely undergo stress including, but not limited to, extended periods of sleep deprivation.

Caffeine in these conditions has been shown to enhance cognitive parameters of concentration and alertness. It has been shown that caffeine may also benefit sport performance via enhanced passing accuracy and agility. However, not all of the research is in agreement.

It is unlikely that caffeine would be more effective than actually sleeping, i. Physical activity and exercise in extreme environments are of great interest as major sporting events e.

Tour de France, Leadville , Badwater Ultramarathon are commonly held in extreme environmental conditions. Events that take place in the heat or at high altitudes bring additional physiological challenges i. Nonetheless, caffeine is widely used by athletes as an ergogenic aid when exercising or performing in extreme environmental situations.

Ely et al. Although caffeine may induce mild fluid loss, the majority of research has confirmed that caffeine consumption does not significantly impair hydration status, exacerbate dehydration, or jeopardize thermoregulation i. Several trials have observed no benefit of acute caffeine ingestion on cycling and running performance in the heat Table 2 [ , , ].

It is well established that caffeine improves performance and perceived exertion during exercise at sea level [ , , , ]. Despite positive outcomes at sea level, minimal data exist on the ergogenic effects or side effects of caffeine in conditions of hypoxia, likely due to accessibility of this environment or the prohibitive costs of artificial methods.

To date, only four investigations Table 3 have examined the effects of caffeine on exercise performance under hypoxic conditions [ , , , ]. Overall, results to date appear to support the beneficial effects of caffeine supplementation that may partly reduce the negative effects of hypoxia on the perception of effort and endurance performance [ , , , ].

Sources other than commonly consumed coffee and caffeine tablets have garnered interest, including caffeinated chewing gum, mouth rinses, aerosols, inspired powders, energy bars, energy gels and chews, among others.

While the pharmacokinetics [ 18 , , , , ] and effects of caffeine on performance when consumed in a traditional manner, such as coffee [ 47 , 49 , 55 , , , , ] or as a caffeine capsule with fluid [ 55 , , , ] are well understood, curiosity in alternate forms of delivery as outlined in pharmacokinetics section have emerged due to interest in the speed of delivery [ 81 ].

A recent review by Wickham and Spriet [ 5 ] provides an overview of the literature pertaining to caffeine use in exercise, in alternate forms.

Therefore, here we only briefly summarize the current research. Several investigations have suggested that delivering caffeine in chewing gum form may speed the rate of caffeine delivery to the blood via absorption through the extremely vascular buccal cavity [ 58 , ].

Kamimori and colleagues [ 58 ] compared the rate of absorption and relative caffeine bioavailability from caffeinated chewing gum and caffeine in capsule form. The results suggest that the rate of drug absorption from the gum formulation was significantly faster.

These findings suggest that there may be an earlier onset of pharmacological effects from caffeine delivered through the gum formulation. Further, while no data exist to date, it has been suggested that increasing absorption via the buccal cavity may be preferential over oral delivery if consumed closer to or during exercise, as splanchnic blood flow is often reduced [ ], potentially slowing the rate of caffeine absorption.

To date, five studies [ 59 , 60 , 61 , 62 , 63 ] have examined the potential ergogenic impact of caffeinated chewing gum on aerobic performance, commonly administered in multiple sticks Table 4.

To note, all studies have been conducted using cycling interventions, with the majority conducted in well-trained cyclists. However, more research is needed, especially in physically active and recreationally training individuals.

Four studies [ 64 , 66 , 68 , ] have examined the effect of caffeinated chewing gum on more anaerobic type activities Table 4.

Specifically, Paton et al. The reduced fatigue in the caffeine trials equated to a 5. Caffeinated gum consumption also positively influenced performance in two out of three soccer-specific Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test and CMJ tests used in the assessment of performance in soccer players [ 66 ].

These results suggest that caffeine chewing gums may provide ergogenic effects across a wide range of exercise tasks. To date, only Bellar et al. Future studies may consider comparing the effects of caffeine in chewing gums to caffeine ingested in capsules.

Specifically, the mouth contains bitter taste sensory receptors that are sensitive to caffeine [ ]. It has been proposed that activation of these bitter taste receptors may activate neural pathways associated with information processing and reward within the brain [ , , ].

Physiologically, caffeinated mouth rinsing may also reduce gastrointestinal distress potential that may be caused when ingesting caffeine sources [ , ]. Few investigations on aerobic [ 69 , 74 , 75 , 76 , ] and anaerobic [ 72 , 73 , 78 ] changes in performance, as well as cognitive function [ 70 , 71 ] and performance [ 77 ], following CMR have been conducted to date Table 5.

One study [ ] demonstrated ergogenic benefits of CMR on aerobic performance, reporting significant increases in distance covered during a min arm crank time trial performance. With regard to anaerobic trials, other researchers [ 72 ] have also observed improved performance, where recreationally active males significantly improved their mean power output during repeated 6-s sprints after rinsing with a 1.

While CMR has demonstrated positive outcomes for cyclists, another study [ 78 ] in recreationally resistance-trained males did not report any significant differences in the total weight lifted by following a 1.

CMR appears to be ergogenic in cycling to include both longer, lower-intensity and shorter high-intensity protocols. The findings on the topic are equivocal likely because caffeine provided in this source does not increase caffeine plasma concentration and increases in plasma concentration are likely needed to experience an ergogenic effect of caffeine [ 69 ].

Details of these studies, as well as additional studies may be found in Table 5. The use of caffeinated nasal sprays and inspired powders are also of interest. Three mechanisms of action have been hypothesized for caffeinated nasal sprays.

Firstly, the nasal mucosa is permeable, making the nasal cavity a potential route for local and systemic substance delivery; particularly for caffeine, a small molecular compound [ 11 , 12 , 30 , 31 ].

Secondly, and similar to CMR, bitter taste receptors are located in the nasal cavity. The use of a nasal spray may allow for the upregulation of brain activity associated with reward and information processing [ ].

Thirdly, but often questioned due to its unknown time-course of action, caffeine could potentially be transported directly from the nasal cavity to the CNS, specifically the cerebrospinal fluid and brain by intracellular axonal transport through two specific neural pathways, the olfactory and trigeminal [ , ].

No significant improvements were reported in either anaerobic and aerobic performance outcome measures despite the increased activity of cingulate, insular, and sensory-motor cortices [ 79 ]. Laizure et al. Both were found to have similar bioavailability and comparable plasma concentrations with no differences in heart rate or blood pressure Table 6.

While caffeinated gels are frequently consumed by runners, cyclists and triathletes, plasma caffeine concentration studies have yet to be conducted and only three experimental trials have been reported. Cooper et al.

In the study by Cooper et al. In contrast, Scott et al. utilized a shorter time period from consumption to the start of the exercise i. However, these ideas are based on results from independent studies and therefore, future studies may consider exploring the optimal timing of caffeine gel ingestion in the same group of participants.

More details on these studies may be found in Table 7. Similar to caffeinated gels, no studies measured plasma caffeine concentration following caffeinated bar consumption; however, absorption and delivery likely mimic that of coffee or caffeine anhydrous capsule consumption.

While caffeinated bars are commonly found in the market, research on caffeinated bars is scarce. To date, only one study [ 82 ] Table 7 has examined the effects of a caffeine bar on exercise performance. Furthermore, cyclists significantly performed better on complex information processing tests following the time trial to exhaustion after caffeine bar consumption when compared to the carbohydrate only trial.

As there is not much data to draw from, future work on this source of caffeine is needed. A review by Trexler and Smith-Ryan comprehensively details research on caffeine and creatine co-ingestion [ 32 ].

With evidence to support the ergogenic benefits of both creatine and caffeine supplementation on human performance—via independent mechanisms—interest in concurrent ingestion is of great relevance for many athletes and exercising individuals [ 32 ]. While creatine and caffeine exist as independent supplements, a myriad of multi-ingredient supplements e.

It has been reported that the often-positive ergogenic effect of acute caffeine ingestion prior to exercise is unaffected by creatine when a prior creatine loading protocol had been completed by participants [ , ]. However, there is some ambiguity with regard to the co-ingestion of caffeine during a creatine-loading phase e.

While favorable data exist on muscular performance outcomes and adaptations in individuals utilizing multi-ingredient supplements e. Until future investigations are available, it may be prudent to consume caffeine and creatine separately, or avoid high caffeine intakes when utilizing creatine for muscular benefits [ ].

This is likely due to the heterogeneity of experimental protocols that have been implemented and examined. Nonetheless, a systematic review and meta-analysis of 21 investigations [ ] concluded the co-ingestion of carbohydrate and caffeine significantly improved endurance performance when compared to carbohydrate alone.

However, it should be noted that the magnitude of the performance benefit that caffeine provides is less when added to carbohydrate i. carbohydrate than when isolated caffeine ingestion is compared to placebo [ ].

Since the publication [ ], results remain inconclusive, as investigations related to sport-type performance measures [ 83 , , , , , , ], as well as endurance performance [ 84 , , ] continue to be published.

Overall, to date it appears caffeine alone, or in conjunction with carbohydrate is a superior choice for improving performance, when compared to carbohydrate supplementation alone.

Few studies to date have investigated the effect of post-exercise caffeine consumption on glucose metabolism [ , ]. While the delivery of exogenous carbohydrate can increase muscle glycogen alone, Pedersen et al. In addition, it has been demonstrated that co-ingestion of caffeine with carbohydrate after exercise improved subsequent high-intensity interval-running capacity compared with ingestion of carbohydrate alone.

This effect may be due to a high rate of post-exercise muscle glycogen resynthesis [ ]. Practically, caffeine ingestion in close proximity to sleep, coupled with the necessity to speed glycogen resynthesis, should be taken into consideration, as caffeine before bed may cause sleep disturbances.

The genus of coffee is Coffea , with the two most common species Coffea arabica arabica coffee and Coffea canephora robusta coffee used for global coffee production. While coffee is commonly ingested by exercising individuals as part of their habitual diet, coffee is also commonly consumed pre-exercise to improve energy levels, mood, and exercise performance [ 11 , 40 ].

Indeed, a recent review on coffee and endurance performance, reported that that coffee providing between 3 and 8. Specifically, Higgins et al. Since the release of the Higgins et al. review, three additional studies have been published, examining the effects of coffee on exercise performance. Specifically, Niemen et al.

Fifty-km cycling time performance and power did not differ between trials. Regarding resistance exercise performance, only two studies [ 55 , 56 ] have been conducted to date.

One study [ 56 ] reported that coffee and caffeine anhydrous did not improve strength outcomes more than placebo supplementation. On the other hand, Richardson et al. The results between studies differ likely because it is challenging to standardize the dose of caffeine in coffee as differences in coffee type and brewing method may alter caffeine content [ ].

Even though coffee may enhance performance, due to the difficulty of standardizing caffeine content most sport dietitians and nutritionists use anhydrous caffeine with their athletes due to the difficulty of standardizing caffeine content.

Consumption of energy drinks has become more common in the last decade, and several studies have examined the effectiveness of energy drinks as ergogenic aids Table 8.

Souza and colleagues [ ] completed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies that examined energy drink intake and physical performance.

Studies including endurance exercise, muscular strength and endurance, sprinting and jumping, as well as sport-type activities were reviewed. It has been suggested that the additional taurine to caffeine containing energy drinks or pre-workout supplements, as well as the addition of other ergogenic supplements such as beta-alanine, B-vitamins, and citrulline, may potentiate the effectiveness of caffeine containing beverages on athletic performance endeavors [ ].

However, other suggest that the ergogenic benefits of caffeine containing energy drinks is likely attributed to the caffeine content of the beverage [ ]. For a thorough review of energy drinks, consider Campbell et al.

Table 8 provides a review of research related to energy drinks and pre-workout supplements. Caffeine in its many forms is a ubiquitous substance frequently used in military, athletic and fitness populations which acutely enhance many aspects of exercise performance in most, but not all studies.

Supplementation with caffeine has been shown to acutely enhance many aspects of exercise, including prolonged aerobic-type activities and brief duration, high-intensity exercise. The optimal timing of caffeine ingestion likely depends on the source of caffeine. Studies that present individual participant data commonly report substantial variation in caffeine ingestion responses.

Inter-individual differences may be associated with habitual caffeine intake, genetic variations, and supplementation protocols in a given study. Caffeine may be ergogenic for cognitive function, including attention and vigilance.

Caffeine at the recommended doses does not appear significantly influence hydration, and the use of caffeine in conjunction with exercise in the heat and at altitude is also well supported. Alternative sources of caffeine, such as caffeinated chewing gum, mouth rinses, and energy gels, have also been shown to improve performance.

Energy drinks and pre-workouts containing caffeine have been demonstrated to enhance both anaerobic and aerobic performance. Individuals should also be aware of the side-effects associated with caffeine ingestion, such as sleep disturbance and anxiety, which are often linearly dose-dependent.

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An alternative to taking a single large dose of caffeine prior to racing is to consume a caffeinated sports drink throughout races. In a recent study, conducted at the University of Birmingham in England, looked at the effect of caffeine on exogenous carbohydrate oxidation i.

the rate at which carbs consumed in a supplement are burned during exercise. Researchers used indirect calorimetry to measure the amounts and proportions of fat and carbohydrate oxidized during the test. The likely effect on performance is the ability to work harder for a longer period of time without becoming fatigued.

Another recent study looked at the effects of consuming a caffeinated sports drink on performance in a warm environment. Sixteen highly trained cyclists completed three trials.

In one trial they consumed flavored water; in another, a conventional carbohydrate sports drink; and in another, a caffeinated sports drink.

Ratings of perceived exertion were lower with caffeinated sports drink than with the placebo and the conventional sports drink. After cycling, maximal strength loss was found to be two-thirds less for the caffeinated drink than for the other beverages. This new research suggests that using a caffeinated sports drink such as Accelerade with Caffeine may be the best way to go in races.

Performance And Caffeine It appears caffeine enhances performance in shorter events through four interrelated neuromuscular effects: Lowering the threshold for muscle recruitment. Altering excitation contraction coupling.

Facilitating nerve impulse transmission. Increasing ion transport within muscles. Athletes should ensure they are adequately hydrated when consuming caffeine, especially before exercise. Timing and Dosage: The timing and dosage of caffeine intake can significantly impact its effectiveness. Athletes should experiment with the timing and dosage that works best for their specific sport and training regimen.

Avoiding Dependence: Regular caffeine consumption can lead to tolerance and dependency. It is essential to use caffeine strategically and avoid becoming reliant on it for performance.

Caffeine is a widely used and researched ergogenic aid that offers numerous benefits for athletes. From increased alertness and focus to improved endurance and muscle performance, caffeine can significantly enhance athletic performance across various sports.

However, individual responses to caffeine vary, and athletes should be mindful of their tolerance and the potential side effects. When used strategically and in moderation, caffeine can be a valuable tool to help athletes push their boundaries and achieve their performance goals.

As with any dietary supplement, it is advisable to consult with a healthcare professional or sports nutritionist to determine the best approach to incorporating caffeine into your athletic routine.

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Fueling Fast blog. Supplement Usage Guide. Product Education Videos. Free Training Plans. YouTube Channel. The Science. Of the different protocols used to measure time trial performance 23 studies used time to complete a set distance [ 38 , 40 , 41 , 42 , 43 , 44 , 45 , 46 , 47 , 48 , 50 , 51 , 52 , 53 , 54 , 55 , 56 , 57 , 58 , 62 , 63 , 66 , 70 ], 13 used time to complete a set amount of work [ 37 , 39 , 49 , 59 , 60 , 61 , 64 , 65 , 67 , 68 , 69 , 71 , 76 ], and 9 studies used amount of work done in a set amount of time [ 72 , 73 , 74 , 75 , 77 , 78 , 79 , 80 ].

Forty-one trials administered caffeine 60 min prior to exercise with the remainder of studies administering caffeine at 30 min [ 46 ], 45 min [ 44 , 58 , 73 ], 55 min [ 63 ], 75 min [ 53 ] 90 min [ 54 , 59 , 61 , 65 , 69 ], and — min [ 56 ] prior to exercise.

The mean caffeine dose administered was 5. Cycling was the most common form of exercise used by 33 of the 44 studies 41 trials , while 4 studies 6 trials used running [ 38 , 47 , 48 , 54 ], and 2 studies used double poling Nordic skiing [ 44 , 58 ], 3 studies 4 trials used rowing [ 40 , 46 , 73 ], 1 study used triathlon [ 43 ] and one study used swimming [ 50 ].

Twenty studies 21 trials used a pre-load exercise protocol which requires exercise of a fixed duration being completed immediately before the time trial portion [ 39 , 44 , 45 , 50 , 51 , 52 , 58 , 59 , 63 , 64 , 67 , 68 , 71 , 72 , 74 , 75 , 77 , 78 , 79 ].

The mean total exercise duration was Overall, caffeine time-trials were faster compared to placebo by 2. Similarly, power output in caffeine trials were greater compared to placebo trials by 2. Only two trials [ 37 , 38 ] showed a slower time trial time following caffeine ingestion compared to placebo.

However, 4 trials 3 studies [ 41 , 42 , 56 ] had lower MPO during caffeine trials compared to placebo. Mean percent improvement in time trial performance time following caffeine ingestion compared to placebo trial.

PLA placebo trials; CAFF caffeine trials. SMD standard mean difference; CI confidence interval. Mean percent improvement in time trial performance MPO following caffeine ingestion compared to placebo trial. The mean PEDro score across all studies was 9. According to the funnel plots Figs.

Funnel plot of standard mean difference against standard error for time-trial completion time. se SMD standard error of the mean difference; SMD standard mean difference; CI confidence interval.

Funnel plot of standard mean difference against standard error for MPO. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to critically evaluate the effect of acute caffeine ingestion on endurance time-trial performance. These findings are similar to Ganio et al.

However, an earlier meta-analysis by Doherty et al. They found an increase in endurance performance during cycling tests of However, the analysis by Doherty et al. Meta-regression analysis showed no association between caffeine dose, VO 2 , exercise duration, and exercise mode and mean performance improvement between caffeine and placebo.

As seen in Figs. A number of factors can influence individual responses and metabolism of caffeine including smoking [ 82 ], age [ 83 ], and gender [ 84 ]. Smoking increases enzyme activity which causes caffeine to be metabolised faster [ 82 ]. Likewise, the older an individual is, the slower the rate of caffeine metabolism in the body [ 83 ].

Gender can also play a large role on the rate of caffeine metabolism such that women metabolise caffeine at different rates which is dependent on the stage of the menstrual cycle, as well as the use of oral-contraceptives, which can prolong the half-life of caffeine in the body [ 84 ].

Thus, when conducting caffeine supplementation studies, factors such as sex, age and smoking status should be taken into consideration when designing the study and comparisons that will be made.

Genetics has also been shown to contribute to the variability in responses to caffeine ingestion [ 85 ]. Specifically the CYP1A2 and ADORA2A genes have been identified as large contributors to caffeine metabolism and caffeine sensitivity, respectively [ 85 ].

Caffeine typically has a half-life of 3—5 h in healthy adults, therefore those with a faster metabolism may not experience the ergogenic effects of caffeine for the duration of an event if it is metabolised prior to the end of the exercise in long duration activities such as, marathons, triathlons and ultra-endurance events.

Only one study included in the present review conducted genetic analysis pertaining to caffeine metabolism [ 57 ]. Womack et al.

However, more research is needed to determine the effects of CYP1A2 genotype on the ergogenicity of caffeine as well as controlling for confounding variables such as other genetic factors ADORA2A and epigenetic factors such as, age, smoking, gender and ethnicity.

The ADORA2A gene encodes for certain adenosine receptors found predominantly in the brain. As caffeine is an adenosine receptor antagonist it is likely that variations in the ADORA2A gene will affect the actions of caffeine on the adenosine receptor.

Little research exists on ADORA2A and the effects it could have on caffeine and exercise. Loy et al. As seen in Fig. However, each group only consisted of 6 participants which limits the impact of the finding, but still suggests that ADORA2A genotype may have a large effect on the effectiveness of caffeine supplementation for endurance exercise.

Significantly more work needs to be conducted to determine the role genetics could potentially play on the ergogenicity of caffeine as well as other popular supplements in order to fully maximise its effects.

The fastest official half-marathon time is 58 min 23 s. With the average performance increase found across the studies presented here being 2. Therefore, whether or not an athlete consumes caffeine prior or during an endurance event may have a large impact on the overall results.

However, many of the studies included in this review were conducted on recreationally trained athletes and not of the elite level, thus it is possible that the proposed effect of caffeine is not generalisable to elite level athletes. Athletes may also want to familiarise themselves with caffeine consumption during training and find the consumption protocol which provides the best possible effects for their own individual needs.

To date, not enough research exists for individualised recommendations, thus it is up to the athlete and training staff to determine the best timing, dosage and method to consume caffeine for the athletes training and competition needs.

The present meta-analysis does not include time-to-exhaustion studies as they have greater variability and less reliability than time-trial studies [ 7 ]. Furthermore, cycling is the main exercise modality used in these studies, most likely due to the ease of measurement when using a cycle ergometer.

However, results may vary when other exercise modalities are employed in the testing protocols, but a larger variety of exercise modalities would provide stronger evidence for the ergogenic effects of caffeine on endurance performance in multiple sports.

Additionally, many of the participants used in the included studies were recreationally trained athletes, and further studies comparing the differences in the ergogenicity of caffeine between recreational and elite athletes is warranted.

As a result, there are many studies that have begun investigating the effects of caffeine in combination with other popular supplements, however, more work is still required in this area.

The results of the present meta-analysis indicate caffeine has a small positive effect 2. However, large inter-individual responses to caffeine ingestion still exist and reasons for this variance between individuals should be further explored and taken into consideration when prescribing caffeine supplementation for athletes.

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The effects of caffeine ingestion on time trial cycling performance. J Sports Med Phys Fit. CAS Google Scholar. Ivy JL, Costill DL, Fink WJ, Lower RW. Influence of caffeine and carbohydrate feedings on endurance performance.

Med Sci Sports. Hogervorst E, Riedel W, Kovacs E, Brouns F, Jolles J. Caffeine improves cognitive performance after strenuous physical exercise. Int J Sports Med. Anderson ME, Bruce CR, Fraser SF, Stepto NK, Klein R, Hopkins WG, et al. Improved meter rowing performance in competitive oarswomen after caffeine ingestion.

Bruce CR, Anderson ME, Fraser SF, Stepto NK, Klein R, Hopkins WG, et al. Enhancement of m rowing performance after caffeine ingestion. Bridge CA, Jones MA. The effect of caffeine ingestion on 8 km run performance in a field setting.

J Sports Sci. Wiles JD, Coleman D, Tegerdine M, Swaine IL. The effects of caffeine ingestion on performance time, speed and power during a laboratory-based 1 km cycling time-trial. Clarke ND, Richardson DL, Thie J, Taylor R. Coffee ingestion enhances one-mile running race performance.

Int J Sports Physiol Perform. Kovacs EMR, Stegen JHCH, Brouns F. Effect of caffeinated drinks on substrate metabolism, caffeine excretion, and performance. J Appl Physiol. Spence AL, Sim M, Landers G, Peeling P. A comparison of caffeine versus pseudoephedrine on cycling time-trial performance.

van Nieuwenhoven MA, Brouns F, Kovacs EMR. The effect of two sports drinks and water on GI complaints and performance during an km run. Hulston CJ, Jeukendrup AE. Substrate metabolism and exercise performance with caffeine and carbohydrate intake.

Hunter AM, St Clair Gibson A, Collins M, Lambert M, Noakes TD. Caffeine ingestion does not alter performance during a km cycling time-trial performance. Combined caffeine and carbohydrate ingestion: effects on nocturnal sleep and exercise performance in athletes.

Caffeine is ergogenic for adenosine A2A receptor gene ADORA2A T allele homozygotes: a pilot study. J Caffeine Res. Roelands B, Buyse L, Pauwels F, Delbeke F, Deventer K, Meeusen R. No effect of caffeine on exercise performance in high ambient temperature. Cohen BS, Nelson AG, Prevost MC, Thompson GD, Marx BD, Morris GS.

Effects of caffeine ingestion on endurance racing in heat and humidity. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. Jacobson TL, Febbraio MA, Arkinstall MJ, Hawley JA.

Caffeine, Cafffine naturally occurring stimulant found Cafceine coffee, Wholesome mineral products, and certain other beverages and supplements, has been widely studied for its Caffeine and endurance on Caffeine and endurance performance. For many athletes, eendurance cup of coffee enrurance an energy drink Vital dietary fats an integral Joint health productivity of their pre-workout routine. The popularity of caffeine as an ergogenic aid a substance that enhances physical performance stems from its ability to improve focus, endurance, and overall athletic output. In this article, we will explore the benefits of caffeine for athletes and how it can be utilized to enhance their performance. One of the primary benefits of caffeine for athletes is its ability to enhance mental alertness and focus. Caffeine works by blocking the action of adenosine, a neurotransmitter that promotes relaxation and drowsiness. Caffeine and endurance

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Caffeine and endurance -

Nevertheless, there appears to be substantial interindividual variability in response to caffeine under exercise conditions, which may be attributed to several factors outlined below.

Genetic variants affect the way we absorb, metabolize, and utilize and excrete nutrients, and gene-diet interactions that affect metabolic pathways relevant to health and performance are now widely recognized [ ]. In the field of nutrigenomics, caffeine is the most widely researched compound with several randomized controlled trials investigating the modifying effects of genetic variation on exercise performance [ 75 , , , ].

Numerous studies have investigated the effect of supplemental caffeine on exercise performance, but there is considerable inter-individual variability in the magnitude of these effects [ 11 , 13 , 44 ] or in the lack of an effect [ , ], when compared to placebo. Due to infrequent reporting of individual data it is difficult to determine the extent to which variation in responses may be occurring.

The performance of some individuals is often in stark contrast to the average findings reported, which may conclude beneficial, detrimental, or no effect of caffeine on performance. For example, Roelands et al. These inter-individual differences appear to be partly due to variations in genes such as CYP1A2 and possibly ADORA2A , which are associated with caffeine metabolism, sensitivity and response [ ].

In the general population, individuals with the AC or CC genotype slow metabolizers have an elevated risk of myocardial infarction [ ], hypertension and elevated blood pressure [ , ], and pre-diabetes [ ], with increasing caffeinated coffee consumption, whereas those with the AA genotype show no such risk.

Additionally, regular physical activity appears to attenuate the increase in blood pressure induced by caffeine ingestion, but only in individuals with the AA genotype [ ].

In that group, a 6. Among those with the CC genotype i. In those with the AC genotype there was no effect of either dose [ ].

The findings are consistent with a previous study [ ] that observed a caffeine-gene interaction indicating improved time trial cycling performance following caffeine consumption only in those with the AA genotype.

In contrast, previous studies either did not observe any impact of the CYP1A2 gene in caffeine-exercise studies [ , ], or reported benefits only in slow metabolizers [ 75 ]. There are several reasons that may explain discrepancies in study outcomes. The effects of genotype on performance might be the most prominent during training or competition of longer duration or an accumulation of fatigue aerobic or muscular endurance [ ], where caffeine appears to provide its greatest benefits, and where the adverse effects to slow metabolizers are more likely to manifest [ , ].

Indeed, in a study of performance in elite basketball players [ ], only in those with the AA genotype caffeine improved repeated jumps which requires maintaining velocity at take-off repeatedly as an athlete fatigues throughout a game muscular endurance - even though there was no caffeine-genotype interaction effect for this outcome.

However, caffeine similarly improved performance in those with the both AA and C-genotypes during a simulated basketball game [ ].

In a cross-over design of 30 resistance-trained men, caffeine ingestion resulted in a higher number of repetitions in repeated sets of three different exercises, and for total repetitions in all resistance exercises combined, which resulted in a greater volume of work compared to placebo conditions, but only in those with the CYP1A2 AA genotype [ ].

Although more research is warranted, there is a growing body of evidence to support the role of CYP1A2 in modifying the effects of caffeine ingestion on aerobic or muscular endurance-type exercise, which helps to determine which athletes are most likely to benefit from caffeine.

The ADORA2A gene is another genetic modifier of the effects of caffeine on performance. The adenosine A 2A receptor, encoded by the ADORA2A gene, has been shown to regulate myocardial oxygen demand and increase coronary circulation by vasodilation [ , ].

The A 2A receptor is also expressed in the brain, where it has significant roles in the regulation of glutamate and dopamine release, with associated effects on insomnia and pain [ , ].

The antagonism of adenosine receptors after caffeine ingestion is modified by the ADORA2A gene, which may allow greater improvements in dopamine transmission and lead to norepinephrine and epinephrine release due to increased neuronal firing [ ] in some genotypes versus others.

Dopamine has been associated with motivation and effort in exercising individuals, and this may be the mechanism by which differences in response to caffeine are manifested [ , , ]. Currently, only one small pilot study has examined the effect of the ADORA2A gene rs on the ergogenic effects of caffeine under exercise conditions [ ].

Twelve female subjects underwent a double-blinded, crossover trial comprising two min cycling time trials following caffeine ingestion or placebo. Caffeine benefitted all six subjects with the TT genotype, but only one of the six C allele carriers.

Further studies are needed to confirm these preliminary findings and should include a large enough sample to distinguish any effects between the different C allele carriers i.

CT vs. CC genotypes and potential effects related to sex. The ADORA2A rs genotype has also been implicated, by both objective and subjective measures, in various parameters of sleep quality after caffeine ingestion in several studies [ , , , ].

Adenosine promotes sleep by binding to its receptors in the brain, mainly A 1 and A 2A receptors, and caffeine exerts an antagonist effect, blocking the receptor and reversing the effects of adenosine and promoting wakefulness [ ].

This action of caffeine may also serve athletes well under conditions of jetlag, and irregular or early training or competition schedules. Psychomotor speed relies on the ability to respond, rapidly and reliably, to randomly occurring stimuli which is a critical component of, and characteristic of, most sports [ ].

Genetic variation in ADORA2A has been shown to be a relevant determinant of psychomotor vigilance in the rested and sleep-deprived state and modulates individual responses to caffeine after sleep deprivation [ ].

Those with the CC genotype of ADORA2A rs consistently performed on a higher level on the sustained vigilant attention task than T-allele -carriers; however, this was tested in ADORA2A haplotypes that included combinations of 8 SNPs.

This work provides the basis for future genetic studies of sleep using individual ADORA2A SNPs. As mentioned, the ADORA2A genotype has also been implicated in sleep quality and increases in sleep disturbance [ ]. Increased beta activity in nonREM sleep may characterize individuals with insomnia when compared with healthy good sleepers [ ].

A functional relationship between the ADORA2A genotype and the effect of caffeine on EEG beta activity in nonREM sleep has previously been reported [ ], where the highest rise was in individuals with the CC genotype, approximately half in the CT genotype, whereas no change was present in the TT genotype.

Consistent with this observation, the same study found individuals with the CC and TC genotypes appeared to confer greater sensitivity towards caffeine-induced sleep disturbance compared to the TT genotype [ ].

This suggests that a common variant in ADORA2A contributes to subjective and objective responses to caffeine on sleep. Given that anxiety may be normalized in elite sports even at clinical levels, factors that contribute to anxiety should be mitigated whenever possible.

Anxiety may be caused by stress-related disorders burnout , poor quality sleep patterns often related to caffeine intakes and possibly as a response to caffeine ingestion due to genetic variation, even at low levels [ ]. As previously mentioned, caffeine blocks adenosine receptors, resulting in the stimulating effects of caffeine [ ].

A common variation in the ADORA2A adenosine A 2A receptor gene contributes to the differences in subjective feelings of anxiety after caffeine ingestion [ , ], especially in those who are habitually low caffeine consumers [ ].

This may be particularly relevant to athletes who possess the TT variant of rs in the ADORA2A gene. These individuals are likely to be more sensitive to the stimulating effects of caffeine and experience greater increases in feelings of anxiety after caffeine intake than do individuals with either the CT or CC variant [ , , ].

Sport psychologists commonly work with athletes to help them overcome anxiety about performance during competitions. Anxiety before or during athletic competitions can interfere not only in performance, but also in increased injury risk [ ].

Athletes who are more prone to performance anxiety may exacerbate their risk for feelings of anxiety depending on their caffeine use and which variant of the ADORA2A gene they possess. Monitoring the actions of caffeine in those individuals who are susceptible, may alleviate some of the related feelings of anxiety with caffeine use.

Given that anxiety may disrupt concentration and sleep and negatively impact social interactions, athletes with higher risks and prevalence for anxiety, may want to limit or avoid caffeine consumption if caffeine is a known trigger during times where they are feeling anxious or stressed, such as at sporting competitions or social gatherings or other work and school events.

The importance of both sleep and caffeine as an ergogenic aid to athletes highlights the importance of optimizing rest and recovery through a better understanding of which athletes may be at greater risk of adverse effects of caffeine on mood and sleep quality, possibly due to genetic variation.

This information will allow athletes and coaching staff to make informed decisions on when and if to use caffeine when proximity to sleep is a factor. These considerations will also be in conjunction with the possibility that an athlete will benefit from caffeine in endurance-based exercise as determined in part, by their CYP1A2 genotype, albeit with a clear need for future research.

The quantification of habitual caffeine intake is difficult, which is problematic for studies aiming to compare performance outcomes following caffeine ingestion in habitual versus non-habitual caffeine users.

This concern is highlighted by reports showing large variability in the caffeine content of commonly consumed beverages, e. Self-reported intakes may therefore be unreliable. Newly discovered biomarkers of coffee consumption may be more useful for quantifying intakes in the future, but currently, these are not widely available [ ].

Different protocols for the length of the caffeine abstinence period preceding data collection is also a relevant factor in determining variability in performance outcomes. For example, in shorter caffeine abstinence periods e. alleviating the negative symptoms of withdrawal, which in itself may improve performance [ ].

These effects may be more pronounced in those genetically predisposed to severe withdrawal effects [ ]. Although genes have been associated with habitual caffeine intake using GWAS research [ , ], it is important to highlight that these associations are not directly applicable to determining differences in performance outcomes in response to acute caffeine doses for regular or habitual caffeine users versus non-habitual users.

Furthermore, associations between genes and habitual caffeine intake do not elucidate potential mechanisms by which caffeine intake behaviors may influence subsequent performance following caffeine supplementation [ , ].

In animal model studies, regular consumption of caffeine has been associated with an upregulation of the number of adenosine receptors in the vascular and neural tissues of the brain [ ].

Although, this did not appear to modify the effects of caffeine in one study [ ], in another, chronic caffeine ingestion by mice caused a marked reduction in locomotor exploratory activity [ ]. Changes in adenosine receptor number or activity have not been studied in humans.

There does not appear to be a consistent difference in the performance effects of acute caffeine ingestion between habitual and non-habitual caffeine users, and study findings remain equivocal. In one study, habitual stimulation from caffeine resulted in a general dampening of the epinephrine response to both caffeine and exercise; however, there was no evidence that this impacted exercise performance [ ].

Four weeks of caffeine ingestion resulted in increased tolerance to acute caffeine supplementation in previously low habitual caffeine consumers, with the ergogenic effect of acute caffeine supplementation no longer apparent [ ].

Caffeine ingestion improved performance as compared to placebo and control, with no influence of habitual caffeine intake. However, a limitation of this study is the short h caffeine withdrawal period in all groups which may have resulted in performance improvements due to the reversal of caffeine withdrawal effects, rather than impact of acute-on-chronic caffeine administration and the effects of habituation to caffeine on exercise performance [ , ].

In addition, habitual caffeine intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire, which might be a limitation given the already mentioned variation of caffeine in coffee and different supplements.

There is wide variability in caffeine content of commonly consumed items, and as such, an objective measure e. Based on these observations, the assumption that habitual and nonhabitual caffeine consumers will or will not respond differently to caffeine supplementation during exercise, requires further study.

However, caffeine appears to be most beneficial during times or in sports where there is an accumulation of fatigue, i. A recent review [ ] reported that the effect size of caffeine benefits increase with the increasing duration of the time trial event, meaning that timing caffeine intake closer to a time of greater fatigue, i.

This supports the notion that endurance athletes with longer races may benefit most from caffeine for performance enhancement since they have the greatest likelihood of being fatigued. This also supports findings in other investigations that show ingesting caffeine at various time points including late in exercise may be most beneficial [ ].

For example, an early study [ ] aimed to understand whether or not there were benefits to a common practice among endurance athletes, such as those participating in marathons and triathlons, which is to drink flat cola toward the end of an event. When researchers investigated the ingestion of a low dose of caffeine toward the end of a race e.

The study also demonstrated that the effect was due to the caffeine and not the carbohydrate, which may also aid performance as fuel stores become depleted [ ]. This may have been due to the faster absorption with caffeinated gum consumption, and due to the continued increase in plasma caffeine concentrations during the cycling time trial, when athletes may become fatigued i.

However, there was significant interindividual variability, highlighting the need for athletes to experiment with their own strategies as far as dosing and timing are concerned. The optimal timing of caffeine ingestion may depend on the source of caffeine.

As stated earlier, some of the alternate sources of caffeine such as caffeine chewing gums may absorb more quickly than caffeine ingested in caffeine-containing capsules [ 60 ].

Therefore, individuals interested in supplementing with caffeine should consider that timing of caffeine ingestion will likely be influenced by the source of caffeine. Currently, only a few investigations [ 96 , , , , , ] have included both trained and untrained subjects in their study design.

A limitation of this study is that the swimming exercise task differed between the trained and untrained participants. Specifically, the study utilized m swimming for the trained swimmers and m for the untrained swimmers, which is a likely explanation for these findings.

However, some have also postulated that this is because athletes perform more reliably on a given task than nonathletes, and increased test-retest reliability might prevent type II errors [ ].

In contrast to the above evidence regarding the importance of training status, other research has shown that training status does not moderate the ergogenic effects of caffeine on exercise performance. One study [ ] showed similar performance improvements 1. Similarly, Astorino et al.

More recently, a small study by Boyett et al. Subjects completed four experimental trials consisting of a 3-km cycling time trial performed in randomized order for each combination of time of day morning and evening and treatment. They reported that both untrained and trained subjects improved performance with caffeine supplementation in the morning; however, only the untrained subjects improved when tested in the evening.

Although there were some limitations to this study, these observations indicate that trained athletes are more likely to experience ergogenic effects from caffeine in the morning, while untrained individuals appear to receive larger gains from caffeine in the evening than their trained counterparts.

This may further complicate the training status data with a possible temporal effect [ ]. The concentration of adenosine receptors the primary target of caffeine do appear to be higher in trained compared to untrained individuals, but this has only been reported in animal studies [ ].

Boyett et al. Although some studies comparing training status of subjects support the notion [ ] that training influences response to caffeine during exercise, most do not [ 96 , , ] and this was also the finding in a subsequent meta-analysis [ ]. It is possible that the only difference between trained and untrained individuals is that trained individuals likely have the mental discipline to exercise long or hard enough to benefit more from the caffeine stimulus, which might provide an explanation for why in some studies, trained individuals respond better to caffeine [ ].

Currently, it seems that trained and untrained individuals experience similar improvements in performance following caffeine ingestion; however, more research in this area is warranted. The impacts of caffeine on sleep and behavior after sleep deprivation are widely reported [ ].

Sleep is recognized as an essential component of physiological and psychological recovery from, and preparation for, high-intensity training in athletes [ , ]. Chronic mild to moderate sleep deprivation in athletes, potentially attributed to caffeine intakes, may result in negative or altered impacts on glucose metabolism, neuroendocrine function, appetite, food intake and protein synthesis, as well as attention, learning and memory [ ].

Objective sleep measures using actigraphy or carried out in laboratory conditions with EEG have shown that caffeine negatively impacts several aspects of sleep quality such as: sleep latency time to fall asleep , WASO wake time after sleep onset , sleep efficiency and duration [ ].

Studies in athletes have also shown adverse effects in sleep quality and markers for exercise recovery after a variety of doses of caffeine ingestion [ , , ]. Although caffeine is associated with sleep disturbances, caffeine has also been shown to improve vigilance and reaction time and improved physical performance after sleep deprivation [ , , , , ].

This may be beneficial for athletes or those in the military who are traveling or involved in multiday operations, or sporting events and must perform at the highest level under sleep-deprived conditions [ , , , ].

Even though caffeine ingestion may hinder sleep quality, the time of day at which caffeine is ingested will likely determine the incidence of these negative effects. For example, in one study that included a sample size of 13 participants, ingestion of caffeine in the morning hours negatively affected sleep only in one participant [ ].

Unfortunately, athletes and those in the military are unlikely to be able to make adjustments to the timing of training, competition and military exercises or the ability to be combat ready. However, to help avoid negative effects on sleep, athletes may consider using caffeine earlier in the day whenever possible.

Pronounced individual differences have also been reported where functional genetic polymorphisms have been implicated in contributing to individual sensitivity to sleep disruption [ , ] and caffeine impacts after sleep deprivation [ ] as discussed in the Interindividual variation in response to caffeine: Genetics section of this paper.

As with any supplement, caffeine ingestion is also associated with certain side-effects. Some of the most commonly reported side-effects in the literature are tachycardia and heart palpitations, anxiety [ , ], headaches, as well as insomnia and hindered sleep quality [ , ].

For example, in one study, caffeine ingestion before an evening Super Rugby game resulted in a delay in time at sleep onset and a reduction in sleep duration on the night of the game [ ]. Caffeine ingestion is also associated with increased anxiety; therefore, its ingestion before competitions in athletes may exacerbate feelings of anxiety and negatively impact overall performance see caffeine and anxiety section.

For example, athletes competing in sports that heavily rely on the skill component e. However, athletes in sports that depend more on physical capabilities, such as strength and endurance e. These aspects are less explored in research but certainly warrant consideration in the practical context to optimize the response to caffeine supplementation.

The primary determinant in the incidence and severity of side-effects associated with caffeine ingestion is the dose used. Side-effects with caffeine seem to increase linearly with the dose ingested [ ].

Therefore, they can be minimized—but likely not fully eliminated—by using smaller doses, as such doses are also found to be ergogenic and produce substantially fewer side-effects [ ].

In summary, an individual case-by-case basis approach is warranted when it comes to caffeine supplementation, as its potential to enhance performance benefit needs to be balanced with the side-effects risk. In addition to exercise performance, caffeine has also been studied for its contribution to athletes of all types including Special Forces operators in the military who are routinely required to undergo periods of sustained cognitive function and vigilance due to their job requirements Table 1.

Hogervorst et al. They found that caffeine in a carbohydrate-containing performance bar significantly improved both endurance performance and complex cognitive ability during and after exercise [ 82 ].

Antonio et al. This matches a IOM report [ ] that the effects of caffeine supplementation include increased attention and vigilance, complex reaction time, and problem-solving and reasoning. One confounding factor on cognitive effects of caffeine is the role of sleep.

Special Forces military athletes conduct operations where sleep deprivation is common. A series of different experiments [ 42 , , , , , , , ] have examined the effects of caffeine in real-life military conditions. In three of the studies [ , , ], soldiers performed a series of tasks such as a 4 or 6.

The investigators found that vigilance was either maintained or enhanced under the caffeine conditions vs. placebo , in addition to improvements in run times and obstacle course completion [ , , ]. Similarly, Lieberman et al.

Navy Seals. The positive effects of caffeine on cognitive function were further supported by work from Kamimori et al. The caffeine intervention maintained psychomotor speed, improved event detection, increased the number of correct responses to stimuli, and increased response speed during logical reasoning tests.

Under similar conditions of sleep deprivation, Tikuisis et al. When subjects are not sleep deprived, the effects of caffeine on cognition appear to be less effective. For example, Share et al. In addition to the ability of caffeine to counteract the stress from sleep deprivation, it may also play a role in combatting other stressors.

Gillingham et al. However, these benefits were not observed during more complex operations [ ]. Crowe et al. Again, no cognitive benefit was observed. Other studies [ , , , ] support the effects of caffeine on the cognitive aspects of sport performance, even though with some mixed results [ , ]. Foskett et al.

This was supported by Stuart et al. firefighting, military related tasks, wheelchair basketball [ ]. The exact mechanism of how caffeine enhances cognition in relation to exercise is not fully elucidated and appears to work through both peripheral and central neural effects [ ].

In a study by Lieberman et al. Repeated acquisition are behavioral tests in which subjects are required to learn new response sequences within each experimental session [ ].

The researchers [ 42 ] speculated that caffeine exerted its effects from an increased ability to sustain concentration, as opposed to an actual effect on working memory. Other data [ ] were in agreement that caffeine reduced reaction times via an effect on perceptual-attentional processes not motor processes.

This is in direct contrast to earlier work that cited primarily a motor effect [ ]. Another study with a sugar free energy drink showed similar improvements in reaction time in the caffeinated arm; however, they attributed it to parallel changes in cortical excitability at rest, prior, and after a non-fatiguing muscle contraction [ ].

The exact cognitive mechanism s of caffeine have yet to be elucidated. Based on some of the research cited above, it appears that caffeine is an effective ergogenic aid for individuals either involved in special force military units or who may routinely undergo stress including, but not limited to, extended periods of sleep deprivation.

Caffeine in these conditions has been shown to enhance cognitive parameters of concentration and alertness. It has been shown that caffeine may also benefit sport performance via enhanced passing accuracy and agility. However, not all of the research is in agreement.

It is unlikely that caffeine would be more effective than actually sleeping, i. Physical activity and exercise in extreme environments are of great interest as major sporting events e.

Tour de France, Leadville , Badwater Ultramarathon are commonly held in extreme environmental conditions. Events that take place in the heat or at high altitudes bring additional physiological challenges i.

Nonetheless, caffeine is widely used by athletes as an ergogenic aid when exercising or performing in extreme environmental situations. Ely et al. Although caffeine may induce mild fluid loss, the majority of research has confirmed that caffeine consumption does not significantly impair hydration status, exacerbate dehydration, or jeopardize thermoregulation i.

Several trials have observed no benefit of acute caffeine ingestion on cycling and running performance in the heat Table 2 [ , , ]. It is well established that caffeine improves performance and perceived exertion during exercise at sea level [ , , , ].

Despite positive outcomes at sea level, minimal data exist on the ergogenic effects or side effects of caffeine in conditions of hypoxia, likely due to accessibility of this environment or the prohibitive costs of artificial methods. To date, only four investigations Table 3 have examined the effects of caffeine on exercise performance under hypoxic conditions [ , , , ].

Overall, results to date appear to support the beneficial effects of caffeine supplementation that may partly reduce the negative effects of hypoxia on the perception of effort and endurance performance [ , , , ].

Sources other than commonly consumed coffee and caffeine tablets have garnered interest, including caffeinated chewing gum, mouth rinses, aerosols, inspired powders, energy bars, energy gels and chews, among others. While the pharmacokinetics [ 18 , , , , ] and effects of caffeine on performance when consumed in a traditional manner, such as coffee [ 47 , 49 , 55 , , , , ] or as a caffeine capsule with fluid [ 55 , , , ] are well understood, curiosity in alternate forms of delivery as outlined in pharmacokinetics section have emerged due to interest in the speed of delivery [ 81 ].

A recent review by Wickham and Spriet [ 5 ] provides an overview of the literature pertaining to caffeine use in exercise, in alternate forms. Therefore, here we only briefly summarize the current research. Several investigations have suggested that delivering caffeine in chewing gum form may speed the rate of caffeine delivery to the blood via absorption through the extremely vascular buccal cavity [ 58 , ].

Kamimori and colleagues [ 58 ] compared the rate of absorption and relative caffeine bioavailability from caffeinated chewing gum and caffeine in capsule form. The results suggest that the rate of drug absorption from the gum formulation was significantly faster. These findings suggest that there may be an earlier onset of pharmacological effects from caffeine delivered through the gum formulation.

Further, while no data exist to date, it has been suggested that increasing absorption via the buccal cavity may be preferential over oral delivery if consumed closer to or during exercise, as splanchnic blood flow is often reduced [ ], potentially slowing the rate of caffeine absorption.

To date, five studies [ 59 , 60 , 61 , 62 , 63 ] have examined the potential ergogenic impact of caffeinated chewing gum on aerobic performance, commonly administered in multiple sticks Table 4.

To note, all studies have been conducted using cycling interventions, with the majority conducted in well-trained cyclists.

However, more research is needed, especially in physically active and recreationally training individuals. Four studies [ 64 , 66 , 68 , ] have examined the effect of caffeinated chewing gum on more anaerobic type activities Table 4.

Specifically, Paton et al. The reduced fatigue in the caffeine trials equated to a 5. Caffeinated gum consumption also positively influenced performance in two out of three soccer-specific Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test and CMJ tests used in the assessment of performance in soccer players [ 66 ].

These results suggest that caffeine chewing gums may provide ergogenic effects across a wide range of exercise tasks. To date, only Bellar et al. Future studies may consider comparing the effects of caffeine in chewing gums to caffeine ingested in capsules.

Specifically, the mouth contains bitter taste sensory receptors that are sensitive to caffeine [ ]. It has been proposed that activation of these bitter taste receptors may activate neural pathways associated with information processing and reward within the brain [ , , ]. Physiologically, caffeinated mouth rinsing may also reduce gastrointestinal distress potential that may be caused when ingesting caffeine sources [ , ].

Few investigations on aerobic [ 69 , 74 , 75 , 76 , ] and anaerobic [ 72 , 73 , 78 ] changes in performance, as well as cognitive function [ 70 , 71 ] and performance [ 77 ], following CMR have been conducted to date Table 5.

One study [ ] demonstrated ergogenic benefits of CMR on aerobic performance, reporting significant increases in distance covered during a min arm crank time trial performance. With regard to anaerobic trials, other researchers [ 72 ] have also observed improved performance, where recreationally active males significantly improved their mean power output during repeated 6-s sprints after rinsing with a 1.

While CMR has demonstrated positive outcomes for cyclists, another study [ 78 ] in recreationally resistance-trained males did not report any significant differences in the total weight lifted by following a 1.

CMR appears to be ergogenic in cycling to include both longer, lower-intensity and shorter high-intensity protocols. The findings on the topic are equivocal likely because caffeine provided in this source does not increase caffeine plasma concentration and increases in plasma concentration are likely needed to experience an ergogenic effect of caffeine [ 69 ].

Details of these studies, as well as additional studies may be found in Table 5. The use of caffeinated nasal sprays and inspired powders are also of interest. Three mechanisms of action have been hypothesized for caffeinated nasal sprays. Firstly, the nasal mucosa is permeable, making the nasal cavity a potential route for local and systemic substance delivery; particularly for caffeine, a small molecular compound [ 11 , 12 , 30 , 31 ].

Secondly, and similar to CMR, bitter taste receptors are located in the nasal cavity. The use of a nasal spray may allow for the upregulation of brain activity associated with reward and information processing [ ]. Thirdly, but often questioned due to its unknown time-course of action, caffeine could potentially be transported directly from the nasal cavity to the CNS, specifically the cerebrospinal fluid and brain by intracellular axonal transport through two specific neural pathways, the olfactory and trigeminal [ , ].

No significant improvements were reported in either anaerobic and aerobic performance outcome measures despite the increased activity of cingulate, insular, and sensory-motor cortices [ 79 ]. Laizure et al. Both were found to have similar bioavailability and comparable plasma concentrations with no differences in heart rate or blood pressure Table 6.

While caffeinated gels are frequently consumed by runners, cyclists and triathletes, plasma caffeine concentration studies have yet to be conducted and only three experimental trials have been reported.

Cooper et al. In the study by Cooper et al. In contrast, Scott et al. utilized a shorter time period from consumption to the start of the exercise i. However, these ideas are based on results from independent studies and therefore, future studies may consider exploring the optimal timing of caffeine gel ingestion in the same group of participants.

More details on these studies may be found in Table 7. Similar to caffeinated gels, no studies measured plasma caffeine concentration following caffeinated bar consumption; however, absorption and delivery likely mimic that of coffee or caffeine anhydrous capsule consumption.

While caffeinated bars are commonly found in the market, research on caffeinated bars is scarce. To date, only one study [ 82 ] Table 7 has examined the effects of a caffeine bar on exercise performance. Furthermore, cyclists significantly performed better on complex information processing tests following the time trial to exhaustion after caffeine bar consumption when compared to the carbohydrate only trial.

As there is not much data to draw from, future work on this source of caffeine is needed. A review by Trexler and Smith-Ryan comprehensively details research on caffeine and creatine co-ingestion [ 32 ]. With evidence to support the ergogenic benefits of both creatine and caffeine supplementation on human performance—via independent mechanisms—interest in concurrent ingestion is of great relevance for many athletes and exercising individuals [ 32 ].

While creatine and caffeine exist as independent supplements, a myriad of multi-ingredient supplements e. It has been reported that the often-positive ergogenic effect of acute caffeine ingestion prior to exercise is unaffected by creatine when a prior creatine loading protocol had been completed by participants [ , ].

However, there is some ambiguity with regard to the co-ingestion of caffeine during a creatine-loading phase e. While favorable data exist on muscular performance outcomes and adaptations in individuals utilizing multi-ingredient supplements e.

Until future investigations are available, it may be prudent to consume caffeine and creatine separately, or avoid high caffeine intakes when utilizing creatine for muscular benefits [ ]. This is likely due to the heterogeneity of experimental protocols that have been implemented and examined.

Nonetheless, a systematic review and meta-analysis of 21 investigations [ ] concluded the co-ingestion of carbohydrate and caffeine significantly improved endurance performance when compared to carbohydrate alone.

However, it should be noted that the magnitude of the performance benefit that caffeine provides is less when added to carbohydrate i. carbohydrate than when isolated caffeine ingestion is compared to placebo [ ]. Since the publication [ ], results remain inconclusive, as investigations related to sport-type performance measures [ 83 , , , , , , ], as well as endurance performance [ 84 , , ] continue to be published.

Overall, to date it appears caffeine alone, or in conjunction with carbohydrate is a superior choice for improving performance, when compared to carbohydrate supplementation alone.

Few studies to date have investigated the effect of post-exercise caffeine consumption on glucose metabolism [ , ]. While the delivery of exogenous carbohydrate can increase muscle glycogen alone, Pedersen et al. In addition, it has been demonstrated that co-ingestion of caffeine with carbohydrate after exercise improved subsequent high-intensity interval-running capacity compared with ingestion of carbohydrate alone.

This effect may be due to a high rate of post-exercise muscle glycogen resynthesis [ ]. Practically, caffeine ingestion in close proximity to sleep, coupled with the necessity to speed glycogen resynthesis, should be taken into consideration, as caffeine before bed may cause sleep disturbances.

The genus of coffee is Coffea , with the two most common species Coffea arabica arabica coffee and Coffea canephora robusta coffee used for global coffee production.

While coffee is commonly ingested by exercising individuals as part of their habitual diet, coffee is also commonly consumed pre-exercise to improve energy levels, mood, and exercise performance [ 11 , 40 ].

Indeed, a recent review on coffee and endurance performance, reported that that coffee providing between 3 and 8. Specifically, Higgins et al. Since the release of the Higgins et al. review, three additional studies have been published, examining the effects of coffee on exercise performance. Specifically, Niemen et al.

Fifty-km cycling time performance and power did not differ between trials. Regarding resistance exercise performance, only two studies [ 55 , 56 ] have been conducted to date.

One study [ 56 ] reported that coffee and caffeine anhydrous did not improve strength outcomes more than placebo supplementation. On the other hand, Richardson et al. The results between studies differ likely because it is challenging to standardize the dose of caffeine in coffee as differences in coffee type and brewing method may alter caffeine content [ ].

Even though coffee may enhance performance, due to the difficulty of standardizing caffeine content most sport dietitians and nutritionists use anhydrous caffeine with their athletes due to the difficulty of standardizing caffeine content.

Consumption of energy drinks has become more common in the last decade, and several studies have examined the effectiveness of energy drinks as ergogenic aids Table 8. Souza and colleagues [ ] completed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies that examined energy drink intake and physical performance.

Studies including endurance exercise, muscular strength and endurance, sprinting and jumping, as well as sport-type activities were reviewed. It has been suggested that the additional taurine to caffeine containing energy drinks or pre-workout supplements, as well as the addition of other ergogenic supplements such as beta-alanine, B-vitamins, and citrulline, may potentiate the effectiveness of caffeine containing beverages on athletic performance endeavors [ ].

However, other suggest that the ergogenic benefits of caffeine containing energy drinks is likely attributed to the caffeine content of the beverage [ ]. For a thorough review of energy drinks, consider Campbell et al.

Table 8 provides a review of research related to energy drinks and pre-workout supplements. Caffeine in its many forms is a ubiquitous substance frequently used in military, athletic and fitness populations which acutely enhance many aspects of exercise performance in most, but not all studies.

Supplementation with caffeine has been shown to acutely enhance many aspects of exercise, including prolonged aerobic-type activities and brief duration, high-intensity exercise.

The optimal timing of caffeine ingestion likely depends on the source of caffeine. Studies that present individual participant data commonly report substantial variation in caffeine ingestion responses.

Inter-individual differences may be associated with habitual caffeine intake, genetic variations, and supplementation protocols in a given study. Caffeine may be ergogenic for cognitive function, including attention and vigilance.

Caffeine at the recommended doses does not appear significantly influence hydration, and the use of caffeine in conjunction with exercise in the heat and at altitude is also well supported.

Alternative sources of caffeine, such as caffeinated chewing gum, mouth rinses, and energy gels, have also been shown to improve performance. Energy drinks and pre-workouts containing caffeine have been demonstrated to enhance both anaerobic and aerobic performance. Individuals should also be aware of the side-effects associated with caffeine ingestion, such as sleep disturbance and anxiety, which are often linearly dose-dependent.

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For this reason, if you are a regular coffee drinker, you should cease coffee consumption four to six days before participating in a race.

In moderation, caffeine consumption does not cause any health problems. In fact, a daily cup of joe is good for you. The health benefits of coffee come from its caffeine content and its unique blend of antioxidants.

However, heavy caffeine use can cause or exacerbate problems ranging from headache to insomnia, and it is possible to become physically dependent on the drug.

Caffeine is especially harmful when used as a means to stimulate artificial wakefulness or energy in those suffering from conditions such as chronic fatigue. So if you do like caffeine, limit yourself to one mug of coffee or green tea in the morning.

An alternative to taking a single large dose of caffeine prior to racing is to consume a caffeinated sports drink throughout races.

In a recent study, conducted at the University of Birmingham in England, looked at the effect of caffeine on exogenous carbohydrate oxidation i. the rate at which carbs consumed in a supplement are burned during exercise.

Researchers used indirect calorimetry to measure the amounts and proportions of fat and carbohydrate oxidized during the test. The likely effect on performance is the ability to work harder for a longer period of time without becoming fatigued.

Another recent study looked at the effects of consuming a caffeinated sports drink on performance in a warm environment. Sixteen highly trained cyclists completed three trials. In one trial they consumed flavored water; in another, a conventional carbohydrate sports drink; and in another, a caffeinated sports drink.

Ratings of perceived exertion were lower with caffeinated sports drink than with the placebo and the conventional sports drink. After cycling, maximal strength loss was found to be two-thirds less for the caffeinated drink than for the other beverages.

This new research suggests that using a caffeinated sports drink such as Accelerade with Caffeine may be the best way to go in races.

Performance And Caffeine It appears caffeine enhances performance in shorter events through four interrelated neuromuscular effects: Lowering the threshold for muscle recruitment.

Altering excitation contraction coupling. Facilitating nerve impulse transmission. Increasing ion transport within muscles.

A aCffeine dose can significantly Caffeine and endurance exercise performance, focus, and endruance burning 12 BMR and weight management apps, 3. population consumes it on a regular basis 4. Caffeine Caffeine and endurance rapidly absorbed into your bloodstream, and blood levels peak after 30— minutes. Caffeine levels remain high for 3—4 hours and then start to drop 1. Unlike most substances and supplementscaffeine can affect cells throughout your body, including muscle and fat cells, as well as cells within your central nervous system 5.

Author: Shakami

2 thoughts on “Caffeine and endurance

  1. Ich bin endlich, ich tue Abbitte, aber es kommt mir nicht ganz heran. Wer noch, was vorsagen kann?

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